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Writing Workshop
 

Writing Workshop

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Offered to AGEP students at UPR today.

Offered to AGEP students at UPR today.

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    Writing Workshop Writing Workshop Presentation Transcript

    • W rks pfo AGEPStud nts o ho r e RC Unive ity o P rtoRic SE, rs f ue o By Sa raMa ks udLo e P nd c o p z, h.D. J 820 uly , 0 9
    • Thea ility to w e c ly isa b rite ffe tive c a s s ug fo in p te l ritic l kill o ht r o ntia e p ye s a ishig re te to m lo e , nd hly la d p fe s na s c s . It isim o nt to ro s io l uc e s p rta w w ll, s ew ll w n rite e inc e ritte d c e a m ree c , e s r to o um nts re o ffe tive a ie re da und rs nd a nd e ta . W t e uc tio l e e nc sin w ha d a na xp rie e riting ha yo ha a s ie es e ? ve u d s c nc tud nts
    • Why write?  Toc m unic te o m a  To c nve kno le g , e la a o y w d e xp in nd buildd c line (p lis is ip s ub hinga s d lo ue ia g )  To e uc te fa ilita und rs nd d a - c te e ta ing  To p rs d -d c io m king e ua e e is n a  To inform  To e rta nte in
    • Why should scientists write? It isatho ht p c s tha le d the toa ug ro e s t a s m d e e und rs nd o the w rk. By ep r e ta ing f ir o o je tifyingtho hts thes ie t isb tte b c ug , c ntis e r a leto o a b rg nizethinkinga s ula nd tim te furthe d ve p e r e lo m nt. W n d yo w , a w t d yo w ? he o u rite nd ha o u rite
    • Possible texts  Dis e tio p p s l a d s rta n s rta n ro o a nd is e tio  Re e rc re o s a h p rt  Artic fo p e re w djo le r e r vie e urna (d re le ls l iffe nt ve )  Gra p p s l nt ro o a  Artic fo la p lic le r y ub  Ed a na m te l uc tio l a ria  Es a s ys  P rs na s te e o le rsfo a m s nstog d tes ho l e o l ta m nts r tte r d is io ra ua c o  Sto s rie  Pe s om Exa p so e c m le f ffe tivew ritingin s ie e c nc http w .b d rd tm rtins o /m d ld c /na l.htm ://w w e fo s a .c m o e o s tura
    • Aspects to consider  Thep yc lo y o w s ho g f riting  Ele e o hig q lity w m nts f h ua riting  Thep c s o w ro e s f riting
    • Science has its own language  A d c urs isa ins is o e n titutio lize w y o s e kingtha d te ine na d a f p a t e rm s no o w t w s y a ho w s y it, b a ow t w d no t nly ha e a nd w e a ut ls ha e o t s y. a  Dis o e p vid aunifie s t o w rd , s b ls a m ta ho c urs s ro e d e f o s ym o , nd e p rs tha a wustoc ns t a c m unic teac he nt inte re tio t llo o truc nd o m a o re rp ta n o re lity. f a  Sc ntificw ie ritingisas c l d c urs w itso n q litie , o ia is o e ith w ua s d re fro lite ture g ne l e uc tio jo iffe nt m ra , e ra d a n, urna m lis . J urna o Sc nc C m unic tio o l f ie e o m a n http o .s s .it/a hive 8 2 ://jc m is a rc /0 /0
    • Styles of writing  Styleisthep rs na o ap lic tio e o lity f ub a n  Go d s ie o c ntificw ritingiso n b a fte e utiful in its e g nt s p ity. W le a im lic hilethec ntra q lity is e l ua c rity, it s ulda o b inte s . Itsna la ho ls e re ting tureis ra na a lo ic no e o na b thisd e no tio l nd g , t m tio l, ut os t m a it ha tob b ring en s e o .
    • Clarity  “ a c m unic tio w h isthep e Cle r o m a n, hic rim o je tiveo s ie b c f c ntificre o p rting m y b a hie d , a e c ve b p s ntingid a in a o e m nne a b y re e e s n rd rly a r nd y e re s o s lf s o thly a p c e xp s ing ne e m o nd re is ly.  By d ve p id a c a a lo ic lly, yo e lo ing e s le rly nd g a u invitere d rstore d e o g the toc ntinue ae a , nc ura e m o , a m kethe ta k a re a leb le d the nd a ir s g e b y a ing m s o thly fro tho ht totho ht.” mo m ug ug  P lic tio Ma l o theAm ric n P yc lo ic l ub a n nua f e a s ho g a As o ia n. s c tio
    • KEEP IT SIMPLE  “ All big things have little names, such as life and death, peace and war, or dawn, day, night, love, home. Learn to use little words in a big way - It is hard to do. But they say what you mean.  When you don’t know what you mean, use big words: They often fool little people.”
