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Hitchcock biog

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  • 1. Hitchcock: A BiographyINTRODUCTION: HITCHCOCK’S THEMES AND closed. He met his future wife, Alma Reville there,STYLE who was a film editor, but waited until he was of sufficient status, as an assistant director, to ask herThe adjective “Hitchcockian” is used to describe the out. Alma was to become an important contributor tokey stylistic and thematic features of his technique his film career, both as his wife, with productionthat have influenced subsequent directors. His credits in many of his films, and mother of theirinfluence may be seen in the work of many daughter, Patricia (who became an actress andcontemporary film directors. appeared in Strangers on a Train).Some commentators see him as a prurient moralist He went to work as an assistant director at the UFAwith an unhealthy interest in the darker side of studios in Berlin, Germany. Hitch had thehuman nature and a misogynist, whose opportunity to observe the successful Germanmanipulation and control of his actresses on screen directors, F W Mumau (Sunrise, Nosferatu) andbordered on the sadistic, Others see him as the Fritz Lang (Metropolis, M), who both later went todirector’s director par excellence. work in Hollywood, Their style was described as German Expressionism, the defining characteristicHis films are often categorised generically as of which is the outward expression of inner emotionsuspense thrillers, some as horror films. But many using exaggerated mise-en-scéne, stylised acting,contain elements of black comedy and all of them unconventional camera angles, foreboding lightingfeature his dry humour and acute eye for the and angular framing, depicting the chaos of theobservation of human behaviour and flair for visual modern world and human emotions. It is consideredcomedy, often featuring himself in his infamous to be an influence on the dark detective! thriller filmscameo performances. of the early 1940s identified by the French authors of Les Cahiers du Cinema, Godard, Chabrol andThe themes of mistaken identity, false accusation, Truffaut in the 1960s as films noirs (dark films)the psychology of fear and guilt, the terrifying cruelty because of their dark nature, both visually andand indifference of crowds and the deadly nature of thematically which reminded them of the Frenchwomen are returned to again and again in his films. roman (novel) noir. Indeed, in many of Hitchcock’sHis melodramatic style, which he described as films, the visual motifs of what we now call film noir“ultra-realism, is seen in many recurrent visual can be clearly identified.motifs throughout his films. Common elements arebravura montage editing, aerial shots at the end of a His first successful film was The Lodger in 1925 andsequence to signify ironic detachment from the was typical of his future films, being concerned withsubject, the visual grammar of German the hunting of an innocent man, falsely accused ofExpressionsm and film noir, surrealist images and gruesome crimes. After this success, Hitch was thebold use of Technicolor. This style was obvious choice to direct the first ever British talkingunderscored, for most of his major films, by the picture in 1929, “Blackmail”, which was hailed amusical scores of his chief composer, Bernard triumph.Herrmann, whose work is now synonymous withHitchcock. Suspense was the key to the typical Hitchcock thriller as his famous anecdote about how to film aBACKGROUND AND BRITISH CAREER bomb explosion shows.On Friday 13th August (an auspicious date) 1899, “The element of suspense is giving the audienceAlfred Joseph Hitchcock was born in Leytonstone, information. Now, you and fare sitting here.East London, England, into a lower middle class Suddenly a bomb goes off up we go, blown tofamily. He was sent to a Jesuit school, where he smithereens! What have the audience had watchingsaid that he learnt about the power of fear and guilt this scene? Five or ten seconds of shock. Now, youand where corporal punishment, by means of a do the scene over again but we tell the audience theres a bomb underneath this table and its goingthick rubber strap, was regularly meted out to sinful to go off in five minutes. Now this innocuousboys. conversation about football becomes very poten4 they say ‘Don’t talk about football, theres a bombHis film career began in 1919 at the Paramount under the table!’ Thats what they want to tell us,Studios’ London base in Islington where his job was then their anxieties will be as long as that clock ticksto create the title cards for silent films. While there, away But the bomb must never go off!".he learnt about script writing, editing and artdirection. In 1922, he began directing his first film,Number 13, which he never finished as the studio
  • 2. He earned an international reputation from these By this time Hitchcock had come to the attention ofthrillers and in 1939, he and his wife and daughter a group of young French film critics who producedmoved to America, where he was to live and work Les Cahiers du Cinema. In it they deconstructedfor the rest of his life. and revered his work and in so doing, helped to raise his status as an auteur. This examinationAMERICAN CAREER culminated in the fifty hours of interviews he recorded with the film director, Francois Truffaut.Hitchcock signed a seven year contract with David0. Selznick (who had released Gone With the Wind Ironically, the American TV series, Alfred Hitchcockthat very year). Presents, which ran from 1955-65, helped to undermine his serious artistic status, reinforcing theAt the end of his contract with Selznick, during earlier perception of him as a popular showman.which the producer hired him out to several otherstudios at a profitable premium, Hitchcock made a It was with this younger audience in mind that hebid for independence with the formation of his own made his last film for Paramount (but actually madecompany Transatlantic Pictures (with Sidney on the Universal lot) Psycho (1960). DespiteBernstein as producer). He made Rope (1948), in misgivings, it cost £800,000 and made £11 million.which he showcased his clever but expensive ten For Universal, he followed it with The Birds (1963),minute take technique to produce a film which Marnie (1964), Torn Curtain (1966), Frenzy (1972)appeared to have no editing at all, the antithesis of which was the only late film to show any sign ofmontage editing, and Under Capricorn (1949) after Hitchcock’s earlier form, and his final film Familywhich the company promptly went bankrupt. After Plot (1976).some success with Warner Bros. IncludingStrangers on a Train (1951), he went to Paramount Hitchcock became progressively debilitated byPictures. Here he had several successes including arthritis and on 29 April 1980, at 80 years of age,Rear Window (1954), To Catch a Thief (1955), The after a belated knighthood, he died at his home inTrouble With Harry (1955) and Vertigo (1958). California with his wife, Alma, who followed him two years later.
