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    Ways of the world presentation Ways of the world presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Power Point by: Sophie Ludel, The European Movement and The Most Recent Century
    • Chapter 17: The North American Revolution 1775-1787
      • Grew out of the European Enlightenment
        • The British government attempted to tighten control over the colonies in an effort to extract more revenue from them
      • Was a battle for independence from British rule, which led to the Declaration of Independence in 1776
      • The Revolution accelerated the established democratic tendencies of the colonial societies
        • Political authority remained mostly in the hands of the existing elites
        • Also, property requirements for voting were lowered and more white men who had modest means were elected to state legislatures
      • A federal constitution was made in 1787 joining thirteen formerly separated colonies into a new nation
    • Chapter 17: The Abolition of Slavery
      • Slavery took a little less than 100 years to end.
        • throughout the world, slavery was ended between 1780 and 1890
      • Enlightenment thinkers were extremely critical of slavery
        • American and French revolutions focused on the slaves lack of liberty and equality
        • A variety of religious groups began to voice their opinion in opposition of slavery
        • The belief that slavery was not necessary for economic progress began to grow
      • The Haitian Revolution was followed by three major rebellions in the British West Indies which showed that slaves unhappy
      • Movements to end slavery were most powerful in Britain
        • In 1807 Britain prohibited the sale of slaves within the empire
        • In 1834 Britain emancipated all slaves
        • After growing international pressure to emancipate slavery began, many other nations followed in Britain’s footsteps
        • By the 1850s, most Latin American countries abolished slavery
      • Although slaves were set free, there were many bad effects that occurred:
        • Little improvement in the lives of the slaves
        • Very difficult to gain political equality
        • Many still remained impoverished
    • Chapter 17: Feminist Beginnings
      • Beginning in the 19th Century, a feminist movement started to develop, especially in Europe and North America
      • Many European Enlightenment thinkers challenged the idea
      • that women were born inferior to men
      • The Women’s Rights Conference in Seneca Falls, New York,
      • in 1848, was the first organized expression of feminism
      • The Feminist movement was transatlantic from the start
      • By the 1870s, many movements focused mostly on suffrage
        • The movement became not just an elite movement, but a
        • middle-class one as well
        • This movement became a mass movement in the most
        • industrialized countries
      • By 1900s
        • Some women had been admitted to universities
        • Literacy rates with women were beginning to raise
        • Some US states passed laws so that women would be
        • able to control their property and wages
        • Some areas liberalized divorce laws
        • Additionally, women were able to get into new
        • professions such as working in teaching, nursing, and
        • social work
      • In 1893 New Zealand became the first country to grant
      • universal female suffrage
      • The Feminist Movement, let to a discussion of the role of women
      • in modern society
      • There were those that were opposed to this movement
        • Some people thought that if women were to learn beyond
        • the home, there would be reproductive damage
        • Also, some saw suffragists, along with Jews and socialists
        • as a “foreign body” in national life
    • Chapter 18: The Laboring Class
      • In the 19th Century about 70% of Britons were workers
      • The laboring class suffered most and also benefited least from industrialization
      • By 1851 a large majority of Britain’s population was urban
        • There were horrible urban conditions
          • Vast overcrowding
          • Inadequate sanitation and water supplies
          • Epidemics
          • Few public services or open spaces
          • Very little contact between the rich and the poor
      • Industrial factories offered an extremely different work environment, such as:
        • Long hours, low wages, and child labor (very typical for the poor)
        • A new routine of work, direct supervision, and discipline
        • Industrial work was insecure
    • Chapter 18: Social Protest among laboring Class
      • This consisted of “friendly societies” containing many artisans, for self-help were common
        • Other skilled artisans wrecked machinery and burned mills
      • Some joined political movements, aimed to liberate working-class men
      • In 1824, Trade Unions were legalized
        • Large numbers of factory workers joined them
        • These fought for better wages and working conditions
        • In the beginning, the upper class feared them
      • Socialist ideas spread rather gradually
        • Karl Marx laid out a full ideology of socialism, which predicted that revolution would lead to the inevitability of industrial capitalism and result in a classless socialist society
        • The ideas of socialists became extremely attractive among more radical trade unionists and some middle-class intellectuals in the late 19 century
      • British Working-Class Movement remained moderate
        • During the second half of the century, material conditions for workers improved
        • Workers were able to better their standard of living