    • Precision  Sa a yo ha to s y in thefe e t p s ib w rd , o y ll u ve a w s o s le o s r there d r w b s tos the ; a in thep ine t a e ill e ure kip m nd la s p s ib w rd , o hew c rta o s le o s r ill e inly m und rs ndthe . is e ta m  AVOID REDUNDANC Y
    • The reader  W a yo w ho re u ritingfo r?  Diffe nt a ie e re ud nc s  Ag e  Ed a na le l uc tio l ve  P fe s n ro s io  Ethnicb c ro a kg und
    • Reader expectation  Thene d a e e ta nso re d rsa c theinte re tio o e s nd xp c tio f a e ffe t rp ta n f te Re d rsha re tive fixe e e ta nsa o w rein the xt. a e ve la ly d xp c tio b ut he s tureo p s the w e o truc f ro e y ill nc unte p rtic r ite so its r a ula m f s s nc . ub ta e  Info a n isinte re d m ree s if it isp c dw rem s rm tio rp te o a ily la e he ot re d rse e t tofind it. a e xp c  If w rsc n b c m c ns io ly a a o the elo a ns the c n rite a e o e o c us w re f s c tio , y a b tte c ntro thed g e o re o nitio a e p s are d r w e r o l e re s f c g n nd m ha is a e ill g to theva usp c so info a n b ingp s nte . ive rio ie e f rm tio e re e d  Go d w rsa intuitive a a o the ee e ta ns tha isw o rite re ly w re f s xp c tio ; t hy the p s ha w t w c ll "s p ." ir ro e s ha e a ha e
    • Structure, organization, format  Find thea p p tes p ro ria tylem nua a a a re d the a l, nd lw ys a “ truc nstoa Ins tio utho ” e tio o ajo rs s c n f urna b fo l e re s rtingtow ta rite  http w .w ://w w riting ng s d .e r.p u.e u/  Be inninga e ing (a leve uss ig rw rd g nd nd , ng rs tra htfo a ), c s w ap h lo e ith unc  Le th ng
    • Coherence  Inte o c id a s tha thete flo s rc nne t e s o t xt w ONE P ER, ONE STORY!!! AP Tra itio b tw e s nte e a ns ns e e n e nc s nd p ra ra hs a g p
    • Tone-active voice, positive  Thera na b hind us thep s ivevo ein s ie tio le e ing as ic c ntificwritingistha it e nc s t nha e o je tivity, ta b c kingthea to (i.e there e rc r) o o thea tio (i.e there e rc c r ., s a he ut f c n ., s a h).  Unfo rtuna ly, thep s ivevo ec n a ole d to a kw rd a c nfus s nte e te as ic a ls a w a nd o ing e nc s ture a isg ne lly c ns e dle se a ing(i.e m reb ring tha the truc s nd e ra o id re s ng g ., o o ) n a tivevo e Thisisw m s g ne l s g e re o m nd o s a c ic . hy o t e ra tyle uid s c m e nly p ringus o e f thep s ivevo e as ic .  C ntly, thea tivevo eisp fe din m s s ie urre c ic re rre o t c ntificfie s e n w n it ld , ve he ne e s te theus o "I" o "w ." It'sp rfe tly re s na le(a m res p ) tos y c s ita s e f r e e c ao b nd o im le a "W p rfo e atw -ta d t-te t" ra r tha tos y "atw -ta d t-te t w s e e rm d o ile s the n a o ile s a p rfo e ," o "in thisp p r w p s nt re ults ra r tha "re ultsa p s nte in e rm d r a e e re e s " the n s re re e d thisp p r." ae  Ne rly e ry c nt e itio o s ie a ve urre d n f c ntifics tyleg e re o m nd thea tivevo e uid s c m e s c ic , b d re ins to (o jo ut iffe nt truc rs r urna e ito ) m y ha d re o inio o this l d rs a ve iffe nt p ns n to ic p .  http w .te p .e u/w ://w w m le d riting tr/ha o /s a c rity/to a fo a c nd uts tyle nd la ne nd rm lity.htm
    • Avoid sexist writing  Avo us he a him a a urp s p no tore r top o lein id ing nd s ll-p o e ro uns fe ep g ne l. (Of c urs , if yo w e ra o e u're ritinga o ap rtic r m lep rs n, b ut a ula a e o us m lep no .) e a ro uns  Instead of: Eve e c ry xe utivee e tshisb nus xp c o . Try writing Plural Pronouns: Exe utive e e t the b nus s c s xp c ir o e . Second-Person Pronouns: Asa e c n xe utive yo c n e e t yo , u a xp c ur b nus o . No Pronouns: Exe utive e e t re ula b nus s c s xp c g r o e .  Avo us m n to re r to p o lein g ne l. (Tha is o c urs , id ing e fe ep e ra t , f o e unle syo w s u're ritinga o m n a o m n, in w h c s yo b ut e nd nly e hic a e u'd us thew rdm n.) Instead of: them n w w ntstob a e o e a ho a e n a tro ut o them n w d the o n a re a s na r e ho o ir w uto p irs Try writing Indefinite Pronouns: a new w ntstob a nyo ho a e n a tro ut s na Gender-Neutral Words: p o lew d the o n a re a e p ho o ir w uto p irs