  • 3. GCSE English Teachers’ NotesA study of Hitchcock’s work can be used specifically opportunity to study the medium of film as they arefor the Media coursework unit for NEAB English less about the mere visual illustration of a story andGCSE syllabus, by the study of a single film or more about how to tell a story in moving images,comparison of two or more films. The following sound and editing.approaches could be adopted for any GCSE Englishsyllabus as: In English, pupils learn how writers create narrative, characters and themes using written language, stimulus for discursive written or oral work (e.g. on structured as poems, plays, novels and short Hitchcock’s recurrent themes his characters - by stories. Films use the language of the medium of gender or as heroes and villains - or on issues of film, which is complete with its own grammar syntax film censorship) stimulus for creative writing and the style of the “author”. a comparison of the original literary source and the final film Hitchcock has been frequently credited with the status of author or auteur” as French film theoristsFilms to be recommended for study at this level are: referred to great directors, because his authorial presence is inscribed within the themes and stylisticRebecca, The 39 Steps, motifs of all of his films. This is what makes himRear Window, very suitable for study on an English GCSE course.North by Northwest,The Birds, Psycho and The opening few scenes of Rear Window are veryThe Lady Vanishes. rewarding to study with pupils of all abilities, as theyto pupils before each element of the scheme of work are an exercise in pure fun narration, mostly (for theis undertaken as it is important, especially if this kind first 3 minutes 40 seconds) without any spokenof study is new to them (and especially if they think words. This unit and its tasks encourage pupils tothey are just watching a film), precisely why they are look very carefully at how all of the elements of filmdoing it. language are constructed to create a vital component of any narrative: to engage theThe study of Hitchcock’s films offers an excellent audience.HITCHCOCK ON HITCHCOCK must be analysis and review of the medium.” These should inform the learning outcomes of eachOn his mission in life: specific task or coursework assignment. Specific learning outcomes should be clearly stated“To scare the hell out of people.” Pupils may initially find that the film is slow (a perennial problem with using any films but high-“Psycho gave me very wrinkled skin. I was in that action ones), however, with repeated viewing, pupilsshower scene for seven days - 70 set-ups. At leasthe made sure the water was warm.” notice more and more details that the director andJANET LEIGH his team have created. It is fair to say that study of all aspects of film language, especially narrative structure, helps to develop transferable skills whenFor this resource the study of narrative has been returning to analysis of the construction of literarychosen as a focus for study in preparation for a texts. For most of our pupils, after verbalcoursework unit (it could easily be divided into communication, the visual medium of the movingsmaller units if desired) for NEAB GCSE English,but it could be adapted to other syllabuses to image, in television programmes and films, is more primary than the written one. Yet there is littleproduce creative writing, as indicated below. opportunity to study precisely how it is constructed.References to Tasks in bold correspond to those in With this focus, the study of film and more traditionalthe Students’ Notes. literary texts is entirely complementary and goes beyond the more obvious, though legitimate,NARRATIVE IN HITCHCOCK comparisons of the book and the film of the book.TEXT Rear Window (1954)In the NEAB syllabus the Media unit of coursework“should demonstrate the candidate’s ability toanalyse, review and comment on features of mediatexts (NEAB 1999/2000 syllabus). It alsostipulates that “Where a film or video version of atext is the subject of a coursework response, there
  • 4. One of the frequent concerns of teachers when Notes and it is unlikely that they will need any moreteaching about film, if they have little or no Media or advanced terms. If you want additional terms, theyFilm Studies training, is the lack of knowledge of may be found in most GCSE and A level Mediafilm terms. However in the case of this and similar Studies textbooks or a video skills manual. Youactivities, this is not a significant problem. It is could provide a short glossary worksheet for them,important, and motivating, for pupils (of all abilities) or you could engage the pupils in researching andto learn some camera and editing terms (they producing their own glossary. If you would like toprobably know many already) and it will help them investigate film language and narrative structure into be specific and clear in their writing. greater detail yourself, there are several useful titles in the bibliography provided.There is a basic list of useful terms in the Students’
  • 5. GCSE English Teachers’ Notes• A SUGGESTED SCHEME OF WORK FOR 6/7 WEEKSAIMS To introduce the study of narrative in films To compare film language with that of literary textsPRE-SCREENING PREPARATION An introduction to Hitchcock using the biography provided or other sources. Discussion of what COURSEWORK ESSAY SUGGESTION pupils already know about Hitchcock and his films. (Task 1.4) Pupils could choose one of the minor Study of the components of written language and characters to write either a diary or a first person narrative structure and investigation into the film narrative of their individual perspective of the language equivalents, for example, by murderous events in their neighbourhood or “a comparison of the similarities and differences day in the life of’ piece about a typical day for that between novels and films. (Task 1.1) character. Screen Rear Window. Ideally films should be seen once through at the cinema, but the reality 1.Film Language - creating narrative and character of timetables and challenging classes makes this (Task 2.1) Study of the openings of novels, short impossible for most schools, Therefore, the stories and mills. following are suggested: (Task 2.2) Pupils to produce a storyboard for the a) screen the film on video without interruption by opening sequence of a novel or short story. teacher (in two or more parts, if necessary, (Task 2.3) This uses detailed study of the opening preferably with a re-cap between screenings) sequence from the credits to the arrival of the b) or by watching it in parts with regular main character’s nurse, the first 7 minutes 46 interventions by teacher in the form of open seconds. The sequence should be watched questions to the class at significant moments several times and it is important to make pupils (“Why did he say that? What does this look/sound aware that, like studying a literary text in small like? What do you think will happen next?”) to bits, repeatedly, this is far from how it was increase pupil concentration and involvement. intended to be read/watched. The purpose is to reveal how it was constructed, the film languagePOST SCREENING ACTIVITIES AND techniques used and the effect on the audience. The danger is always that a section of a text canCOURSEWORK SUGGESTIONS be “done to death”. Divide pupils into small group to make notes, with1.The minor characters a specific focus (e.g. one for sound, one (Task 1.2) A second screening is very useful, character, music, lighting, set, camera movement especially for this activity. Assign the minor etc.), and report back to the rest of the class; this characters (Miss Torso, Miss Lonely-Hearts, Lars increases their concentration during the process Thorwald, the musician, the sculptress, etc.) to of collecting textual evidence for their written small groups to make notes through the second analysis. screening of the film to collect information about The outcome is an essay that could be used for their individual narratives. This can be shared coursework. with the rest of the class to prepare for the following written assignments. (Task 1.3) Pupils could individually or in groups draw a diagram representing where everyone lives in the apartments Jeff can see from his rear window. The purpose of this would be to increase pupil engagement with the clever construction of the sense of place and the relationship of all of the characters in this drama. It would also support the following work.
  • 6. a character sketch of L B Jefferies a discussion of the importance of the theme ofCOURSEWORK ESSAY SUGGESTION marriage, or privacy, in the film.(TASK 2.4) These approaches may be successfully used withDiscuss the ways in which Hitchcock sets the any Hitchcock, or other, film. The Students’ Notesscene for the audience in the opening minutes of will be most effective if you go through them withhis film Rear Window (1954) the students; they contain a great deal of material which could be easily divided into individualThere are many other essay possibilities, which sessions and the process may take much more timeinclude the rest of the film, for example: than you think, because the pupils will want to share their observations.