      • Yet, huge inequalities remained
      • By 1900, Britain was in an economic decline
      Karl Marx
    • Chapter 18: The United: Industrialization without Socialism
      • American industrialization began with New England textiles (1820s)
      • There was explosive growth after the Civil War
        • By 1914, the United States was the world’s leading industrial power
        • European countries provided about 1/3 of capital investment financing U.S. growth
      • U.S. government played an important role through tax breaks, land grants to railroads, laws making formation of corruptions easy, and there was an absence of overt regulation
      • There was a pioneering of mass production techniques
      • Creation of a “culture of consumption” that occurred through advertising, catalogs, and department stores
      • Persons such as Ford, Carnegie and Rockefeller, were self-made industrialists who became cultural hero’s
      • A huge social division arose
        • There was a large growing gap between the rich and poor
        • There was a constant labor of the working class
        • There was a creation of vast slums
        • Growing labor protest emerged
        • “ populists” denounced corporate interests
        • Progressives were more successful, especially after 1900
        • Socialism was labeled fundamentally “Un-American”
    • Chapter 19 Western Pressures
      • The Opium Wars show the transformation of China’s relationship with Europe
        • Opium was used on small scale in China for centuries
        • The British began to sell large amounts of Indian opium in China
        • Chinese authorities recognized the dangers of opium addiction and attempted to stop the trade
        • European officials bribed officials to smuggle opium in
        • China suffered a specie drain from large quantities of silver spent on opium
        • In 1836 the Chinese Emperor decided to suppress the trade
      • The British responded with the first Opium War that spanned from 1839-1842 (which they won)
        • The war was ended by the treaty of Nanjing (1842)
          • This imposed restrictions on the Chinese sovereignty and opened five ports to European traders
        • This forced the Chinese to accept free trade and “proper” relations amoung countries
      • Second Opium War (1856-1858)
        • Europeans vandalized the imperial Summer Palace
        • More treaty ports were opened to foreigners
        • China was opened to foreign missionaries
        • Western powers were given the right to patrol some of China’s interior waterways
      • China was additionally defeated by the French (1885) and the Japanese (1895) and lost control of Vietnam, Korea, and Taiwain
      • The Qing dynasty was deeply weakened at a time when China needed a good government to handle with the modernization
      • “ Unequal treaties” inhibited China’s industrialization
    • Chapter 19: The Tokuwaga Background
      • The Tokuwaga shoguns ruled since the 1600
        • The main was to prevent a civil war among rival feudal lords (the daimyo)
        • The Japanese enjoyed internal peace from 1600 to 1850
        • The daimyo were strictly regulated but retained considerable autonomy
        • There was a hierarchial society
          • Samurai at the top, then peasants, artisans, and merchants were at the bottom
      • There was a considerable amount of change that happened in Japan during the Tokugawa Period
        • The samurai evolved into a bureaucratic/administrative class
        • Great economic growth, commercialization, and urban development
        • By 1750, Japan was the most urbanized country throughout the world
        • There was a very high literacy rate
        • Change made it impossible for the shogunate to regulate society
      • Corruption was additionally very widespread
      Tokuwaga
    • Chapter 19: Modernization Japanese Style
      • National Unity had to be created
        • Attacked power and privileges of the daimyo and the samurai
        • Dismantled the Confucian-Based social order
        • Almost all of the Japanese became legally equal
      • There was a widespread interest in many aspects from the West
        • Official missions were sent to the West
        • There was a translation of Western books into Japanese
      • Feminism and Christianity made little progress
      • Shinto was raised to the level of a state cult
      • State-guided industrialized program
        • Established model factories, opened mines, built railroads, created postal, telegraph, and banking systems
        • A large amount of state enterprises were sold to private investors
        • Modernization was accomplished without acquiring foreign debt
        • By the early 20th century, industrialization was organized around large firms entitled zaibatsu
      • There was a heavy price to pay for society
        • a large amount of peasant families were impoverished
        • The countryside suffered infanticide, the sale of daughters and famine
        • Early urban workers received very harsh treatment
        • Many efforts to organize the unions were repressed
      Shinto
    • Chapter 20 Education
      • Receiving Western education created a new identity for many
        • Literacy
        • Escape from obligations like forced labor
        • Access to better jobs
        • Social mobility and elite status
      • A large majority of people embraced European culture
        • Created a cultural divide between them and the vast majority of the population
      • Many of the Western Educated elite saw colonial rule as the path to a better future
        • In India they organized reform societies to renew Indian culture
        • Hopes for renewal through colonial rule were disappointed
    • Chapter 20 Religion