    • Recommendations from the “Science of scientific writing” 1. Synta ticre o c s lutio fo wag m a a s je t a s o a n: llo ra m tic l ub c s o n s p s ib w itsve . o s le ith rb 2. P c in thes s p s n the"ne info a n" yo w nt la e tre s o itio w rm tio u a there d r toe p s . ae m ha ize 3. P c thep rs n o thingw s "s ry" as nte eiste la e e o r ho e to e nc llingat theb g e inningo thes nte e in theto icp s n. f e nc , p o itio 4. P c a p p te"o info a n" (m te l a a y s te in la e p ro ria ld rm tio a ria lre d ta d thed c urs ) in theto icp s n fo linka eb c a a is o e p o itio r g a kw rd nd c nte liza n fo a . o xtua tio rw rd
    • Twelve common errors 1. Se nc fra m nts nte e g e 2. Se nc s ra l nte e p w 3. Mis la e a d ng p c d nd a lingm d rs o ifie 4. Faulty p ra lis a lle m 5. Unc a p no re re e le r ro un fe nc 6. Inc rre t p no c s o c ro un a e 7. Om dc m a itte o m s 8. Sup rfluo c m a e us o m s 9. C m as lic s o m p e 10. Ap s p e rs o tro he rro 11. W rd e s c nfus d o s a ily o e 12. Mis p lling se s
    • Sentence fragments  Ma s e c w rd g upyo ha p tua d a a ke ure a h o ro u ve unc te s s nte ec nta ag m a a c m le a e nc o ins ra m tic lly o p te nd ind p nd nt tho ht tha c n s nda nea a a c p b ee e ug t a ta lo s n c e ta le s nte e e nc . Exa p : Sc ntis re o no hum n d a d to m le ie ts p rt a e ths ue e e s c ffe c ns p n. Altho h c ffe d e xc s ive a ine o um tio ug a ine o s c us c nvuls nsa d a in c rta a a . a e o io nd e th e in nim ls
    • Sentence sprawl  To m ny e ua w ig d p s sa c us sp d e o a q lly e hte hra e nd la e ro uc tire o es nte e . s m e nc s  Thehe ringw sp nne fo Mo a De e b r 2 b a a la d r nd y, c m e , ut no a o thew s e c uldb a ila le s it w s t ll f itne s s o e va b , o a re c d d fo thefo w Frid y, a the a the s he ule r llo ing a nd n ll w s e c ulda nd itne s s o tte .  [The a nog m a a e rshe , b thes ra ling re re ra m tic l rro re ut p w s nte ed e no c m unic tec a a c nc e e nc o s t o m a le rly nd o is ly.]
    • Misplaced and dangling modifiers  P c m d rsne r thew rd the d s rib ; b s them d d w rd la e o ifie a o s y e c e e ure o ifie o s a tua a p a in thes nte e A modifier isap s o w rd m a to c lly p e r e nc . hra e r o e nt d s rib o e la p rt o as nte e In Exa p 1a thep s b fo the e c e r xp in a f e nc . m le , hra e e re c m am d sthes je t o them in s nte e w h is"I": o m o ifie ub c f a e nc , hic  Example 1a: Driving down the interstate, I s wthed a d g a ed o .  Them d r “ rivingd w theinte ta ”le rly d s rib sthea tio o o ife d o n rs te c a ec e c n f “I.”  A dangling o misplaced modifier isno c a c nne te to itso je t, r t le rly o c d b c m kingthes nte eunc a o illo ic l: a e nc le r r g a  Example 1b: I s wthed a d gdriving down the interstate. a ed o  In Exa p 1b them d r a p a to d s rib “ d a d g a unlike m le , o ifie p e rs e c e the e d o ,” n ly c nd a fo ad r’ lic ns . Thep b mw d ng a id te r rive s e e ro le ith a lingm d rsistha o ifie t the c nfus yo re d r. To g t a id ao ho e b rra s thiskind o y o e ur a e e n e f w m a s ing f m ta c n b , ta alo k a o lis o the is ke a e ke o t ur t f b s d ng e t a linga m p c d m d rso a tim . nd is la e o ifie f ll e
    • Faulty parallelism  Bes yo us g m a a e ua s nte ee m ntsto ure u e ra m tic lly q l e nc le e e re stw o m rem tc xp s o r o a hingid a o ite sin as rie . es r m e s Thec nd a 'sg a inc ew a id te o ls lud inningthee c n, a le tio na na he lth p g m a thee uc tio l s te . tio l a ro ra , nd d a na ys m Thec nd a 'sg a inc ew a id te o ls lud inningthee c n, e c le tio na ting ana na he lth p g m a im ro tio l a ro ra , nd p vingthee uc tio l d a na s te . ys m
    • Unclear pronoun reference  All p no m t c a re r to d finitere re ro uns us le rly fe e fe nts [no ]. uns  Us it, they, this, that, these, those, a which c re e nd a fully top ve c nfus n. re nt o io Eins in w sab te a rillia m the a ia Thisisho hew s nt a m tic n. w a a leto e la theunive e b xp in rs . Eins in, w w sab te ho a rillia m the a ia us d hisa ility nt a m tic n, e b w num e to e la theunive e ith b rs xp in rs .
