Culture, economy and politics of Britain dominating its colonies.
Democracy in Britain, not in its colonies.
Capitalist system: USA
Division between people who own businesses and make profits, and those who work for them.
Communist system: USSR
Private ownership not allowed – production should be owned in common to create an equal society.
Changing patterns of power
Superpowers shift over time; the Uni-polar world of the British Empire gave way to the Bi-polar cold war world
In 1990, as the USSR collapsed, a new USA dominated Uni-polar world was ushered in; the EU has grown to be increasingly powerful also
Many people think the future will be a more complex, fragmented and regional multi-polar world
It is important to recognise that power can decline as well as grow
Changing Superpowers Timescale Superpower(s) What happened? 1800-1918 British Empire UK is dominant global power; at one point controlling 25% of land area. 1918-1945 1945-90 1990-now Future?
The British Empire was founded on exploration and sea power. The Royal Navy dominated the seas from around 1700 – 1930. The Navy provided a link between the home country and overseas colonies. The Navy was also a symbol of MILITARY POWER Britain was the world superpower of the nineteenth century- at its height in 1921- it held sway over 485 million people (1/4 of world popn). It covered 36.7 million km squared (1/4 of Earth's total land area) GUINEA (West Africa) CANADA INDIA MYANMAR (Burma) PAPUA NEW GUINEA AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND EGYPT SUDAN KENYA SOUTH AFRICA GUYANA MALAYSIA YEMEN OMAN FALKLAND ISLANDS NIGERIA
What does this image represent? Colonial India What were the benefits of the UK having a colony in India? Exploit resources Exploit workforce World market Power and influence
The current presidential palace in Delhi was built by the British as a symbol of political power. The navy surrounded the ports of India as a symbol of military power. In order to maximise exploitation the British ‘modernised’ India building an extensive rail network. The British also introduced: What power was being exerted by introducing these British traditions? IMPERIALISM CULTURAL IMPERIALISM
After the second world war the UK was bankrupt and could not support countries in its empire. Anti – colonial movements began and many countries pushed for independence. Most countries became independent by 1970. India became independent from Britain on 15 th August 1947.
It wasn’t just India that Britain Colonised
Colonialism- system by which an external nation takes control of a territory in another part of the world, often by force. It then reinforces this control by settling the new colony with its own people.
Britain colonised to gain power and access to and exploitation rights of resources
During colonisation the indigenous people and their cultures were looked down on, racist language was common place and as the Brits believed God was on their side Christian missionaries aided the colonisation spreading the word of God
Lets look at colonisation in Africa
Colonialism in Africa
Many people believe Africa has always been a poor area- WRONG-
Before colonialism it was home to many wealthy tribal kingdoms which traded across the Sahara with the North African Arabic states- spice and metal was traded- along with salt
One famous city Timbuktu was the centre for learning- with a large uni, books were printed there long before they were in Britain
It is now a world heritage site, because of its fine buildings which pre date French colonisation
In a nutshell- colonialism basically –European countries wanted land overseas to expand political control- exploring, invading, and taking control of large areas of the world
What went on….
Started with increased trade of salt, spices and gold- soon slave trade began.
Some slave trading done with tribal leaders consent, but most done by force
As many empires lost adults, former wealthily empires of Africa began to become weakened and impoverished
Between 1550 and 1850 8million slaves taken to Brazil alone
British manufacturing businesses saw colonialism as way to obtain cheap material and markets for their products
In the Caribbean many locals were killed by European diseases like syphilis- the locals were replaced by African slaves
The 3 phases of empire 1600- 1850- Mercantilist phase Small colonies set on coast fringes and islands- New England, Accra, Bombay, Jamaica- defended by forts. Focus on trade inc, slaves and raw materials like sugar Private trading companies such as the East India company and the Royal African company 1850 – 1945 The Imperial phase- Coastal colonies extend inland. Religion, culture and language introduced Govt set up to rule colonies Trade networks made more complex Telegrams and railways begin to connect parts of empire 1945- today The decolonisation phase After war UK almost bankrupt, can no longer support empire as before Anti colonial movements grow in India, and some countries move to independence. Most independent by 1970
The empire today?
