Flows north, unlike most other rivers Source of water for Egypt Flooded each year which helped Water crops(river silt helped to make soil fertile so crops would grow) Had waterfalls called cataracts Provided transportation for trade Shadufs were used to move water from canals to crops
Canals Shadufs with buckets Plants were watered Farmers were able to plant more Crops Floods each year helped to water crops Enabled them to use more land for farming
Flax (used to make linen) Cotton Wheat (used for staple food) Figs and grapes Barley (used for staple food) Radishes, onions, cucumbers and lettuce
In early times they made them out of bundles of reeds from river. Later they made mud brick Homes like on right. Limestone for pyramids and very fancy homes.
Lowest-slaves Servants/unskilled workers Farmers and herders Scribes, artisans, people with a trade Priests and nobles Pharaoh
Scribes did the writing Writing was called Hieroglyphs or hieroglyphics Symbols and pictures Found on walls of pyramids Used by record keepers
Egyptians used geography and advanced math to plan their buildings and replot property lines after the yearly floods Egyptian papyrus scrolls discuss stitching cuts and performing surgery as well as using remedies similar to modern day ones to cure headaches and prevent infection
They were polytheists Priests worked in the temples and had a special place in society Priests were fed and cared for by the people Were extremely clean People felt the gods were mad at them when something bad happened
Egyptians believed in an afterlife They embalmed the bodies of their dead, using natron a salt that mummified the bodies Tombs were used to house the dead for average families, while pyramids were used by pharaohs
First pyramid was believed to be build by King Djoser in 2630 BC ( it was a step pyramid) King Khufu built the Great Pyramid at Giza about 80 years later
Egypt’s Beginnings• First Three dynasties and Merging of Upper and Lower• Egypt in 3100 BC; King Djoser builds step pyramid in 2630 BCOld Kingdom• 2575BC Old Kingdom Begins; pyramids built esp. Khufu’s Great Pyramid• 2160 BC Central power of Pharaohs breaks down and Egypt suffered for 100 yearsMiddle Kingdom• 2055 BC Mentuhotep II takes control and Middle Kingdom begins• Amenemhet I founds the 12th dynasty and rules for 22 years; his dynasty rules for 200 years• 1630 BC The Hyksos invade and rule Egypt for 100 yearsNew Kingdom• Egypt overthrows the Hyksos and the New Kingdom begins; it is a period marked by many strong pharaohs• 1472 BC Hatshepsut-first female pharaoh, “steals” throne from stepson• 1353 BC Akhenaton becomes pharaoh; promoted worship of Sun god Aton singularly• 1333 BC Tutankhamen takes over and restores polytheism• 1279 BC Ramses II takes throne and rules for 66 years extends Egypt’s land greatly• After his death, Egypt weakened and was ruled by foreign powers for a 1000 years• In 525 BC the Persians took over, followed by the Greeks in the 300’s
Kush Civilization• Nubia was controlled by Egypt until central power broke down• When the less powerful rulers in Egypt couldn’t control Nubia any more, the Kush civilization grew up• Around 750 BC Piye, the Kushite king, began defeating enemies up and down the Nile until he controlled all of Egypt and was declared pharaoh.• In 671 BC, the Assyrians invaded and ended Kushite rule in Egypt.