    • Incorrect pronoun case  De rm w the thep no isb ingus da as je t, te ine he r ro un e e s ub c o a o je t, o ap s e s in thes nte e a s le t the r n b c r o s s ive e nc , nd e c p no fo to m tc ro un rm a h. C s 'sc m unis p ip sine b le to a a tro o m t rinc le vita ly d n id o g a c nflic b tw e hea P s e Ke d e lo ic l o t e en nd re id nt nne y.
    • Omitted commas  Us c m a tos na no s tiveo no s e l e o m s ig l nre tric r ne s ntia m te l, to p ve c nfus n, a to ind a a ria re nt o io nd ic te re tio hip a o id a a s nte ep rts la ns s m ng e s nd e nc a . W n it c m sto e tingp o led r in the ta te . he o e a e p iffe ir s s
    • Superfluous commas  Unne e s ry c m a m kes nte e d c s a o m s a e nc s iffic tore d ult a. Fie trip a re uire , in s ve l c urs s s h a , b ta ld s re q d e ra o e , uc s o ny a go g nd e lo y. Thete , "s ie rm c ntificillite c ha b c m a o t ac he ra y," s e o e lm s lic , in e uc tio l c le . d a na irc s
    • Comma splices  Do no link tw ind p nd nt c us sw ac m a t o e e e la e ith o m (unle syo a ous ac o ina s u ls e o rd tingc njunc n: and, or, o tio but, for, nor, so, yet).  Ins a us ap rio o s m o n, o re ritethes nte e te d e e d r e ic lo r w e nc . Dis a e c ro ry a rie a o n s ic lly b a s d e s d o na rte s re fte urg a yp s e , ho e r ha o a b a sg ftsfa w w ve lf f ll yp s ra il ithin te ye rs n a .
    • Apostrophe errors  Ap s p sind a p s e s n fo no (" Jim's hat," o tro he ic te o s s io r uns " several years' work") b no fo p rs na p no (its, ut t r e o l ro uns your, their, a whose). nd  Ap s p sa o ind a o is io in c ntra tio (" it's" o tro he ls ic te m s ns o c ns = " it is").  In g ne l, the a no us dto ind a p ls e ra y re t e ic te lura . TheAzte sritua o re w l inc a e in fre ue y o r c l's f ne a re s d q nc ve thec urs o tim . o e f e In thec nt c nflic itsunc rta w 'sb rd rsthe urre o t e in ho o e ir c nte ting o s .
    • Words easily confused  "Effe t" ism s o n ano (thee c a "a c is c o t fte un ffe t), nd ffe t" a o t a a ave . lm s lw ys rb  Othe p irsc m o c nfus d "le d r a o m nly o e : a "/"le " a d nd "a c p c e t"/"e e t." xc p  C c ag s a o us g tofind therig c ic . he k lo s ry f a e ht ho e Thela o to ins to c s no too r d ta dadvise. b ra ry truc r ho e t ffe e ile
    • Misspellings  Sp llinge rsa us lly p rc ive a are c n o the e rro re ua e e d s fle tio f w r'sc re s a rite a le s ttitud to a thew lep je t. e w rd ho ro c
    • Sentence structure and transitions  Re e n o ke w rd a p s slinkss nte e a p ra ra hs p titio f y o s nd hra e e nc s nd a g p .  P ra l s ture(there e n o as nte ep tte o ag m a a a lle truc p titio f e nc a rn r ra m tic l s turew truc ithin as nte e s ng nsthere tio hip b tw e a e nc ) tre the la ns e e n nd a o s nte e . m ng e nc s  Tra itio l w rd a p s sc n c a p w rful linksb tw e id a in ns na o s nd hra e a re te o e e en es yo p p r a c n he yo re d r und rs nd thelo ico yo p p r. ur a e nd a lp ur a e e ta g f ur a e  Ho e r, the ew rd a ha d re m a w ve s o s ll ve iffe nt e ning , nua e , a s nc s nd c nno tio . o ta ns  Be reus ap rtic r tra itio l w rd in yo p p r, b s yo fo ing a ula ns na o ur a e e ure u und rs nd itsm a e ta e ninga us g c m le ly a b s tha it'stherig nd a e o p te nd e ure t ht m tc fo thelo icin yo p p r. a h r g ur a e  http riting is .e u/Ha b o ://w .w c d nd o k/Tra itio .htm ns ns l
    • A dozen fumblegrammar rules for scientists  It isre o m nd db thea cm e e y utho tha thep s ivevo eb rs t as ic e a id d vo e .  Sub c a ve se n w n s p ra db aw rd s je ts nd rb ve he e a te y o tring ha to a re . s g e  W ritings ie ec re c nc a fully, d ng a lingp rtic le m t no a ip s us t apa p e r.  It yo re a yo w u re d ur ritingyo w findtha ag a m ny u ill t re t a ve re ititio s te e c n b id ntifie b re a ing ry p us ta m nts a e e d y re d a id ntifyingthe . nd e m  Avo us “ uo tio m rks“ o c id ing q ta n” a inc rre tly” ndw re a he the s rveno“ e y e us ful” urp s . p oe
    • cont.  Thena d truth istha e ito w re dtherio a t toa ke t d rs ill a t c ny To , Dic o Ha tha us sc he ; a idthe likethe m k, r rry t e lic s vo m p g . la ue  In fo a s ie rm l c ntificw riting d n’us c ntra tio o , o t e o c ns r e la a n p ints xc m tio o !!  If w ’ to yo o e w ’ to yo atho a tim s a e ve ld u nc , e ve ld u us nd e , w r w us shyp rb lew c m to g f. rite ho e e o ill o e rie  In s ie c ntificw riting a o rw e a idc m a , tha , nd the is , vo o m s t a , re lly, unne e s ry. re a c sa
    • Cont.  Sub c a the ve sw ne r yo no ea c n d je ts nd ir rb he ve u tic nd a o s s uldb p c d c s . o ho e la e lo e  Re e b r it isb tte no to if yo c n a id it, s lit a mm e e r t , u a vo p n infinitive.  P o a yo m nus rip c re ro fre d ur a c t a fully to b s yo d n’ e ure u id t a w rd o ny o s ut.