Britain still controls 14 overseas territories
There is the commonwealth (former colonies) of 53 nations
Commonwealth has no written constitution BUT has series of agreements setting out beliefs and objectives
Could you describe the commonwealth as a superpower?
The map shows ICC cricket members, associate members and affiliate members Orange= full members
British Overseas territories
Commonwealth states today
With reference to the British Empire, explain the concept of colonial rule
What remnants are left of empire today?
Early colonialists were racist not just looking for economic opportunities. Discuss
Changing Superpowers Timescale Superpower(s) Comment 1800-1918 British Empire UK is dominant global power; at one point controlling 25% of land area. 1918-1945 Transition period Increasing power in USA & Russia, rise of Nazi Germany and maintenance of B.Empire; a multi-polar period. 1945-90 USA & USSR Cold War 1990-2009 2009-
1945 – 1990 ‘The Cold War’ After the second world war, two global superpowers emerged. The USA followed a policy to globalise its sphere of influence and become a stronger player in the world system. However the beliefs and politics of the USSR did not agree with the USA. In order to become more powerful the USSR took advantage of collapsed countries in Europe and enforced a communist regime. Bi-polar World What criteria would have supported these countries rise to superpower? Capitalism v communism
Opposing Ideals of Power
Draw something like this in your notes- On the next slide are the info points, put them into the correct column
CAPITALISM COMMUNISM WORKERS ARE EMPLOYED BY THE STATE BUSINESSES BELONG TO THE STATE SOCIAL OBJECTIVE IS FREEDOM SOCIAL OBJECTIVE IS EQUALITY WORKERS ARE EMPLOYED BY PROFIT MAKING INDIVIDUALS BUSINESSES ARE PRIVATELY OWNED DEMOCRACY WITH ELECTED LEADERS FREE MARKET ECONOMY THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS DICTATORSHIP NO FREE ELECTIONS THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA GOVERNMENT PLANNED ECONOMY
CAPITALISM COMMUNISM SOCIAL OBJECTIVE IS FREEDOM SOCIAL OBJECTIVE IS EQUALITY THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS DICTATORSHIP NO FREE ELECTIONS DEMOCRACY WITH ELECTED LEADERS WORKERS ARE EMPLOYED BY THE STATE WORKERS ARE EMPLOYED BY PROFIT MAKING INDIVIDUALS BUSINESSES BELONG TO THE STATE BUSINESSES ARE PRIVATELY OWNED GOVERNMENT PLANNED ECONOMY FREE MARKET ECONOMY
The ‘cold’ war 1945-90
Cold war- such called because it involved no physical conflict
USA and allies V USSR and allies
relations worsened late 40s
Closest 2 sides came to ‘hot’ war was 1962 during Cuban missile crisis
Cause was 2 opposed ideologies so sides could not agree on basic issues:- COMMUNIST V CAPITALIST
Soviet policy towards eastern Europe- USSR used Eastern ‘bloc’ countries as buffer to its lands to prevent direct attacks- they put in place a communist government to each The western borders were heavily defended by USSR by an ‘Iron curtain’.