  • 7. GCSE English Students’ Notes• TASK 1: FILM LANGUAGEWritten language uses words arranged in sentences • TASK 2: FILM NARRATIVE - OPENINGSand paragraphs. Writers choose particular Everyone loves a good story, whether it is real or madeadjectives or metaphors to tell us about places and up. Hitchcock loved a good story, but more than that, hepeople. In a similar way films have shots arranged loved to entertain and thrill an audience. He would dointo scenes and sequences. Film directors choose this by keeping the audience in suspense, eager to findlighting effects and camera angles to tell us about out what will happen to the hero in the end. Orpeople and places. Before you study a few scenes squirming in our seats because we know something thatfrom one film in particular, take time to consider the the character on screen doesn’t.relationship between film and literary texts (novels But, in the case of every film, before the audience canplays and poems) and how they communicate get involved with the details of the plot and its outcome,stories, ideas and emotions to us. they first need to have some essential information about location, characters and clues to the plot. The verbTASK 1.1 “narrate”, means to tell a story and the telling of the story is the narrative. In a novel, for example, the storyCreate and complete a table with two columns, may be narrated by a character (first person “I”that compares the components of written narrative) or by an objective narrator (in the third personlanguage with film language “She,They” narrative).• Try to pair the ones that are the same and TASK 2.1 show which ones are different Look at the opening pages of a selection of• Have a go at finding an example for each novels or short stories and study how location, one, if possible, from a novel or poem you time, mood, character and plot are established. have read recently Consider what the Try to identify the narrator. specific function of each component is In a film, there are additional ways of telling a story,TASK 1.2 creating a narrative using film language, rather than just with words.Track one of the minor characters throughoutthe film, collecting information about what we Study the opening 5 minutes or so of a variety oflearn about their life, personality and point of films and see how they establish the aboveview. elements with images, lighting, action, music and dialogue.TASK 1.3 TASK 2.2Draw a diagram of the view through Jeff’s PRACTICALwindow. Try to work out the spatial relationship Produce a storyboard of shots you would chooseof the apartments to Jeff’s and label it with who to open a film version of a novel or short story oflives there. your choice. Write an analysis of your own narrative construction.TASK 1.4 CREATIVE WRITING HITCHCOCK ON HITCHCOCK “Always make the audience suffer as much asChoose one of the minor characters and write possible.”one of the following:a) a diary for the period of the murder and TASK 2.3Jeff’s Investigationsb) a first person narrative of their point of FILM LANGUAGE - TECHNICAL TERMSview of the murderous events Find out the definitions of the film terms belowc) a day (or week) in the life of this character andbefore the murder create a worksheet of them to help you withd) a character sketch using third person your analysis Using your glossary of terms, trynarrative to identify which components of film language are used, where and why, in the opening few minutes of Hitchcock’s Rear Window.
  • 8. Other useful termsUseful terms scene, sequence, set, mise-en-scéne, lighting, actor,Camera shots extra, theme, narrative, style, genre close-up, medium shot, long shot, wide shot, establishing shot, low/high angle shot, framingCamera movement~ pan, track, crane, zoom, reverse zoom, tilt Editing cut, montage, fade in/out, dissolve, superimpose, slow-motionSound soundtrack, musical score, sound mixing andediting
  • 9. GCSE English Students’ Notes• TASK 3: TELLING A STORY THE - TASK 3.2 CONSTRUCTION OF NARRATIVE Watch the first few minutes of the film, up to where the nurse arrives, and time each shortThe genre of Rear Window is, on the surface, a sequence. Then divide each sequence intowhodunit, a murder mystery or thriller. But it also sections to collect notes with these headingscontains several themes: e.g. credit sequence, apartments opposite thewhat they are is for you to find out in the course of window, Jeff’s apartment, Jeff’s telephonewatching the film. However the film is very famous conversation.for being, almost like, a visual essay on how anaudience responds to watching a film at the cinema. • The credit sequence opens with window blinds beingTASK 3.1 rolled up slowly. What does this remind you of and why might it be a good way to start aThe similarities between us, the audience film?watching the film at the cinema or on video, and • Listen to the music. Which instruments canthe position of the main character, Jeff, are you hear? Does it remind you of anything?signalled to us in the opening few minutes of What kind of moodthe film. Can you find where this is and what the does the music create?similarities are? • Who, or what, is the narrator here? What points of view are we given?Now, to study the opening minutes of the film in • Where are we?detail, you will need to look and listen very carefully. • What time of day/year is it? w What is theUse these questions to help you to analyse the weather like?narrative techniques used. It is very important that • What sounds can you hear?you give more than one word answers and provide • Who can you see and what have you learnedevidence from the film for your answers to earn about them? Sit The main character, playedmarks for analysis. Remember every shot, angle, by James Stewart, is LB Jefferies. What dosound and object was chosen very carefully to tell you learn about him, from a) purely visualthe story, so don’t miss anything! Explain in detail information b) from his telephonethe reasons for your answers. This is a crucial conversation?aspect of academic work, as you need to give • What do you think the story of the film will betextual evidence to back up your points. This is an about?important way of testing whether your points areconvincing or not. You will need to watch this section of the film atThere are very few spoken words in the first few least four times to collect detailed notes.minutes of this film, but we know where we are, Develop and structure your notes to prepare forwhere the apartments are in relations to the open your essay on the construction of narrative.window and we know a bit about Jeff, the main COURSEWORK ESSAYcharacter. Perhaps we have also got some clues as • Discuss the narrative techniques used byto what the story will be about? How is this done? Hitchcock to set the scene for the audience in Rear Window (1954). • HITCHCOCK ON HITCHCOCK “When an actor comes to me and wants to discuss his character, I say, It’s in the script. If he says, But what’s my motivation? I say, your salary.”
  • 10. A Level Media Studies Teachers’ NotesA study of Hitchcock’s work can be used within theOCR A Level syllabus as (some activities are alsosuitable for other syllabuses): Reading skills are vital as they provide the textual evidence for analysis of whole-text aspects such as an auteur study examining his signature style and narrative structure, debates on representation, recurring themes ideological interpretations etc. Too often, students’ individual student research papers on single films examination answers are vague and superficial or comparisons of two or more films because they are not rooted in close observation a case study for British Cinema of the 1930s and and supported by specific textual examples. 40s a case study of the strengths and weaknesses of the Hollywood studio system Students can progress from the exercises in these 1930-59 notes to study of the film North by Northwest as a practical production exercises in montage editing whole and it is evident that close analysis creates confidence and critical autonomy in the student.Below is an additional approach to Hitchcock’s work When next applied, students will notice much more,that would be compatible with any A level syllabus more quickly, as their eyes and ears will have beenand is considered to be a good introduction to film trained to be attentive and perceptive. The art tostudy and the work of Hitchcock. However, it will not avoiding tedium is not to “do anything to death” andbe sufficient in itself to meet the topic demands of it is particularly important for the teacher toany syllabus. Reference could also be made to the demonstrate textual analysis first with a film whichother activities contained in this book, as they could enthuses them as this will be communicatedbe adapted easily, especially the A level Film positively to the students.Studies material. The work below obviously cannot be undertaken for every Hitchcock film that you wish to study as itTEXTUAL ANALYSIS SKILLS TEXT would take several years! Please see the Teachers’North by Northwest (1959) Notes in the A level Film Studies section regarding approaches to student presentations and independent research to cover several films. It isTextual analysis is a reading skill. Whether students important that clear and specific learning outcomesapproach it from the perspective of semiological are planned for each unit of study. It is alsotheory or not is largely irrelevant. The act, or art, of important to make reference to the syllabuslooking closely at, and asking questions of, a text is requirements, past examination papers, markmore important. The term deconstruction has schemes and Chief Examiners’ reports in order tonegative associations of dissection and destruction, ensure that any scheme of work is tied to thebut nevertheless, the film was constructed, scene by syllabus being followed.scene and frame by frame, and deconstructioninvolves the study of how it was put together. A SUGGESTED SCHEME OF WORK FOR 3/4The danger is that this kind of detailed analysis can WEEKSruin students’ enjoyment of a text; the same risksare involved with the study of fine art, literature or AIMSmusic. But it is possible for such study to enhancestudents’ appreciation and enjoyment of film as film To teach detailed textual analysisas well as a text to be examined. It is important to To introduce and/or demonstrate understandingmake students at any level, understand that the of film study termsprocess of repeated screening and analysis is anartificial, academic one, not intended by the filmmakers (or is it, in this age of the digital freeze PRE.SCREENING ACTIVITIESframe when we can rewind and replay our favouritescenes?). Introduce students to life and work of Hitchcock,specific passages from some Hitchcock scores to discusssee what their reading is and to learn their critical their expectations and what they already knowlanguage. and have seen of his work.
