1. Examples Brief (use to illustrate a point) Extended (use to engage listeners) *view Olympic Spirit Hypothetical (brief and realistic) *view College Cheating
When do I use an example? To clarify To reinforce your ideas To personalize *view Coming Home: the other side of war *tip: make your examples vivid, detailed, specific *practice delivery to fine tune the approach (Slower here? Louder here?...what works?)
2. Statistics Be sure the stats are representative (Do they actually represent the population or issue they are being used to discuss?) Be sure the stats are from a reliable source
Use statistical measures correctly: mean: the average of a group of numbers median: the middle number when numbers are arranged highest to lowest mode: the number occurring most frequently in a group of numbers
When do I use a statistic? To clarify or strengthen your point To show seriousness of an issue *view Rainforests To quantify your ideas * Use statistics sparingly * Identify the sources of the stats in the speech * Explain your statistics * Round off complicated stats * Use visual aids to show trends *view The Economics of Native American...
3. Testimony Expert or peer Direct quotations: Testimony presented word-for-word should be brief, say it best, and be witty, eloquent or compelling. Paraphrasing: restating the ideas in your own words should be used when a quotation is too complicated or too long
Tips for using testimony: Be accurate Use qualified sources Use unbiased sources Identify the people you quote or paraphrase: -book, magazine or web document name -author or sponsoring organization -author’s qualifications -date of publication, posting, or updating *view Bursting the Antibacterial Bubble