Nuclear weapon use by USA on Japan, followed by nuclear tests in USSR in 1949. 40 years of nuclear expansion followed- now the 2 have 27,000 nuclear weapons between them and control most of the world’s nuclear weapons
Green Areas represent Eastern EUROPEAN COMMUNIST BLOC
The growth of the USSR
USSR formed in 1922
Russia had been damaged greatly by WW1 , civil war- it had a devastated economy and farm production had been decimated
Millions of Russians had been killed during these times- people were starving
The USSR in its economic prime- Stalin’s rule
In 1941 when Germany invaded, USSR had industrial and military strength to take on and defeat Hitler
Also had overtaken the UK as 2 nd biggest world economy
Stalin was aware of anti communist hostility across world and realised only hope for USSR was to be strong industrially and militarily
From 1922 to 1953 Stalin led a harsh authoritarian regime
A series of 5 year plans dramatically increased economic production all under state ownership
Increased industrial output 7 times, built all the steel and iron located away from borders so attack difficult
State controlled farm production to ensure everyone was fed
Weapons were built up dramatically
USSR competes with USA matching its research and technology in producing nuclear arms
In 1961, they beat the USA and became the first nation to put a man into space- Yuri Gagarin-
The space race between the 2 is still existence to this day
By 60s second largest superpower, but GDP still only ½ that of the USA
USSR tried to spread communism across globe
Considerable investment made in Africa, along with other communist nations like China and Cuba- basically to rival USA capitalist approach
The main influences in Africa were-
Military assistance- aid and equipment given to left wing governments, such as MPLA in Angola
Attempts made to destabilise countries- such as South Africa and Zimbabwe where white minority govt survived- Communism saw these as unfair and wanted rid
Financial aid- several countries including Guinea used soviet money to develop raw material
Between 1974-6 USSR assisted 17 sub Saharan African nations, mainly with military equipment and advisors- there were 2000 there. Military equipment worth $340 million
China and Cuba provided more including- 1000 Chinese advisors, Chinese delivered $28 million equipment
Cuba7900 advisors and troops mainly in ANGOLA
ANGOLA= USSR supported Marxist MPLA with weapons, arms and equipment in civil war UGANDA and TANZANIA Military assistance in civil wars in both CONGO REP Provided military ass, in return for access to raw material and establishing a military base GUINEA Bauxite reserves opened up by USSR largest program in region. In return USSR granted military privileges SOMALIA Received largest soviet support in East Africa, military equipment worth 165$ 1000 military advisors, in return for naval aircraft base so Moscow could control Indian Ocean
Collapse of the Soviet Union 1985 – Newly elected President Gorbachev introduced: GLASNOST “freedom of Speech” PERESTROIKA “private ownership of small businesses” Late 1980’s – Economic failure and food shortages 1989 – 1991 With their new found freedom states within the USSR rebelled and claimed sovereignty (independence)
Collapse of Communism in buffer Zone (Eastern Bloc Countries)
Following USSR collapse the bloc countries fell over the next few years- Germany unified, Czechoslovakia split and Yugoslavia went to war- many of these nations are today EU members
Cuba, Laos, Vietnam and North Korea only countries that retain COMMUNISM
CHINA has a COMMUNIST government
Venezuela retains certain aspects and the Indian state of Kerala runs a communist state government but its not totally communist
Changing Superpowers Timescale Superpower(s) Comment 1800-1918 British Empire UK is dominant global power; at one point controlling 25% of land area. 1918-1945 Transition period Increasing power in USA & Russia, rise of Nazi Germany and maintenance of B.Empire; a multi-polar period. 1945-90 USA & USSR Cold War- bi-polar world- most nations took a side 1990-2009 USA USA only true superpower (hegemony) following collapse of communism 2009- USA maintain status? EU China Many think future is multi-polar, with many superpowers, possibly including India and Russia. Rise of more regional and 1 dimensional powers- e.g. Russia and gulf states as energy powers
Take-off model – Rostow, 1960
Asian model – World Bank, 1991
Dependency theory – Frank, 1967
World systems theory – Wallerstein, 1974
Theoretical frameworks Liberal Marxist
emphasises the creation of wealth and power through capitalism.
emphasises how some maintain their wealth and power at expense of others.
theories are used to explain the existence of rich, powerful countries and the weaker, poorer countries they dominate
1960- W. W. Rostow theory to explain dominance of British Empire and the USA
As they were 1 st to industrialise gave advantage over other unindustrialised nations. Believed all countries went through 5 stages- as seen in previous slide
Rostow believed in free trade and democracy and capitalism
He believed communist countries could not develop unless they adopted capitalist ideals
When looking at Rostow’s model countries tried to follow it some succeeded some did not
Modernisation Theory It was so influential that developing countries wanting to create the preconditions for take off by investing in key infrastructure and industries The Asian Tigers are examples of where this succeeded. How were they able to implement the preconditions for take off?
Philosophy from late nineteenth century about modern society
Belief that world could be improved by human intervention and achievement
Believed Europe most naturally able to lead world through their conquest and knowledge of foreign peoples
Belief that Britain's naturally intelligent. Geographers believed that Britain had natural capacity to rule over others
Lionel Lyde, Professor of Geography at UCL wrote
“ negroes are strong and healthy; are excellent farmers being…more intelligent than Chinese. The Chinaman if not so useful as the Negro but more so than the Malay”
Modernists did not only think Britain could rule, it believed it SHOULD.