  • 11. textual analysis, or deconstruction, is not an end initself. It is the reading skill that allows deeper Watch North by Northwest preferably at theanalysis of a film’s meanings and significance for cinema, with a video copy available for follow-upthe individual student, or for a wider audience, and study.their interpretations, including critical perspectivesfrom academics. The next stage is to provide POST-SCREENING ACTIVITIESstudents with extracts of critical writing (seebibliography for suggestions) which they can TASK 1.1consider in their study of particular films and Using the commentary in the Students’ Notes,respond to. watch opening five minutes several times to make notes to write an essayReading skills should encompass the understandingof the spoken and written word, as well as images TASKS 1.2 and 2and sound/music (a much neglected subject for Analysis, to be written or conducted as classstudy). Incidentally, there is an excellent discussion.documentary on the composer Bernard HerrmannMusic for the Movies: Bernard Herrmann TASK 3(Channel 4 1999), as well as some essays Students to use open questions provided toanalysing his scores for Hitchcock on a Hitchcock progress to their own analysis of the auction roomwebsite if you would like to explore this dimension. scene from North by Northwest for an essay.Enlist a music colleague to help you to prepareanalyses of
  • 12. A Level Media Studies Students’ Notes TEXT North by Northwest (1959) It’s also an allusion to a line from Hamlet: CAST Gary Grant (Roger Thornhill); Eve Marie-Saint (Eve Kendall); “I am but mad north-north-west; when the wind is James Mason (Phillip Vandamm). southerly I know a hawk from a handsaw” [II.iil when Hamlet feigns an act of lunacy. The fact that• TEXTUAL ANALYSIS: ESTABLISHING appearances can be deceptive, an important aspect CHARACTER, PLOT & THEMES of the film, is signalled at the outset of the film. On the other hand, Hitchcock denied a deliberateThis section offers a brief textual analysis of the allusion when questioned, but the reference is stillopening of North by Northwest and provides some one that might work within the minds of someideas about how to approach textual analysis. The viewers.aim is to introduce some important terms andconcepts for further study. After this there are While the credits are rolling we also hear the nowquestions to help you do your own analysis of the famous musical score by Bernard Herrmann, aset-piece scene in the auction room. boldly dramatic start with a foreboding theme of danger and excitement, relentlessly taking us to theTASK 1 appearance of Hitchcock himself as he misses the bus. The orchestration consists of an imbalance onWrite a detailed textual analysis demonstrating the woodwind section, with heavy emphasis onhow the first five minutes establish the bass clarinets and percussion - a perfect match forcharacters, plot and themes of Hitchcock’s film Hitchcock’s melodramatic style.North by Northwest (1959). But the director does more than this. He presents us• OPENING TITLE SEQUENCE (2 MINS) with a montage of people going about their busy lives, in a hectic and frenetic world:TASK 1.1 • street scene of people walking in direct linesWatch this sequence several times using the • a subway entrance sucking the people in commentary below and add your own • crowds crossing the roads observations and examples. • people descending large concrete staircases • two women fighting for the same cab. HITCHCOCK ON HITCHCOCK This world is not immediately attractive, but it is the one in which our hero feels secure. It is the“I didn’t say actors are cattle. I said they should establishment of the equilibrium that the hero enjoysbe treated like cattle.” and which is about to be dramatically disrupted by the intervention of the villain.The title of the film is a direction - North-by-Northwest - the one which the hero takes in the film.
  • 13. Hitchcock presents us with an image system for the film from the opening of the title sequence. He holds theattention of the audience with a lurid bright green screen, with parallel lines drawn across, which eventually fades toreveal the establishing shot of the front of a Manhattan skyscraper reflecting the busy Madison Avenue world inwhich the hero, Roger Thornhill, resides.An image system is one way in which a director can HITCHCOCK ON HITCHCOCKgive coherence of style and visual effect, whileunderlining the subtextual themes of the whole “The length of a film should be directly relatednarrative. The use of shapes, patterns, camera to the endurance of the human bladder.”shots, movement and angles, dress codes, sets,movement of characters, visual motifs, are all put to “The Donald Spoto biography ofuse in such signifying practices. In the film parallel Hitchcock was absolute nonsense.lines are used in many of the set pieces and set-ups Hitchcock couldnt have been a nicerand are an important part of the mise-en-scéne. fellow. I whistled coming to work." Cary GrantTASK FOR LATERLook for evidence of these parallel lines in:• the cropduster scene• the auction room scene• the set design of the Townsend/Vandamm library• the set design of Vandamm’s house near Mount Rushmore (a Frank Lloyd Wright design)• roads and rail networks.
