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  • 1. SKELETAL I.DShannon, Katherine, Gentry, Nathan
  • 2. (21)
  • 3. (21)
  • 4. (21)
  • 5. Bones that form the orbit• Ethmoid• Lacrimnal• Maxilla• Frontal• Sphenoid• Zygoma• Palatine
  • 6. (21)
  • 7. (21) Bones of the ear
  • 8. (21)
  • 9. spinal column (26 bones)- body, pedicles, lamina, spinalprocess, transverse process, Spinal foramen, inferior articulating process, superior articulating process
  • 10. • The cervical vertebrae are the first (upper seven) vertebrae. Foramen in each transverse process for transmission of vertebral artery, vein and plexus of nerves; short bifurcated spinous processes except on seventh vertebra, where it is extra-long and may be felt as protrusion when head is bent forward; bodies of these vertebrae are small , whereas spinal foramina are large and triangular. (1)• Atlas- is the first cervical vertebra; lacks body and spinous process; superior articulating processes are like concave ovals that act as rocker like cradles for condyles of occipital bone named atlas because it supports the head as atlas supports the world in Greek mythology.(1)
  • 11. Axis- is the second cervical vertebra, so named because atlasrotates about this bone in rotating movements of the head. Peg like projections upward from the body of axis forms a pivot for rotation of the atlas.(1)
  • 12. • The next 12 vertebrae, 12 pairs of ribs attached to these, are stronger with more massive bodies that cervical vertebrae. No transverse foramina, two sets of facets for articulations with corresponding ribs (one on body the second on transverse process). The upper thoracic vertebrae with elongates spinous process. (1
  • 13. lumbar vertebrae The next five vertebrae are strong and massive.Superior articulating processes are directedmedially instead of upward. The inferiorarticulating processes are laterally instead ofdownward. These have a short blunt spinousprocess.(1)
  • 14. • .Sacrum-• This bone is really five separate vertebrae until 25 years old, then they are fused to form one wedge- shaped bone.(1)• Sacral promontory- is a protuberance from anterior, upper border of sacrum into pelvis. This is very important because its size limits the anteroposterior diameter of pelvic inlet.(1)• 5.coccyx-• Is four or five separate vertebrae in a child but fused to one in an adult.(1)