AG Frank’s Dependency Theory
argues that this is because the developed countries (superpowers and emerging powers) maintain the developing world in a ‘state of underdevelopment’, draining it of:
Human capital (‘brain drain’)
Resources (minerals, ores, food)
This helps maintain the developed world’s lifestyle, cheaply
North-South Divide Brandt Line
A. G Frank – based on Marxist view ‘rich vs poor’.
Reliant on capitalist core and underdeveloped periphery.
Capitalist core keeps the periphery in a state of underdevelopment by exploiting its cheap resources, taking its most skilled workers and selling it its manufactured goods.
The developing world helps to keep the developed world to become wealthier.
‘ development of underdevelopment’
Aid is then needed to prevent the periphery from becoming restless.
Who are the exception?
Which countries have adopted Rostow’s model and broken the dependency theory?
The Asian Tigers
USA funding! Both economic support and aid.
Why did they do this? – think back to how superpowers can exert and extend their influence.
Strong capitalist economies in Asia would contain Communist China.
Dependency Theory - Criticism
NICs have broken out of North-South divide mould since 1960s.
Theory does not allow for developing countries to have say in their own development.
World Bank, 1993
Countries like China, S.Korea and Taiwan had developed rapidly since 1970
As they opened up to free trade and foreign investment
State invested in education and skills development
Asian Model - Criticisms
Model fails to take full account of support and aid provided by the USA
Many NICs had protectionist, not free-trade policies
World Systems Theory
Immanuel Wallerstein, 1974
World is divided into core, semi-periphery and periphery
Semi-periphery nations are broadly equivalent to NICs that developed in 1970s.
Wallerstein recognised that some countries could develop and gain power, showing that wealth and power were fluid, not static.
Countries can move between peripheral, semi-periphery and core
ideas are partly related to the economic theory of Supercycles (Kondratiev waves – see table )
These suggest economic growth passes through phases based on key new technologies
These new technologies bring growth to particular geographical regions
Date and Cycle Technology Location 1770-1850 Industrial Revolution Cotton, steam engines UK 1850-1920 Industrialization Rail, steam ships, iron and steel, Increased involvement of Europe and USA 1920-1945 Motorization Petrochemicals, cars, electricity Increasing dominance of the USA 1945– 1990 Cold war era White goods, consumer goods Rise of Japan and Asian Tigers 1990 onwards Internet, wireless, biotechnology Shifts in production toward India and China 2020 onwards? ???? Asia?
World Systems Theory - Criticism
More a description of the world than an explanation of it.
Does not account for the rise of China and was written during the Cold War (bi-polar era)
Mackinder’s heartland theory
1904 British Geographer
Believed whoever controlled Europe and Asia- the biggest land mass- would control the world
Belief in a heartland extending from Eastern Europe into Russia, at the centre of which was a pivot
Said 3 things determined power
Pivot ruler would command heartland
Ruler of heartland would command world island (i.e. Europe, Russia and into Asia
Whoever controlled the world island would rule the world
Theory suggested further away place was from heartland less influence
Mackinder thought Russia ought to be worlds global power as its location gave it natural advantages
Thought Britain should lie outside the heartland
Russia had 3 disadvantages to prevent too much power-
Numerous borders = numerous attack threats
Too few all year ports- most closed in Winter as frozen
Mackinder believed Britain disturbed theoretical balance, and its industrialisation and efficient government had shifted heartland westwards- 2 major causes of western shift
Industrial revolution gave economic power
Naval strength gave sea power which Mackinder had overlooked in the original theory
Part of thinking of colonialism was to spread Christian words, called evangelism
Missionaries were sent abroad to colonial territories, especially in Africa. To work in schools and teach children Christianity
In 1500 less than 5% of Africans were Christian, today about 50% of Africans are Christians of some description
Put forward by Herbert Spencer
He was an elitist believed that natural superiority ruled
‘ white makes right’
Gained support from Darwin's theory about strong survival over weak
Even liberals believed colonialism bought benefits o the colonised
Outline the main theories of colonisation- which do you most agree with?
With reference to different theories put forward, explain why there are shifts in the global centre of economic gravity.