  • 14. A Level Media Studies Students’ Notes• OPENING SCENES (3 MINS) Hitchcock, in great style, has established the settingThe lift opens and the plot begins. The appearance of Roger and the protagonist, but so far, the major storylineThornhill is very important: he is immaculately attired in a has not really started. So how does the director dolight grey, single-breasted suit and superficially, he is a it? As Thornhill explains to his colleagues that hesophisticated, witty, advertising executive. He is also shot needs to send a telegram to his mother, we hear thefrom a low angle to emphasise his status. It is demonstrated name “George Kaplan” being paged in theto the audience, however that he has talents, abilities and background not once, but five times. Thornhill clicksan attitude to life that helps us to believe how he will cope his fingers and shouts “Boy” and the main narrativewith the demands placed upon him in the ensuing narrative. has begun. Hitchcock pans to the left and zooms inHitchcock said that he placed ordinary men in bizarre on the two stereotypical East-European henchmen,situations, and this is partly the appeal of his films. who were previously framed in the top right hand corner of the previous shot; in other words, we have TASK 1.2 already seen them without realising who they are - itWhat do the following tell us about Roger Thornhill? reinforces the reality of the space in the mise-en- scéne. This moment is called the inciting incident: it• He has to dictate on the move. is the point in the narrative when the main plot is• He doesn’t carry a briefcase. kick-started into action.• His secretary organises his life and reminds him of important details. Of course, the film revolves around the issue of• He is friendly to the elevator man. mistaken identity, one of Hitchcock’s favourite• He sends flowers and excuses to his lady themes. An innocent man being in the wrong place friends. at the wrong time; or in this case, he clicks his• He is personally known to the waiter in the hotel. fingers and is suddenly taken into the bizarre world• He feels heavy - so he needs to “think thin.” of a Hitchcock narrative.• He is going to the theatre with his mother in the evening. When Thornhill is abducted by the two villains he• The way he walks. asks a number of questions. In fact, he asks the• He works in advertising - is this relevant? kind of questions the audience are probably asking• His name. themselves. These questions are called enigmas,• The casting of Cary Grant and at the end of the plot all major and minor• What else have you noticed? enigmas will be resolved and the equilibrium will be established again, albeit with important changes.An interesting aspect of his behaviour is when he steals the The conflict that has now been introduced is thetaxicab from a man in the street by lying that his secretary is engine that drives the narrative and puts the herounwell and needs the cab urgently. His defence is that it under stress. Conflict is essential in any narrative tomade the man a Samaritan, and that in advertising lying is engage the viewer’s attention and emotions. Noticemerely “expedient exaggeration” - a hint of a major theme to also that the audience will share Thornhill’s point-of-come when the truth becomes very elusive for both him and view for a substantial part of the film.the audience. Finally, when we look at the genre of this film (cold-When he arrives at a very grand hotel for his business war romantic-comedy-thriller) it is not difficult to seemeeting one of the men remarks how much he can tolerate that in some ways it is a prototype for James Bond,alcohol - “no-one faster coming down the home straight” - at least in style and characterisation. Grant broughtand again foreshadows his escape from the villains when he a lightness of touch to the role that kept it constantlyis drunk in the car. good-humoured. In fact, despite his age, Grant was originally offered the role of Bond after making North by Northwest but didn’t want to be tied down to a three picture deal.
  • 15. TASK 2CLOSURE 1. How is the camera used in this scene?As a comparison you might like to look at the closure of Consider distance, movement and angle.the narrative and see the economy with which 2. Vandamm’s ‘ownership’ of Eve is subtextuallyHitchcock brings the film to an end. The sequence from evident in a number of places. Where canthe point where Thornhill and Kendall are hanging off you spot this and what is its relationship toMount Rushmore to the end of the film is only 47 the auction setting? Does his attitudeseconds long. change at any point? 3. Describe the mise-en-scéne of the auction How many enigmas are answered in those 47 room? Where is the image system of parallel seconds and how does Hitchcock do it? lines evident and what effect does it have. Find out what a “MacGuffin” is and see how it fits into 4. There are a couple of master shots in those 47 seconds. operation. How and why are they used? 5. How is the climax of the scene achieved?TASK 3 6. What is the change in Thornhill’s character by this point in the film and how is it evident? ANALYSING THE AUCTION ROOM SCENE 7. Vandamm refers to Thornhill overplaying his various roles. How does this relate to majorBy answering the following questions prepare notes to themes in the film?write an essay demonstrating a detailed textual analysis 8. What new enigmas are created in this scene?of this scene. Are any resolved? 9. The “MacGuffin” appears. What is it and why is it important?
  • 16. A Level Film Studies Teachers’ Note.A study of Hitchcock’s work can be undertaken forexamination or coursework assessment of the It goes without saying that the nature of auteurWJEC A Level Film Studies syllabus content, in study can only be undertaken after considerationparticular for: of several of a director’s films and this always presents a challenge to teachers with the Film Form and Film Narrative constraints of timetables and the demands of Critical Approaches to Hollywood covering any syllabus. Therefore, this scheme of Critical Approaches to British Cinema work is predicated on independent student research, in order to cover his work in sufficientIt is important to have specific learning outcomes breadth and depth within the available timetableclearly in mind when devising a scheme of work. as well as to develop these important learningThis is especially so when there is so much to learn skills. It is of course, perfectly acceptable to teachabout Hitchcock and the danger is that students will the same content in a traditional lecture/seminarbecome overwhelmed. Look carefully at the syllabus way. The topic culminates in asking students toand its guidance on assessment (as well as past study Vertigo (1958), for many, the most perfect,examination papers and Chief Examiner’s reports) personal and important film of his oeuvre, in theto decide how best to approach a study of context of a preliminary study of his other films toHitchcock. Different emphases may be chosen from assess the claims for auteur status. Vertigoa wide variety of aspects of study according to the should be watched in its entirety, preferably at themethod of syllabus assessment chosen. cinema. Making your own extracts from a selection ofThese emphases might include: Hitchcock’s films can afford a useful introduction (or, even better encouraging your students to do it Auteur study as indicated below), as are some of the television Production and promotion history profiles that have been made over the years, The influences on Hitchcock’s work, including BBC2’s Reputations (June 1999) being the most German Expressionism recent. Please note that is possible for schools Hitchcock’s relationships with producer David 0. and colleges to gain access to the off-air video Selznick, libraries of universities and colleges of Higher Paramount and Universal and/or his stars Education. The new Universal Hitchcock Hitchcock’s men and women — representation collection on video includes useful extra features, and ideology such as trailers and documentaries, for example Narrative and suspense on the Universal restoration of Vertigo. Students Use of mise-en-scéne and mise-en-shot will need advice with sources of research and Genre access to materials. The internet has some useful Readings of sections of an individual film or academic and industry material and Hitchcock comparisons of two films specific websites are included in the bibliography of this booklet.Films to be recommended for study at this level are:All of them! Choose films that are accessible to you,appropriate to the level of your students and that • A SUGGESTED SCHEME OF WORK FORyou will be enthusiastic about teaching. For this 6/7 WEEKSresource, the study of Hitchcock as an auteur hasbeen chosen. AIMS To prepare students for the auteur question• AUTEUR STUDY OF HITCHCOCK (although more than one director should be referred to in the exam) in the CriticalHitchcock’s films offer an embarrassment of riches Approaches to Hollywood paperfor Film Studies teachers and students alike and he To engage students in detailed textual analysisis an obvious and popular choice of director for of a single film (preparation for Film Form andquestions on auteur study. What follows is a Film Narrative exam paper or for coursework insuggested, but not exclusive, approach for teaching a reading, practical project or essay)this aspect of Hitchcock. To develop independent research skills
