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ICSA Civil Services (Prelims) Exam2012: Lecture 7
 

ICSA Civil Services (Prelims) Exam2012: Lecture 7

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    ICSA Civil Services (Prelims) Exam2012: Lecture 7 ICSA Civil Services (Prelims) Exam2012: Lecture 7 Presentation Transcript

    • SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA The Brundtland Commission Report entitled Our Common Future (1987) defined sustainable development as “development, which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, put the concept of sustainable development on national and international policy agendas.2
    • Agenda 21 • Agenda 21 is an action plan of the United Nations (UN) related to sustainable development and is an outcome of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. • It is a comprehensive blueprint of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the UN, governments, and major groups in every area in which humans directly affect the environment. Agenda 21 remains a powerful document that provides long-term vision for balancing economic and social needs with the capacity of the earth’s resources and ecosystems. Twenty years post Rio, the goals of Agenda 21 have not been fully realized3
    • World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) • The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002 at Johannesburg resulted in Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI). JPOI reiterated the importance of achieving internationally agreed development goals embedded in the outcomes of the major United Nations conferences and international agreements since 1992, including those contained in the United Nations Millennium Declaration, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Convention on Biodiversity, Convention to Combat Desertification and non-binding targets of the Forestry Principles.4
    • SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA • The Constitution of India and relevant amendments that have been incorporated over the years, reinforce the policy and legal basis of sustainable development in India. • The National Environmental Policy (NEP) of 2006 articulates the spirit of ‘sustainable development’; it states that only such development is sustainable, which respects ecological constraints and the imperatives of social justice. The NEP highlights the consensus around the sustainable development5 concept through three foundational aspirations:
    • National Environmental Policy (NEP) • First, that human beings should enjoy a decent quality of life; • Second, that human beings should become capable of recognizing the finiteness of the biosphere; and • Third, that neither the aspiration of a good life, nor the recognition of the limits of the biophysical world should preclude the search for greater justice in the world. • The NEP 2006 also asserts that the most viable basis of environmental conservation is to ensure that people gain better livelihoods from the act of conservation of natural resources than from environmental degradation.6
    • Sustainable Development and Indian Plans • Sustainable development has been embedded in the planning process of the country since the 1990s. • The Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997–2002) explicitly recognized the synergy between environment, health and development and identified as one of its core objectives the need for ensuring environmental sustainability of the development process through social mobilization and participation of people at all levels7
    • Sustainable Development and Indian Plans • However, after the WSSD in 2002, a process of preparing and implementing a national strategy for sustainable development was initiated, key elements of which are present in the subsequent five-year plans (FYPs). The government’s commitment to sustainable development was also reflected in specific and monitorable targets for a few key indicators of human development and conservation of natural resources that became part of the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002–2007).8
    • National Agricultural Policy • India’s National Agricultural Policy (NAP) has stressed the importance of management and conservation of resources by stating that, ‘the policy will seek to promote technically sound, economically viable, environmentally non-degrading, and socially acceptable use of country’s natural resources— land, water and genetic endowment to promote sustainable development of agriculture’. • The Central and state governments have initiated several measures to promote sustainable agricultural development. The NAP stated that improving the quality of land and soil, rational utilization and conservation of water, and sensitizing the farming community to environmental concerns would receive high priority.9
    • Key programmes initiated in the agricultural sector Several programmes have been introduced to increase agricultural productivity and profitability, and in domains of input provision, irrigation, drought protection, price policy and credit and insurance.10
    • Key programmes initiated in the agricultural sector National Food Security Mission (NFSM) To increase the production of rice by 10 million tonnes, wheat by 8 million tonnes and pulses by 2 million tonnes by the end of Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012) Measures include bridging the yield gap with respect to the identified crops through dissemination of improved technologies and farm management practices Rashtriya Krishi Vikaas Yojna (RKVY) Considers a holistic development of the agricultural and allied sectors Aims to achieve an annual growth rate of 4 percent in the agricultural sector during the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12)11
