a large landmass that is part of a continent, but considered a separate region It includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal and most of Pakistan Used to be separate, but “crashed” into Asia, creating the mountainsIndia is a Subcontinent
This collision created the Hindu Kush mountains and the Himalayas They are the highest mountains in the world The Ganges and Indus rivers are large rivers that provide silt for fertile land The Saraswati River was important in ancient times, but it dried up India is surrounded by the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal Mountains and Waterways
Tall mountains protect India from cold northern winds Temperatures are generally warm Monsoons occur in summer, bringing heavy rainfall Climate
Settlement was similar to that of Sumer and Egypt They settled along the Indus and Saraswati River They grew crops, raised animals and made tools They traded with other areas and became so wealthy, they were able to build a great culture Early Inhabitants
By 2500 BC great cities grew up At least 35,000 people lived in Mohenjo-Daro and Harrapa We call this civilization “Harrapan Civilization” It had planned cities that were built by architects Most homes had bathrooms and toilets They had underground sewers Great Cities
No temples have been identified, but they have found baths used for rituals Religious objects found link them to Hindu beliefs The god Shiva’s likeness has been found among artifacts They have found a mother deity and that of a bullReligion
Pictograph writing evidence found Area they settled was twice as big as Texas Used weights and measures Made statues from bronze and clay Gained wealth from agriculture and trade They traded ivory, beads and wood They believe trade began around 2370 BC Culture
A decline in building quality signaled a change in Indus Valley culture Scholars believe that: yearly floods and monsoons were unpredictable and rivers sometimes changed course Theses changes made it hard to grow crops In 1970 it was discovered that an earthquake changed the course of the Indus River and the drying of the Saraswati Environmental Change
Cities broke up and changed locations Around 1500 BC nomads from the north Hindu Kush came into the valley and began to influence the culture Impacts and Influence
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