  • 17. PRE-SCREENING ACTIVITIESSupply definitions of the term auteur, explain structure, themes, use of miseen-scéne andorigins of the term and outline areas of debate to mise-en-shot, music, representation andthe class or set students to do this individually or ideology and production context, all within small groups (TASK 1.1) references to key scenes for later reference forUsing extracts or video biographies to introduce their essays.the topic to class Initial demonstration of the ways in which Hitchcock’s work may be seen as the work of anTo cope with the demand of watching a number of auteur - production of a worksheet summary forfilms in class, an effective way to cover a great whole class use for drafting of essay.deal of ground and increase student engagement,is to divide students into POST-SCREENING ACTIVITIESgroups to study a different Hitchcock film of yourchoice, independently. They need to make notes • Collection and examination of a selection ofand select extracts on video for a presentation to existing critical responses to Vertigo (TASKthe rest of the class. (TASK 1.2) De-brief 2.1)presentations, compiling observations, perhaps by • Application of the above major points of analysismaking a grid or worksheets of the major points in Vertigo to consider conclusions andarising from them, for example, narrative drafting of essay (TASK 2.2) • Essay tasks (TASK 2.3) a) A past paper essay question on auteur study b) An essay question on Vertigo - to be designed by student (individually or in small groups). Coursework opportunity - to be devised by you as appropriate
  • 18. A Level Film Studies Students’ NotesHITCHCOCK AS AUTEURHitchcock was a highly visible director. He never Auteur theory has been the source of critical debateshunned publicity, made fleeting cameo on film since the 1950s. It can be grouped into theappearances in his own films and agreed to many following theories or stages:interviews. He also used himself in his cinematrailers and even had a TV series in the 5Os named Auteur policy in France - in the writings ofafter him, Alfred Hitchcock Presents ... Reviewers critic/film makers in Les Cahiers du Cinema, byand film fans alike use the term ‘Hitchcockian’ to Truffaut, Chabrol, Rohmer, Rivette and Godarddescribe classic moments of his own work and that (l95Os)of other directors’ films. In his foreword to DanAulier’s “Vertigo: The Making of a Hitchcock Auteur policy in Britain - in the writings of theClassic”, Martin Scorsese sees Vertigo as critics in Movie magazine, by Perkins, Shivas,Hitchcock’s most personal work and the one that Cameron and Mayersberg (1960s)bears the strongest signature of the author; despitethe constraints of the Hollywood studio system. Auteur theory in North America - the writings of Andrew Sarris (1960s)Hitchcock used the term “pure cinema” to describethe entirely personal signature that he used to ‘sign’ The debate has continued since the sixties andhis work. So what was this individual signature John Caughie’s book, “Theories of Authorship”, isbased on and is it appropriate to study films in this useful to outline them, but the work of Robin Woodway? (especially with reference to Hitchcock), John Ellis and Peter Wollen are also useful for research.Simply, the term ‘auteur’ is French for ‘author’.However; the term is used, judgementally, to The construction and promotion of the auteur by thedescribe directors who have attained the status of use of the director’s name in contemporary filman artist or author, rather than a mere technician (or marketing has become very far removed from themetteur-en-scene) and who have superceded the original definitions of the term, being principallymaterial a film was derived from, to produce a motivated by the economics of the film industry.uniquely personal film that can be identified as theirown. In his interviews, Hitchcock used many RESEARCHanalogies for the process of film making from Try to find examples from the work of a numberpainting and composing music; he was scornful of of contemporary directors in recent years. Whatcritics who emphasised his technical skills or “tricks” is this use of the director’s name based on? Is itand demanded the same respect afforded to more effective?conventional definitions of art. However; debate isfocused on the essentially collaborative nature of TASK 1.1film making which makes claims of authorship very • Undertake research on the origins anddifficult, especially when many directors rely definitions of auteur study, includingregularly on the same lighting cameraman or editor. challenges to the theories, and produce your own detailed summary of notes — youQUESTION will need them to write the essay at the end Many moments from Hitchcock’s films have of the topic. been described as ‘typical Hitchcock’ - TASK 1.2 which other directors could have the status In your group, prepare a presentation on the film of auteur claimed for them and why? you have been given. You should prepare a worksheet for the rest of the class that summarises your main points. You should research its production history and context, analysis of its key scenes, critical perspectives and the hallmarks of Hitchcock’s authorial signature. Remember, your presentation will be used by you and the whole class to inform your essay and exam preparation.
  • 19. A Level Film Studies Students’ Note 1 TASK 2.1 Collect a range of different critical responses to Vertigo to compile useful quotes for consideration in your essay and to indicate interpretations you might not have thought of. Examine your initial personal response in the course of your academic analysis. Here are examples of two scenes you could use: Extract 1 The extract starts at the end of the famous Saul Bass credit sequence and lasts 1 minute and 31 seconds. This sequence contains the essence of the film’s themes and image system. Note that the following information is established in this sequence:TASK 2.2 TASK 2.2 (continued)A textual analysis of the whole film - this is Extract 2best done using a video copy for repeated A later sequence that starts at 12 minutes 56viewing. Having seen the film as a whole, seconds into the filmconsider and make notes on the following (at Ernies club) and can be studied under theaspects: following headings (use these for your analysis of other scenes): • Narrative structure - divide the film into scenes and acts (using the screenplay, if Narration available or video) with timings using Mostly omniscient, with some restricted narration diagrammatic representation - this makes from Scottie’s point of view. the structure more obvious and shows its rhythms and repetitions. Mise-en-scéne • Genre The use of colour - red flock wallpaper and • Themes Madeleine’s green stole are contrasted against the • Image system greys, browns and blacks of the other diners to • Representation and ideology make her stand out. When in profile, Madeleine’s • Production history and context head is backlit to create an almost angelic aura, it • Textual analysis of specific sequences increases in brightness as the music swells to reach another key in an expressionistic way.This evidence should then be used, togetherwith your findings from Tasks I and 2.1, inorder to demonstrate the auteur theory asapplied to Hitchcock’s work. • The location - San Francisco • A rooftop chase, a manhunt by the law • The star as hero - James Stewart as a Hitchcock “everyman” in a dangerous situation • The famous dolly out/zoom in shot - technical invention • Fear (of heights) and guilt (responsibility for another’s death) • A combination of omniscient and restricted narration • Musical score as narrative accompaniment • Where have you seen these before in Hitchcock’s work?