    • Key programmes initiated in the agricultural sector Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) Main objectives are to restore the ecological balance by harnessing, conserving and developing degraded natural resources such as soil, vegetative cover and water. Key outcomes include prevention of soil run-off, regeneration of natural vegetation, rain water harvesting and recharging of the ground water table. National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Area (NWDPRA) Promotes agriculture productivity and production in rainfed areas. Programme is planned, implemented, monitored and maintained by watershed communities.12
    • Key programmes initiated in the agricultural sector Command Area Development and Water Management Programme (CADWM) Objectives of improving the utilization of created irrigation potential and optimizing agriculture production and productivity. Area Development Authorities provide technical support. National Project for Repair, Renovation and Restoration (RRR) of Water Bodies To restore and augment storage capacities of water bodies, and Recover and extend their lost irrigation potential.13
    • Key programmes initiated in the agricultural sector Kisan Credit Card (KCC) Scheme Provides adequate and timely credit to farmers under single window, with flexible and simplified procedure National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) Addresses the issue of production risk faced by the agricultural farmers Funding is divided between the Central and State Government on a 50-50 sharing basis Macro Management of Agriculture (MMA) Works on ensuring central assistance on agriculture is spent on focused and specific interventions for the development of agriculture in the state14
    • Key programmes initiated in the agricultural sector Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize (ISOPOM) Works on providing flexibility to the states to diversify crop production Provides a focused approach to the programme keeping in mind the regional differentiation of each state Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) Mitigates the hardship of the insured farmers against the likelihood of financial loss Provides coverage against weather parameters like rainfall, temperature, frost, humidity, etc.15
    • Social Programmes • Changes in social policies were made to address not only the existing social inequity and concerns, but also the serious social impacts that accompanied economic liberalization and globalization. • The Twenty Point Programme was introduced in 2006. The programme is an umbrella package of social sector schemes and programmes that are administered by various Ministries and implemented by State/Union Territory Governments with the basic objectives of poverty eradication and improving the quality of life of the poor and the under privileged population of the country. • The broad aspects covered under the programme include poverty, employment, education, housing, health, agriculture, afforestation and environment protection, drinking water, energy to rural areas and welfare of the weaker sections of the16 society.
    • Government of India’s Twenty Point Programme 1. Garibi Hatao (poverty eradication) Rural Areas • Employment generation under the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act • Swaranjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana • Sampoorna Grameen Rojgar Yojana • Rural Business Hubs in Partnership with Panchayats • Self Help Groups Urban Areas • Swaranjayanti Shehari Rojgar Yojana17
    • Government of India’s Twenty Point Programme 2. Jan Shakti (power to people) Local Self Government (Panchayati Raj and Urban Local Bodies) – Activity mapping for devolution of functions – Budget flow of funds – Assignment of functionaries Quick and inexpensive justice – Gram Nyayalayas and Nyaya Panchayats District Planning Committees18
    • Government of India’s Twenty Point Programme 3. Kisan Mitra (support to farmers) • Watershed development and dry land farming • Marketing and infrastructural support to farmers • Irrigation facilities (including minor and micro irrigation) for agriculture • Credit to farmers • Distribution of waste land to the landless 4. Shramik Kalyan (labour welfare) • Social security for agricultural and unorganized labour • Minimum wages enforcement (including farm labour) • Prevention of child labour • Welfare of women labour19
    • Government of India’s Twenty Point Programme 5. Khadya Suraksha (food security) • Targeted public distribution system • Antodaya Anna Yojana • Establishing grain banks in chronically food scarcity areas 6. Subke Liye Aawas (housing for all) • Rural housing – Indira Awaas Yojana • EWS/LIG houses in urban areas 7. Shudh Peya Jal (clean drinking water) Rural areas – Swajaldhara – Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme Urban areas – Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programme20
    • Government of India’s Twenty Point Programme 8. Jan Jan Ka Swasthya (health for all) Control and prevention of major diseases: a) HIV/AIDS (b) TB (c) Malaria (d) Leprosy (e) Blindness National Rural Health Mission Immunization of children Sanitation programme in – Rural– Urban areas Institutional delivery Prevention of female foeticide Supplementary nutrition for mothers and children Two child norms 9. Sabke Liye Shiksha ( education for all) Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan Mid-Day Meal Scheme21 – Compulsory elementary education
