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Writing body paragraphs from your outlinePresentation Transcript
Writing Body Paragraphs from your Outline
The use of code talkers dates back as early as World War I. In World War I, England,Using your Outline to France and the United States were fightingWrite Paragraphs German aggression in Europe. To sendI. World War I messages of battle plans and troop A. German code movements, the U.S. military used mobilebreakers phone and radio contact. The Germans were B. Colonel Bloordiscovers Choctaws extremely good at intercepting the messages 1. First Use of and breaking the codes that the U.S. was Choctaws using. At this time, the US military thought a. Successful they had broken every code in use. In 1928,troop removal Colonel A.W. Bloor of the 142nd Infantry in b. Bloor- France saw two of his men who were usingcomplete surprise the Choctaw language with each other and it c. Germans dawned on him that it might be a great ideabaffled for use as a code (Choctaw Code Talkers). C. Cherokee 1. Battle of theSomme-3oth Infantry
Moving The military agreed and nineteen Choctaw from Oklahoma “pioneeredon… the use of Native American language as 1. First Use of military code” (Choctaw Code Talkers). Choctaws The first chance for the code a. Successful talkers to perform came on October 26,troop removal 1918. Bloor ordered that two b. Bloor- companies of the 2nd battalion incomplete surprise Chufilly, France needed to withdraw to c. Germans Chardeny. It would be a difficultbaffled maneuver that would require secrecy. C. Cherokee They decided to utilize the Choctaw code to see if it would, indeed, baffle 1. Battle ofthe Somme-3oth the German army. The Infantry
• companies were moved with few problems or casualties and the experiment was called a success. After the operation, Colonel Bloor stated, “ The enemy’s complete surprise is evidence that (they) could not decipher the messages” (Choctaw Code Talkers). A German officer who was captured during the operation confirmed that they(the Germans) were completely surprised by the Indian language and gained no benefit whatsoever” from tapping into the conversation (Choctaw Code Talkers). As a result of this success, Choctaw code talkers were placed in each company in the battalion to send and receive messages by telephone Choctaw Code Talker).
Another group of NativeEnd of first part… Americans, the Cherokee 1. First Use of were also used as coders in Choctaws the 30th Infantry in France a. Successful beginning with the 2nd Battletroop removal b. Bloor- of the Somme. Code talkerscomplete surprise from Native American groups c. Germans were able to make manybaffled contributions to the victory in C. Cherokee 1. Battle of World War I (Code Talker).the Somme-3oth Infantry
In the next Great War, World War II, code and code talkOutline Section II continued to play an importantII. Code continues to role in battle strategy. As Adolphplay an important role. Hitler, Chancellor of Germany, A. WWII-Hitler began to make war plans, heattempts code break remembered stories of the Native American code talkers of World B. 30 War I. He decided to try and foilAnthropologists the American attempts at an C. Meskwaki unbreakable code by sending thirty D. Basque anthropologists to the United States to infiltrate Native American tribes and learn their languages (Code Talker).
Hitler’s anthropologists had very little luck in learning the languages as most languages were very difficult to learn the basics of, let alone master. Hitler’s attempt at breaking the code proved to beOutline Part II cont’d… fruitless (Code Talker). Due to the fact that Hitler had tried to break theII. Code continues to codes, and being unsure of his success, Americansplay an important role. did not use much Native American code in the European Theatre. One attempt was the use of A. WWII-Hitler Meskwaki language in the U.S. Army in Germany. In 1941, right after we entered the war, twenty-sevenattempts code break men of the Meskwaki tribe enlisted in the army; this number constituted 16% of their total population in B. 30 the United States. With a population of roughly 160 people, the Meskwaki had a language that wasAnthropologists known to a scarce number of people (Code Talker). This made it ripe for the purposes of code talking, C. Meskwaki and it was used successfully in the war against Germany. Since the Allies were uncertain of the D. Basque Germans’ knowledge of the native speakers’ languages, it was really the only example of Native code talking in that part of the war (Code Talker).
Code talking was used with languages other than Native American. There is a little known language called Euskara whichSection II is spoken by people from the Basque region of northern Spain and southwesternII. Code continues France. This language is only spoken byto play an about 25% of the people who inhabit that region, less than 700,000 (Basqueimportant role. Language). With the language being A. WWII-Hitler spoken by so few people, and even among them there were 5 different dialects, it lentattempts code itself well to code talk. In May of 1942,break Captain Frank Carranza encountered 60 marines who were of Basque heritage, who B. 30 were speaking fluently in Euskara.Anthropologists Carranza got the idea to create a code using the Basques’ language and it was C. Meskwaki D. Basque
• approved by the U.S. military for use in Hawaii and Australia. The U.S. was reticent to use it in China and the Philippines, since those areas had been missions of the Jesuits(an order of priests who were originally of Basque extraction) and were likely to have some knowledge of the language already. The plan was put into effect in August of 1942 near Australia in the Solomon Islands. On the first of the month, three Basque code talkers, Lieutenants Aguirre, Bakaicoa and Juanna, sent Euskara coded messages to warn Admiral Nimitz of the upcoming Operation Apple which was to remove the Japanese from the Solomon Islands. The operation was a success, due in part to the warning of Admiral Nimitz and the element of secrecy that the code afforded the soldiers (Code Talkers).