  • 20. A Level Film Studies Students’ NotMise-en-shot Representation and ideologyThe melodramatic sweeping pans and slow zooms Masculinity and femininity: For a character who wouldestablish the spatial relationship between the traditionally be represented as a man of action, he startscharacters, each other and their environment, and proceeds throughout the film as a follower, passive and powerless to prevent the deaths of three people. HeMusical score/sound looks and feels, rather than acts, a great deal in the filmBernard Herrmann’s romantic and suitably haunting and this scene establishes this, together with his slighttheme starts here - look at precisely when it starts. unease - he almost looks guilty and turns away, so he isWhat does it tell us about how Scottie is feeling at not discovered. Here Madeleine is a trophy, the perfectthis point? Where is the usual diegetic sound of the fantasy woman, she also does not make eye contact, butclub? When do we finally hear the low murmur and pauses before him in a dreamlike state, almost oblivious,chatter? Which instruments are being used and and then glides past.what associations do they have?Editing “Hitchcock loves to be misunderstood, because he hasThe rhythm of images and music is perfectly in time built his whole life around misunderstandings.”in the editing of this scene. Look at the rhythm of the FRANÇOIS TRUFFAUTcuts when Scottie turns to see Madeleine, as sheturns away from him - it creates an erotic tensionbetween them as it is tantalisingly close, but notclose enough and the moment of eye contactbetween them is deferred.Visual motifsMadeleine’s profile is repeatedly used (in this andother scenes) as from this angle she may be seen,without the voyeur being noticed, The colours green(signifying a dream/a ghost?) and red (signifyingdanger or death?) are used repeatedly to createpart of the image system used to unify the film.Arches, doorways and mirrors are also usedrepeatedly - have you noticed any others?ThemesLove and death, the unattainable versus thedomestic/mundane dreams/nightmares - you willnotice that all of these are binary oppositions, usedbecause they create conflict, which in turn,increases the audience’s engagement in thenarrative. The recreation of the perfect woman(actress?) - the unattainable glacial blonde.Acting directionIn his interview with Hitchcock, Francois Truffautsaid that “In both films (Rear Window and Vertigo)James Stewart isn’t required to emote; he simplylooks - three or four hundred times - and then youshow the viewer what he’s looking at.” ConsiderStewart’s performance in this film in the light of thisquote and how miseen-shot is used to exploit his“looking”.
  • 21. These headings may be used for analysis of RESEARCH SOURCES subsequent scenes. See how the one that follows this has continuity, in most respects, In addition to the books listed (not exclusive so search for with this one. other books and journals using the BFI bibliography on Hitchcock), there is a list of websites for study of Where have you seen similar examples of the Hitchcock at the back of this booklet. In addition, Matthew above aspects of Hitchcock’s pre- Parrott’s Media Studies website occupations, style and technique? Compare (www.bamaca.demon.co.uk) has a handy media links them with your collection of specific examples section which contains shortcuts to many sites. from his other films. Specifically, to Dr Daniel Chandler’s comprehensive Media and Communication Studies website at HITCHCOCK ON HITCHCOCK Aberystwyth University which has a Film Studies section containing articles by international academics and“I am scared easily, here is a list of my students.adrenaline-production:1: small children, 2: policemen, 3: high places,~: that my next movie will not be as good as thelast one.”TASK 2.3 Answer both a) and b) a) Choose one of the following past examination paper questions (or any others supplied) from the Critical Approaches to Hollywood paper: I) How useful is auteur study in approaching films made in Hollywood which, almost by definition, are a product of a large number of creative individuals working collaboratively? Refer to two directors in developing your answer. 2) Auteur status is claimed today by Hollywood marketing hype for almost any director. What, in your opinion, are the characteristics which make a Hollywood auteur? In answering this question refer in detail to one or more directors and their work. b) Design your own essay title to assess your study of the film Vertigo. You should write the aims and objectives of your essay as well as the criteria by which your essay should be assessed.
  • 22. Film SynopsesThe Lodger, a Story of Spellbound (US 1945) Dial M for Murder (USthe London Fog (UK The Lady Vanishes (UK John Ballantine is 1954)1926) 1938) convinced he has On discovering his richStars Ivor Novello, June Margaret Lockwood and murdered someone, but wife, Margot, is having anTripp, Malcolm Keen. Her Michael Redgrave star in suffers from amnesia and affair with an Americanparents’ mysterious lodger this espionage adventure. cannot remember writer, former tennisattracts Daisy Bunting. When an elderly committing the crime. champ Tony WendiceDaisy’s detective boyfriend Englishwoman disappears Psychiatrist Constance hires an old acquaintancebecomes jealous and from a transcontinental Petersen becomes to murder her. Howeverbegins to suspect the train, fellow travellers Iris romantically drawn to him the plan misfires. Starringlodger is a famous serial Henderson and Gilbert and sets about proving his Ray Milland, Grace Kellykiller who is on the loose Redman attempt to solve innocence. Stars Ingrid and Robert Cummings.in London. the mystery... Bergman and Gregory Peck. Rear Window (US 1954)Blackmail (UK 1929) Rebecca (US 1938) Starring James Stewart,Alice has a row with her Joan Fontaine plays a Notorious (US 1946) Grace Kelly and Raymondboyfriend, Frank, and timid lady’s companion US agent Devlin presses Burr. A wheelchair-houndagrees to go to a male who meets rich grieving Alice photographer spends hisartist’s studio. The artist, widower, Maxim de Winter Huberman into spying on a days looking out of hisCrewe, tries to rape Alice (Laurence Olivier) and group of German exiles in window into the fiatsand she stabs him in self- accepts his sudden Rio do Janeiro. She opposite. When the invaliddefence and runs away. marriage proposal. When marries top Nazi wife of his neighbourFrank finds one of Alice’s they go to Manderley, de Alexander Sebastian, then disappears, thegloves, but the other is Winter’s Cornish mansion, starts to fall for Devlin. photographer suspectsfound by Tracy, a friend of de Winter’s new wife Cary Grant and Ingrid murder and enlists hisCrewe’s. Tracy then discovers the memory of Bergman star with Claude own girlfriend’s help toblackmails Alice. Stars his beautiful, dead wife is Rains. find out the truth...Anny Ondra (who is being kept alive by hisvoiced by Joan Barry in sinister housekeeper, Mrs Rope (US 1948) To Catch a Thief (USthe sound version), Cyril Danvers. cast includes James 1954)Ritchard and John Suspicion (US 1941) Stewart and Farley Stars Cary Grant andLongden. Lina, a wealthy country Granger. To prove their Grace Kelly. The girl, falls in love with intellectual superiority over infamous retired burglarThe 39 Steps (UK 1935) charmer Johnnie Aysgarth. their friend David Kentley, ,John Ruble is suspectedcast includes Robert They marry and Lina Brandon and Philip of a series of jewelDonat and Madeleine discovers Johnnie was strangle him. Guests robberies by FrenchCarroll. A spy sent to warn sacked from his job for arriving at their apartment police. Ruble goes on thethe British about a major embezzling funds. Lina’s shortly afterwards are run and decides to tracksecurity breach is disapproving father dies, served food from the chest down the real thief, withmurdered. Adventurer having cut her out of his containing Kentley’s body. the help of beautifulRichard Hannay is framed will and Lina suspects But one of the guests, their heiress Frances Stevens.for this murder but, on the Johnnie of murderous former teacher Rupertrun from the police in intent. Stars Cary Grant Cadell, begins to suspect The Trouble With HarryScotland he chances on and Joan Fontaine. something is amiss... (US 1954)the ringleaders. Richard is captain Wiles discovers athrown together with Saboteur (US 1942) Strangers on a Train (US corpse while shooting inPamela, an innocent Barry Kane is suspected of 1951) the woods, and wonders ifbystander, and exposes sabotage following a fire at Screenplay by Raymond he has accidentally killedthe ringleaders’ plot, in the aircraft factory where chandler. Starring Robert the man. Be decides toorder to prove his own he works. Kane goes on Walker and Farley bury the body, and whileinnocence. the run across America Granger. Guy Haines and doing it he is interrupted and tries to find Frank Fry, Bruno Antony, two by all sorts of charactersSabotage (UK 1936) the man who framed him. strangers, meet on a train. who have had contactVerloc is an anarchic Stars Priscilla Lane and Bruno suggests they swap’ with Harry, the dead man.cinema manager who Robert Cummings. murders - that he kills Starring Shirleyaccidentally kills his Guy’s wife Miriam and Guy MacLame, Edmundbrother-in-law Stevie when Shadow of a Doubt (US kills Bruno’s father in Gwenn, John Forsythe.he sends him to plant a 1943) return. Bruno murdersbomb. Verloc’s wife Sylvia When Uncle Charlie visits Miriam and Guy must clearsuspects his guilt, and kills his family in California, his his name...him. Starring Sylvia niece, Young Charlie,Sidney and Oscar suspects he may be theHomolka. infamous Merry Widow Murderer’. Teresa Wright and Joseph Cotten star.