    • Government of India’s Twenty Point Programme10. Anusuchit Jaati, Jan Jaati, Alp-sankhyak evam Anya Pichhra Varg Kalyan (welfare of scheduled castes [SCs], scheduled tribes [STs], minorities and other backward classes [OBCs]) SC families assisted Rehabilitation of scavengers Rights of forest dwellers – owners of minor forest produce Primitive tribal groups No alienation of tribal lands Implementation of Panchayats (extension to scheduled areas) Act (PESA)  Welfare of minorities  Professional education among all minority communities 22 Reservation of OBCs in Education and Employment
    • Government of India’s Twenty Point Programme 11. Mahila Kalyan (women welfare) • Financial assistance for women welfare • Improved participation of women in panchayats, municipalities, state legislatures,and parliament 12. Bal Kalyan (child welfare) • Universalization of ICDS Scheme • Functional Anganwadis 13. Yuva Vikas (youth development) • Sports for all in rural and urban areas • Rashtriya Sadbhavana Yojana • National Services Scheme23
    • Government of India’s Twenty Point Programme 14. Basti Sudhar (improvement of slums) Urban poor families assisted under seven point charter viz. land tenure, housing at affordable cost, water, sanitation, health, education, and social security 15. Paryavaran Sanrakshan evam Van Vridhi (environment protection and afforestation) Afforestation – Area covered under plantation of public and forest lands – Number of seedlings planted on public and forest lands Prevention of pollution of rivers and water bodies Solid and liquid waste management in – Rural areas – Urban areas24
    • Government of India’s Twenty Point Programme 16. Samajik Suraksha ( social security) Rehabilitation of handicapped and orphans Welfare of the aged 17. Grameen Sadak (rural roads) Rural roads – Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana 18. Grameen Oorja (energization of rural areas) Bio-diesel production Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana Renewable energy Energizing pump sets Supply of electricity Supply of kerosene and LPG25
    • Government of India’s Twenty Point Programme 19. Pichhra Kshetra Vikas (development of backward areas) Backward Regions Grants Fund 20. E-Shasan (IT enabled e-Governance) Central and State Governments Panchayats and municipalities26
    • Social Security Programmes in India  Over the years, various policies and schemes to promote social security have been introduced in India. Some of the important schemes in this regard are presented in the following sections.  The National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) was launched by the Government of India in 1995 and represents a significant step towards the fulfilment of the Directive Principles in the Constitution. NSAP introduced a National Policy for Social Assistance for the poor and aims at ensuring minimum national standard for this assistance in addition to the benefits that states are currently providing or might provide in future.  NSAP comprises the following schemes: Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS), Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS), Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDPS), National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS)27 and Annapurna.
    • Social Security Programmes in India28
    • Social Security Programmes in India Efforts are also being made to strengthen the system of social security for domestic workers. The National Commission for Women (NCW) has recently suggested a comprehensive piece of Central legislation for domestic workers. It drafted a Bill titled ‘Domestic Workers Welfare and Social Security Act, 2010’, which highlights the exploitative nature of domestic work, including the recent practice of trafficking in women and children, for domestic work, by spurious placement agencies. The legislation has been designed specifically to address the working conditions of domestic workers, including their registration and the emphasis of the draft Bill is on the regulation of placement agencies.29
    • Urban housing and livelihoods The National Housing and Habitat Policy (NHHP) was introduced in 1998 with the aim of ‘Housing for all’. Further, the National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy (NUH&HP) 2007 sought to promote sustainable development of habitat in the country with a view to ensuring equitable supply of land, shelter and services at affordable prices to all sections of society. As part of efforts to achieve the goal of ‘Affordable Housing for All’, the NUH&HP mandates the reservation of ‘10–15 percent land in new public/ private housing projects or 20–25 percent of floor area ratio (FAR) (whichever is greater) for economically weaker sections (EWS)/ low income group (LIG) housing through appropriate legal stipulations and special initiatives’.30
    • Urban housing and livelihoods The National Policy for Urban Street Vendors of 2004 provides and promotes a supportive environment for earning livelihoods to street vendors, as well as ensures the absence of congestion and maintenance of hygiene in public spaces and streets. Some of the basic objectives are to give vendors legal status, provide facilities for appropriate use of identified spaces, regulate access to public spaces through a nominal fee and give street vendors a role in distribution.31
    • Urban housing and livelihoods The National Urban Sanitation Policy 2008 seeks to generate awareness, eliminate open defecation, promote integrated citywide sanitation, promote safe disposal and proper operation and maintenance of all sanitary installations.32
    • Urban housing and livelihoods33
    • 34