    • Clear, concise and direct sentences  Us thea tivevo e e c ic  P thea tio in theve ut c n rb  P w rd p s so ad t ut o y hra e n ie  Re uc w rd ve s d e o y rb  Re uc p p s na p s s d e re o itio l hra e  Re uc e le c ns tio d e xp tive o truc ns  Avo us va ueno id ing g uns  Avo unne c s a infla dw rd id c e s rily te o s  Avo no s id un tring s  http riting is .e u/Ha b o le rC nc e nte e .htm ://w .w c d nd o k/C a o is Se nc s l
    • Fluidity-using transitions  Tra itio l w rd a p s sc n c a p w rful links ns na o s nd hra e a re te o e b tw e id a in yo p p r a c n he yo re d r e en es ur a e nd a lp ur a e und rs ndthelo ico yo p p r. e ta g f ur a e  Ho e r, the ew rd a ha d re m a w ve s o s ll ve iffe nt e ning , s nua e , a c nno tio . nc s nd o ta ns  Be reus ap rtic r tra itio l w rdin yo p p r, fo ing a ula ns na o ur a e b s yo und rs nditsm a e ure u e ta e ninga us g c m le ly nd a e o p te a b s tha it'stherig m tc fo thelo icin yo nd e ure t ht a h r g ur p p r. ae  http w .fa .ha rd d ://w w s rva .e u/~w ntr/d c e /Tra itio .htm ric o um nts ns ns
    • The writing process: Sudden inspiration + planning  Us avo ere o e e ic c rd r  Theid a them in fo uso thete e- a c f xt.  So e o info a n, re re e - ho m h iso rs ve usyo o n urc s f rm tio fe nc s w uc the ’ rs ur w w rd - p ra hra ing us c o s a p s , e itingg e s uid line  Outline jo d w theke id a o to ic , firs a b ins rm , - t o n y es r p s t s ra to ing p g s ive o a ro re s ly rg nizing re rg nizinga d ta , o a nd e iling Diffe nt m tho s . re e d: s ra h, to ic s nte e p ra ra h, g p o a r. c tc p , e nc , a g p ra hic rg nize  Dra - Do t try to s rt w theintro uc n, jus s rt w fts n’ ta ith d tio t ta ritingw re r he ve yo fe l c m rta lea c m b c to it. Us lly, theintro uc n isthe u e o fo b nd o e a k ua d tio la t p rt tha isc m le d De id ho m h info a n ise ug s a t o p te . c e w uc rm tio no h.  Re ing e itinga fo a vis , d nd rm tting Lo k a thep p r a aw le . o t a e s ho .  P o a ro fre d  Ge ttingfe d a k- Sha w c a frie ebc re ith ritic l nd
    • Factors that hinder writing  P c s tio ro ra tina n  W ritinga p he io p re ns n  Dys ho p ria  Im a nc p tie e  P rfe tio m e c nis  Rule s  http w .yo ://w w utub .c m a h? -o e o /w tc v=C XvS-J _s a =re t J &fe ture la
    • Examples of nonproductive behaviors  I p o thew ut ff ritinga lo a p s ib (until jus b fo s ng s o s le t e re thed a line if the iso ) ed , re ne  I w rk b s w n I w it until thela t m o e t he a s inute  I us d la e e yingta tic s h a w rkingfirs o m re c s uc s o t n o “ re s ” s , likec a p s ing ta ks le ningthec r, o re d m a r a ing y e a m il.  Onc re d tow , I s e tim d yd a ing e ay rite p nd e a re m  I c m la a o thep rs n w m d thew o p in b ut e o ho a e ritingta k s (a d a line ne e s ry. nd e d ) c s a
    • Examples of nonproductive behaviors assignment and/or my writingability  I d va thew e lue riting  I re is ta s t kingextratim toc rry o p s ritingta ks e a ut o t-w s s h a re ing g ttingre w fro p e , p o a ing uc s vis , e vie s m e rs ro fre d c re a fully  I s pto c rre t e rsa e it d to o c rro nd d uringthefirs d ft t ra  I p fe no tow until I ha as s ntia p rio o re r t rite ve ub ta l e d f fre tim a ila le e e va b