  • 23. The Man Who Knew Too Stars Anthony Perkins and continues killing peopleMuch Janet Leigh. Marion crane Torn Curtain (US 1966) Starring Jon Finch, Barry(US 1955) escapes with $40,000 of Michael Armstrong is a Foster, Anna Massey andcast includes James her boss’ money and nuclear physicist who flies Barbara Leigh-Bunt.Stewart and Doris Day. decides to stay in the to East Berlin to obtainBen and Jo McKenna Bates motel. Things start important information from Family Plot (US 1976)witness the murder of a to go terribly wrong when a German scientist. Stars Karen Black andFrenchman on their Marion takes a shower... However he goes under Bruce Dern. A phoneyholiday in Marrakech. the guise of defecting to psychic gets involved in aThey hear his dying words The Birds (US 1963) the Russians... murder plot hatched by athus their son is kidnapped Melanie Daniels, a wealthy sinister man...to ensure their silence. So playgirl, follows Mitch Stars Paul Newman andBen and Jo travel to Brenner to his mother’s Julie Andrews. North By NorthwestLondon to rescue him and home in Bodega Bay. (US 1956)avert a political Trouble starts when Topaz (US 1969) cast includes Cary Grant,assassination. thousands of birds start A French intelligence Eva Marie Saint and attacking the town’s agent works with an James Mason. RogerVertigo (US 1958) residents. Stars Rod American official, to find Thornhill, an advertisingStars James Stewart, Kim Taylor and Tippi Hedren. out information on executive, is mistaken forNovak and Barbara Bel Russia’s involvement in a secret agent by anGeddes. An ex cop is Marnie (US 1964) Cuba. Starring Frederick enemy espionage chief.hired to follow Madeleine, Starring Sean Connery Stafford and Dany Robin. Re is framed for thehis old friend’s suicidal and Tippi Hedren. Marnie murder of a Unitedwife. The ex cop falls in Edgar is a compulsive thief Frenzy (US 1972) An Nations diplomat, thenlove with Madeleine but who empties her publisher innocent man is wrongly escapes from New Yorkfails to prevent her death, boss’ safe and takes off suspected of a number of on a train where he meetsthen falls in love with her with the money. However, necktie murders’. With a a curiously sympatheticapparent double. her fascinated boss runs warrant for his arrest, he woman. after her and blackmails tries to avoid the police
  • 24. Bibliography COOK, Pam and BERNINK, MiekeHITCHCOCK The Cinema Book.TRUFFAUT, Francois BFI Publishing, 1999.Hitchcock. (Revised edition).Grafton Books, 1986. ALTMAN, Rick Film/genre. BFI Publishing, 1999.SPOTO, DonaldThe art of Alfred Hitchcock: 50 years of his films.(Revised and updated). McKEE, RobertLondon: Fourth Estate, 1992. Story. Methuen, 1998.BOGDANOVICH, Peter KONISBERG, IraThe cinema of Alfred Hitchcock. The Complete Film Dictionary.New York: The Museum of Modern Art Film Bloomsbury, 1988.Library, 1963. BORDWELL, DavidGOTTLIEB, Sidney Narration in the Fiction Film.Hitchcock on Hitchcock: Selected Writings and Routledge, an imprint of Taylor &Francis BooksInterviews. Ltd, 1990.Faber and Faber; 1997. STAM, Robert, BURGOYNE, Robert andWOOD, Robin FLITTERMAN-LEWIS, SandyHitchcock’s films revisited. New Vocabularies in Film Semiotics.New York: Columbia University Press, 1989. Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd, 1992.MODLESKI, TaniaThe women who knew too much. Hitchcock and BUCKLAND, Warrenfeminist theory.New York; London: Methuen, 1988. Teach Yourself Film Studies. Teach Yourself, 1998.RYALL, Tom DOWNES, Brenda and MILLER, SteveBlackmail.BFI Publishing, 1993. Teach Yourself Media Studies. Teach Yourself, 1997.PAGLIA, Camille WARD, Glenn PaulThe Birds. Teach Yourself Post-modernism.BFI Publishing, 1998. Teach Yourself, 1997.SI-IARFF, Stefan LAPSLEY, Robert and WESTLAKE, MichaelThe Art of Looking in Hitchcock’s Rear Window. Film Theory: an introductionLimelight Editions, 1996. Manchester University Press, 1988.CONDON, Paul and SANGSTER, JuinThe Complete Hitchcock USEFUL BIBLIOGRAPHYVirgin Publishing, 1999. The BFI Library and Information Services publishALLEN, Richard and GONZALEZ, S. Ishli, Eds Hitchcock, a bibliography of informative booksAlfred Hitchcock: Centenary Essays about the filmmaker.BFI Publishing, 1999.FILM/MEDIA STUDIESBORDWELL, David and THOMPSON, KristinFilm Art: An Introduction.McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1996.MONACO, JamesHow to Read a Film.Oxford University Press Inc USA, 1981.
  • 25. SELECTED WEBSITESwww.mca.com Media Studies site maintained by teacher; MatthewUniversal/MCA’s company website. Parrott, that contains useful support and networking information together with links towww.Hitchcock.100.com industry/academic sites. In particular, there is a link to Daniel Chandler’s Media and CommunicationsUniversal’s Hitchcock centenary website. Site at Aberystwyth which is very useful for Film and Media Studies teachers and students.www.tdfilm.comThis site contains The Definitive Alfred Hitchcock www.bfi.org.ukLinks Page with all of the major sites of interest British Film Institutefor students and fans of Hitchcock alike. Theseinclude: Psycho Homepage, Alfred HitchcockMaster of Suspense and The MacGuffin. www.filmeducation.org Film Educationwww.imdb.comAn enormous database on film production www.bbc.co.ukinformation, including reviews, trailers, posters This site contains a link to BBC movies page with aand links to other sites. current feature on Hitchcock’s films.www.bamaca.free-online.co.uk

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