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The internet of things


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This presentation is prepared for a brainstorming session at Department of Information Technology (DIT), a division of Ministry of Communication & IT, India.

This presentation is prepared for a brainstorming session at Department of Information Technology (DIT), a division of Ministry of Communication & IT, India.

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  • 1. The Internet of ThingsThe Next Big Thing on the Planet Earth! iRam Technologies Creating the Future! TM !1
  • 2. The ProblemFuture for the next generations; Comfort for the present Societal challenges Health monitoring for aging people Improving the living standards Environment challenges Global warming Judicious usage of natural resources Better quality, productivity and new business models Improvements and consistency in quality and productivity Insights into real-world in real-time leading to new businesses Safety and security Dissemination of vital information in real time Safety and security of people with privacy !2
  • 3. The SolutionInternet of Things to bring the technology closer to the people Internet of Things Internet enabled objects that interacts with the environment Provides insights into the real-world in real-time Underlying technologies Application Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Datalink Layer WPANs (e.g. IEEE 802.15.4), IPv6, CoAP Physical Layer RFIDs, sensors, smart-handhelds and real-time web A new paradigm in communication Thing-to-person and vice versa Thing-to-thing The application scope 70 billion machines, only 1% are connected Enables the next trillion connections !3
  • 4. System Architecture and ComponentsSimple, secured and scalable peer-to-peer two-way connectivity Low-power, Low-range, Low-rate Backhaul connectivity Management System Internet Edge Router The Connected Things End User Applications Designing for Reusability and Scalability is the key. !4
  • 5. Typical Characteristics of IoT NodesLimited capability; Specific functionality Limited Processing Capacity Typically 8-bit processors with clock rates around 10 MHz 16-bit and 32-bit cores (typically ARM7), at tens of MHz Small memory capacity Usually 4K or 8K bytes, may go up to 256K bytes Low power Normally battery-operated Most of the times CPU will be in sleep mode RF unit often have a current draw of about 10 to 30 mA Low range Typical range 10 meters, can reach over 100 meters in LoS Low bit rate Maximum over-the-air rate of 250K bit/s In practice, few by bytes per minute or even per hour !5
  • 6. Deployment Considerations ...Network considerations for the Internet of Things Installation Nodes can be scattered randomly or organized The deployment can occur at once, or as an iterative process Network size One to thousands of nodes Power source Battery-powered or mains-powered or Hybrid solutions Power harvesting from solar cells or other sources of energy Connectivity Always connected, intermittent, or sporadic Traffic Pattern Point-to-multipoint, multipoint-to-point, and point-to-point !6
  • 7. Deployment ConsiderationsNetwork considerations for the Internet of Things Multi hop communication Single hop may be sufficient for simple star-topologies Multi-hop is required for mesh or tree topologies Security May carry sensitive information Availability, integrity, and confidentiality need to be controlled Mobility Inherent to the wireless characteristics of IoT Nodes could move or be moved or induced Quality-of-Service For mission-critical application QoS is mandatory QoS support in resource-constrained nodes is a challenge !7
  • 8. The IoT TrendsThe top trends being exhibited by the Internet of Things Scale The number of nodes would grow billions to trillions IoT will be common denominator across the humans and things Heterogeneity Different types of nodes with different types of connectivity Various types of information and applications Horizontalization Nodes may be participating in multiple applications Provides a greater opportunity to develop variety of applications Mobility The objects are being more and more wirelessly connected Some nodes may be attached to be carried by mobile entities !8
  • 9. The Diversity and BridgingThe role of IPv6 in building the Internet of Things The diversity App 1 App 2 App 3 App n Incompatible hardware configurations Incompatible CPUs and architectures Incompatible memory footprints TCP/UDP Different types of operating systems Different types of connectivity IP/ICMP (v6) Ethernet, ZigBee, HomePlug, IEEE 802.15.4, WiFi, PLC IEEE 802.15.4 PLC Eth/WiFi 3G/WiMAX IPv6 - Bridging the diversity Open standards Application Layer Everything-over-IPv6-over-Everything Unique and uniform addressing Transport Layer IPv6 Layer Simple network architecture Network Layer 6LoWPAN Seamless web services Datalink Layer End-to-end security Physical Layer Existing resources and knowledge !9
  • 10. The Applications ...For creating the future Smart Grid Enables smooth and efficient delivery of electricity AMI, DSM, Green energy integration and energy management Saves energy, reduces cost and increases reliability Industrial Monitoring To increase productivity, efficiency, and safety Machine Surveillance, asset tracking and storage monitoring Agriculture Monitoring Accurate temporal and spatial monitoring Reduced water, energy, and pesticide usage; Better productivity Smart Cities Sustainable urban development; Eco-friendly infrastructure Water, land, skills and energy resources optimization !10
  • 11. The ApplicationsTo bring technology closer to the people Healthcare Patient care in hospitals and at home Tele-assistance for aging and rural citizens Connected Home Home safety, security, automation and control Smart appliances and home entertainment systems Telematics Improvement of safety of transporting systems Fleet management and traffic flow optimization Safety and Security Periodic monitoring of the architecture status Emergency warning information, !11
  • 12. The Benefits of Internet of ThingsFuture for the next generations; Comfort for the present Improved citizens quality of life Healthcare from anywhere Better safety, security and productivity New business opportunities IoT can be used in every vertical for improving the efficiency Creates new businesses, and new and better jobs Economical growth Billions of dollars in savings and new services Better environment Saves natural resources and trees Helps in creating a smart, greener and sustainable planet Improved competitiveness Competitive in providing cutting edge products/services !12
  • 13. The Role for Public Authorities ...The governance of the Internet of Things Standards mandate IoT System architecture and components Standards to be used in the systems for interoperability Object identification and information access End-to-end addressing, Information access and security Ethical and legal framework and stake holders accountability Privacy and protection of personal data A key for the acceptance of IoT A mechanism is required for continuos monitoring IoT as vital resource for economy and society IoT will have wider impact on economy and society Close follow up may be required !13
  • 14. The Role for Public AuthoritiesThe governance of the Internet of Things Public private partnership IoT addresses wide societal problems A good candidate for PPP, R&D and pilot projects Institutional awareness Challenges posed and opportunities provided by IoT Bring awareness among government, industry and institutions International dialogue Many IoT system and applications can be borderless Dialogue on architecture, standards and governance Assessment of evolution Monitoring the introduction of IoT related technologies Assessment of their impact on the economy and the society !14
  • 15. The ChallengesIoT implementation challenges for research & development Connectivity Seamless connectivity with mobility Scalability and performance assessment Interoperability Management system Scalability - capability in handling millions of things Object, device and service management Easy-to-use location based management Big data and applications Information gathering, storage, analysis and inference Applications, services, and business models Security, trust, and privacy to protect data !15
  • 16. Bringing Technology Closer to You! TM Thank You Syam Madanapalli +91 959 175 7926 Date: 4-May-2012 !16