    • Self assessment as writer  W t typ so d c e d I ne d to w ? ha e f o um nts o e rite  W ism a ie e ho y ud nc ?  W t a m s ng a w a s e a a ha re y tre ths nd e kne s s s w r? rite ?  Ho d I g a o w w o o b ut riting W t a them jo ? ha re a r c lle e I fa ew n I w ? ha ng s c he rite
    • Brainstorming  a o c lle lis , isap c s o g ne tingalo o info a n w ls a d ting ro e s f e ra t f rm tio ithin a s rt tim b b ingo thea s c tio o p vio te syo ha ho e y uild n s o ia n f re us rm u ve m ntio d e ne .  J t d w a thep s ib te stha e e efro theg ne l to icyo a o o n ll o s le rm t m rg m e ra p u re thinkinga o Thisp c d w rkse p c lly w ll if yo w rk in ate m b ut. ro e ure o s e ia e u o a . All te mm m e c n g ne teid a , w o m m e a tinga s rib . a e b rs a e ra e s ith ne e b r c sc e Do w rry a o e itingo thro ingo w t m ht no b ag o id a n't o b ut d r w ut ha ig t e o d e. Sim ly w d w alo o p s ib p rite o n t f o s ilitie . s  Gro theite stha yo ha lis d a c rd to a ng m ntstha m ke up m t u ve te c o ing rra e e t a s ns to yo e e u.  Givee c g up ala e No yo ha ato icw p s ib p intso a h ro b l. w u ve p ith o s le o f d ve p e e lo m nt.  Writeas nte ea o thela e yo ha g n theg up o id a . No e nc b ut b l u ve ive ro f es w yo ha ato ics nte eo p s ib athe iss te e u ve p e nc r o s ly s ta m nt.
    • Clustering  C te lus ringisa oc lle m m p ingo id am p ing It isa ls a d ind a p r e ap . s te y w h a w yo toe lo there tio hip b tw e tra g hic llo s u xp re la ns s e e n id a . es  P thes je t in thec nte o ap g . C leo und rlineit. ut ub c e r f a e irc r e  Asyo think o o r id a , link thene id a tothec ntra u f the e s w es e l c lew line . irc ith s  Asyo think o id a tha re tetothene id a , a dtotho e u f e s t la w es d s in thes m w y. a e a  There ult w lo k likeaw bo yo p g . Lo a c te o s ill o e n ur a e c te lus rs f inte s toyo a us thete syo a c dtotheke id a re t u, nd e rm u tta he y es a d p rturep intsfo yo p p r. C te s ea o r ur a e lus ringise p c lly s e ia us ful in d te iningthere tio hipb tw e id a . Yo w e e rm la ns e e n e s u ill b a letod ting h ho theid a fit to e r, e p c lly e b is uis w es g the s e ia w rethe isa a und nc o id a . he re n b a e f e s  C te lus ringyo id a le yo s ethe vis lly in ad re ur e s ts u e m ua iffe nt w y, s tha yo c n m rere d und rs ndp s ib a o t u a o a ily e ta o s le d c nsyo p p r m y ta . ire tio ur a e a ke
    • Freewriting  Fre w e ritingisap c s o g ne tingalo o info a n b w ro e s f e ra t f rm tio y riting no to . It a w yo to fo uso as e ificto ic b fo e yo to n-s p llo s u c n pc p , ut rc s u w s q kly tha yo a una leto e it a o yo id a . rite o uic t u re b d ny f ur e s  Fre w o thea s nm nt o g ne l to icfo s ve l 5 m e rite n s ig e r e ra p r e ra -10 inute s no to . Fo eyo e to c ntinuew n-s p rc urs lf o ritinge n if no ve things e ific pc c m stom . Thisfre w o e ind e ritingw inc em ny id a ; a this ill lud a es t p int, g ne tingid a isw t isim o nt, no theg m a o the o e ra es ha p rta t ra m r r se p lling.  Afte yo r u'vefinis dfre w he e riting lo k b c o r w t yo ha , o a k ve ha u ve w n a hig ht them s p m nt a inte s ritte nd hlig o t ro ine nd re tingid a ; the es n yo c n b g a o r a a w atig r fo us Yo w na w u a e in ll ve g in, ith hte c . u ill rro yo to ica , in thep c s , yo w g ne tes ve l re va ur p nd ro e s u ill e ra e ra le nt p intsa o theto ic o b ut p .
    • Looping  Lo p isafre w o ing e ritingte hniq tha a w yo to inc a ing fo us c ue t llo s u re s ly c yo id a in tryingto d c ve aw ur e s is o r ritingto ic Yo lo p o 5 m p . u o ne -10 inute fre w e ritinga r a the s yo ha as q nc o fre w fte no r, o u ve e ue e f e riting , e c m re s ah o s e ifictha theo r. pc n the  Thes m rule tha a p to fre w a e s t p ly e ritinga p to lo p : w q kly, d p ly o ing rite uic o no e it, a d no s p Fre w o a a s nm nt fo 5 m t d nd o t to . e rite n n s ig e r -10 inute . s The re d thro h yo fre w n, a ug ur e riting lo kingfo inte s , o r re tingto ic , id a , p s es p s s o s nte e . C letho eyo find inte s . hra e , r e nc s irc s u re ting  A va tio o lo p isto ha ac s m tec leid a in your ria n n o ing ve la s a irc es fre w e ritingtha inte s himo he The fre w a a fo 5 m t re ts r r. n e rite g in r -10 inute s o o o thec le to ic . Yo s uld e up w am res e ific n ne f irc d p s u ho nd ith o pc fre w e ritinga o ap rtic r to ic Lo p yo fre w b ut a ula p . o ur e ritinga a c ling g in, irc a the inte s no r re tingto ic id a p s , o s nte e Whe yo ha finis d p , e , hra e r e nc . n u ve he fo o fivero so lo p , yo w b g to ha s e ificinfo a n ur r und f o ing u ill e in ve p c rm tio tha ind a sw t yo a thinkinga o ap rtic r to ic Yo m y e n t ic te ha u re b ut a ula p . u a ve ha theb s fo ate tivethe iso a im ro d id afo a a p a h to ve a is r nta s r n p ve e r n p ro c yo a s nm nt w n yo ha finis d ur s ig e he u ve he .
    • The Journalists' Questions  A p w rful w y tod ve pag a d a o info a n a o ato icve q kly. Le rningto o e a e lo re t e l f rm tio b ut p ry uic a a k thea p p teq s nsa o ato icta sp c e ho e r. At tim sd s p ro ria ue tio b ut p ke ra tic , w ve e uringwritingan a s nm nt, yo m y w h tog b c a a k thejo s ig e u a is o a k nd s urna ts q s nsa a toc rify lis ' ue tio g in la im o nt p intstha m y b g ttinglo t in yo p nninga d fting p rta o t a e e s ur la nd ra .  Who?: W a thep rtic a ?Whoisa c d W a thep a a to ?W a the ho re a ip nts ffe te ? ho re rim ry c rs ho re s c nd ry a to ? e o a c rs  What?: W t istheto ic W t isthes nific nc o theto ic Wha istheb s p b m ha p ? ha ig a e f p ? t a ic ro le ? W t a theis ue ? ha re s s  Where?: W red e thea tivity ta p c ?W red e thep b mo is ueha itss urc ? he o s c ke la e he o s ro le r s ve o e At w t p c isthec us o e c o thep b mm s vis le ha la e a e r ffe t f ro le o t ib ?  When?: W n istheis uem s a p re (p s p s nt?future ) W n d theis ueo he s o t p a nt? a t? re e ? he id s r p b md ve p Wha his ric l fo e he e s p thep b mo is uea a w t p int ro le e lo ? t to a rc s lp d ha e ro le r s nd t ha o in tim w thep b mo is uec ina in ac is Whe isa tio ne d dtoa d s the e ill ro le r s ulm te ris ? n c n ee d re s is ueo p b m s r ro le ?  Why?: W d theis ueo p b ma e W isit (yo to ic a is ueo p b ma a hy id s r ro le ris ? hy ur p ) n s r ro le t ll? W d theis ueo p b md ve pin thew y tha it d ? hy id s r ro le e lo a t id  How?: Ho istheis ueo p b ms nific nt?Ho c n it b a d s e ?Ho d e it a c w s r ro le ig a w a e d re s d w o s ffe t thep rtic a ?Ho c n theis ueo p b mb re o d a ip nts w a s r ro le e s lve ?
    • Proofreading  isa e s ntia p rt o there io p c s . No tha yo n se l a f vis n ro e s w t u ha aw lep p r, it'stim tos eho yo c n im ro ve ho a e e e w u a p ve it a aw le So he a s m E-A-S-Y p o a ing s ho ! , re re o e ro fre d tip to fo w     a etheTe io   lo   lo it s llo .   E s ns n A ud S w Do n!   a b c a sY ie toRe io P c s w Re d a kw rd ld vis n ro e s
    • Before You Proofread  Be sure you've revised the larger aspects of your text. Do m ke n't a c rre tio a thes nte ea w rdle l if yo s ne dtow rk o c ns t e nc nd o ve u till e o o thefo us o a tio a d ve p e o thew lep p r, o n c , rg niza n, nd e lo m nt f ho a e f s c ns o o p ra ra hs e tio , r f a g p .  Set your text aside for a while (15 minutes, a day, a week) between writing and proofing. So ed ta efro thete w m is nc m xt ill he yo s em ta sm ree s lp u e is ke o a ily.  Eliminate unnecessary words before looking for mistakes.  Know what to look for. Fro thec m e o yo p fe s rso a m o m nts f ur ro s o r W ritingC nte ins to o p s p p rs m kealis o m ta syo e r truc r n a t a e , a t f is ke u ne dto w tc fo e a h r.
    • When You Proofread  Work from a printout, not the computer screen. (But s e e b lo fo c m ute func nstha c n he yo finds m e w r o p r tio t a lp u o e kind o m ta s s f is ke .)  Read out loud. Thisise p c lly he ful fo s o s e ia lp r p ttingrun-o n s nte e , b yo a ohe r o r p b m tha yo m y no e nc s ut u'll ls a the ro le s t u a t s ew n re d s ntly. e he a ing ile  Use a blank sheet of paper to cover up the lines below the one you're reading. Thiste hniq ke p yo fro s p c ue e s u m kip ing a a o p s ib m ta s he d f o s le is ke .  Use the search function of the computer to find mistakes you're likely to make. Se rc fo "it," fo ins nc , if yo a h r r ta e u c nfus "its a "it's fo "-ing if d ng o e " nd ;" r " a lingm d rsa a o ifie re p b m fo o e ro le ; r p ningp re s so q tem rksif yo te to a nthe e r uo a u nd le veo thec s o s a ut lo ing ne .
    • When you proofread  If you tend to make many mistakes, check separately for each kind of error, moving from the most to the least important, and following whatever technique works best for you to identify that kind of mistake. Fo ins nc , re d r ta e a thro h o e(b c a s s nte eb s nte e toc c fo ug nc a kw rd , e nc y e nc ) he k r fra m nts re dthro h a a (fo a ) tob s s je tsa g e ; a ug g in rw rd e ure ub c nd ve sa re , a a a (p rha sus ac m ute s a h fo rb g e nd g in e p ing o p r e rc r "this "it," a "the totra ep no toa c d nts ," nd y") c ro uns nte e e .  End with a spelling check, using a computer spelling checker or reading backwards word by word. But re e b r mm e tha as e t p llingc c r w n't c tc m ta sw ho o he ke o a h is ke ith m nym s (e ., "the ," "the "the ") o c rta typ s(like"he fo .g y're ir," re r e in o " r "the ").
    • Technologies that support writing:  w , tra k c ng s re d b ikis c ha e , a a ility s tis sin w rd c tio ta tic o , ita ns http w .yo ://w w utub .c m a h? e o /w tc v=tGm P urk M4 HJ  http ra ://g nt-writing s urc s lo s o o /2 0 /0 /5 e a a il -re o e .b g p t.c m 0 8 3 1-us -re d b  http w .yo ://w w utub .c m a h? e o /w tc v=-d 0 m nL0 Td LY&fe ture a =fvw
    •  http iki-riki.w p c s o /Re e rc a e +a +Re o ://w ikis a e .c m s a h+P p rs nd p rts
    • Tracking changes  http w .unc d e ts c e /ha o /c m e .htm ://w w .e u/d p /w w b nd uts o m nts l  http w .yo ://w w utub .c m a h? inxp e o /w tc v=c T_iIb &fe ture la o a =P yLis t&
    • Resources  Unive ity WritingC nte Unive ity o C ntra Flo a rs e r, rs f e l rid -http://uw .uc d c f.e u/Writing 0 s urc s riting s urc s m .htm %2 Re o e /w _re o e _ho e -http://uw .uc d c f.e u/Gra %2 Ga w y/g _ho e d 0 te a g m .htm e #g tting  http w ng h.p ue d ://o l.e lis urd .e u/     DukeUnive ity Scientific Writing for Scientists rs http://uwp.duke.edu/wstudio/resources/documents/science_ sci.pdf  Am ric n Sc ntis e a ie t http w .a e a c ntis rg s s .8 ://w w m ric ns ie t.o /is ue /id 77,y.0 .,c nte ,no o nt.true a e s .p ,p g .1,c s rint/is ue s s .a  W ritinga aSc ntis http w .lib ry.up .e u/ins t/kug c riting c nc / s ie t ://w w ra s d truc lits h/w s ie e  W ritinge rc e fo e ine rsa s ie ts xe is s r ng e nd c ntis  http w .w ://w w riting ng s d xe is s .e r.p u.e u/e rc e /  Gra m r g http ra m r.q ka d m a irl ://g m a uic nd irtytip .c m is d Lis s x s o /Ep o e t.a p  http w .b rtle y.c m 1/ The Elements of Style   ://w w a b o /14 William Strunk, Jr.
    • References Bo e R. (19 0 Professors as writers: a self-help guide to productive writing. ic , 9) Okla m : Stillw te P s . ho a a rs re s C e S. (19 3 Writing effective business letters, memos, proposals & reports. yp rt, 8) C a o C nte p ra Bo ks hic g : o m o ry o . Da R. (19 2 Scientific English: A guide for scientists and other professionals. y, 9 ). Arizo : Oryx P s . na re s Elb w P (19 1). Writing with power: techniques for mastering the writing o , . 8 process. Ne Yo Oxfo Unive ity P s . w rk: rd rs re s Go e G. & Sw n, J (19 0 TheSc nc o s ie p n, a . 9 ). ie e f c ntificw riting American . Scientist. Re ive fro tre d m http ://w w m ric ns ie t.o /is ue /id 77,y.0 .,c nte s w .a e a c ntis rg s s .8 ,no o nt.true a e ,p g .1 P rrin, P (19 ) Writer’s guide and index to English. 5 e . Sc tt, Fo s a e . 72 th d o re m n, &C .: Illino . o is W le D.J (19 6 I see what you mean: persuasive business communication. ha n, . 9) C lifo : Sa eP lic tio . a rnia g ub a ns W m , J (19 0 Style: toward clarity and grace. TheUnive ity o C a o illia s . 9 ) rs f hic g P s: C a o re s hic g .