      • Widespread conversion to Christianity in New Zealand, the Pacific Islands and non-Muslim Africa
        • Around 10,000 missionaries had gone to Africa by 1910
        • By 1960s, about 50 million Africans were Christian
      • Christianity was extremely attractive to a large majority in Africa
        • Military defeat shook peoples belief in the “old gods”
        • Christianity was associated with modern education
        • Christianity gave opportunities to the young, the poor, and many women
        • Christianity spread mostly through native Africans
      • Christianity was “Africanized”
        • The use of charms, and medicine men continued
        • Some also demonized their old gods
        • A wide array of “independent churches” was established
      • Christianity did not spread widely in India
        • Yet it led to intellectuals and reformers to define Hinduism
        • Hindu leaders looked to offer spiritual support to the spiritually ill Western world
        • New definition of Hinduism helped a clearer sense of Muslims as a distinct community to emerge
    • Chapter 20 “ Race” and “Tribe”
      • Notions of race and ethnicity were central to new ways of belonging
      • By 1900, some African thinkers began to define an “African identity”
        • African’s became united for the first time by experience of colonial oppression
        • It has been argued that African culture and history had characteristics valued by Europeans
        • Some individuals praised the differences between Africa and Europe
      • In the 20th century, many ideas reached a broader public
        • Hundreds of thousands of Africans took part in World War 1
        • Hundreds of Africans traveled widely
      • For the majority of Africans, the most important sense of belonging was the idea of “tribe” or ethnic identity
        • The Europeans helped define ethnic groups much more clearly
        • Africans found ethnic identity useful
      • The war loosened the hold of many traditional values in Europe
        • Enormous causalities promoted social mobility
        • Women began winning the right to vote
        • Rise of new consumerism
      • The Great Depression represented the most influential postwar change
        • It suggested the Europe’s economy was failing
        • People were worried about industrial capitalism
          • Generated individualist materialism
          • Created huge social inequalities
        • The Great Depression hit in 1929
          • Contracting stock prices wiped out paper fortunes
          • A huge number of of individuals lost their life’s savings
          • Unemployment soared
      • Causes of the Great depression
        • During the 1920s, the American economy boomed
          • By the end of the decade however, factories and farms produced more goods than could be sold
          • Europe was impoverished by World War 1, and thus did not purchase many American products
        • When the stock market crashed, the whole economic network collapsed with it
      • The Depression was a major challenge for governments
        • The New Deal in the United States
      Chapter 21 The Great Depression
    • Chapter 21: Hitler and the Nazis
      • German fascism took shape when the Nazi Party was under Adolf Hitler’s command
      • This grew out of the collapse of the German imperial state after World War 1
      • A new government, the Weimar Republic, negotiated peace
      • Creation of the myth that German had not really lost the war but they had been betrayed by civilian socialists, communists, and Jews
      • Widespread economic suffering: there was massive inflation in 1923, then the Great Depression
      • Everyone wanted decisive government action
      • The National Socialist (Nazi) Party won growing public support
      • After becoming the chancellor of Germany in 1933, Hitler outlawed other political parties, arrested opponents, censured the press and assumed police power
              • Used Jewish people as a scapegoat for the ills of society
      • There is an emphasis on a racial revolution
      • Jewish people were extremely excluded from public life
      • Celebration of the superiority of the German Race (Hitler was seen as mystical Fuhrer
      • The rise of Nazism represents a moral collapse within the West
    • Chapter 21: World War 2 -- Outcomes
      • About 60 Million people died in WWII
        • More than half of the causalities were civilians
      • The USSR suffered more than 40% of the total number of deaths
      • China suffered from massive attacks on civilians
        • The Rape of Nanjing (1937-1938): hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians were killed, and tons of women were raped
      • Many bombings on the British, Japanese, and German cities occurred
      • The Holocaust: 6 Million Jews were killed in genocide
      • WWII left Europe impoverished
        • A weakend Europe could not hold on to Asian and African colonies that they once had control over
      • WWII consolidated and expanded the communist world
      • A growing of internationalism
        • The creation of the United Nations in 1945, was made as a means for peaceful conflict resolution
      Holocaust Memorial
    • Chapter 22: Global Communism
      • Inspired by Karl Marx, Communism had its roots in the 19th century socialism
        • Those who choose to define themselves as “communists” in the 20th century advocated revolution
        • In the Marxist theory, “communism: is the final stage of historical development, with full development of social equality and collective living
      • At the height of communism in the 1970s, almost one third of the world’s population was governed by communist regimes
        • Most important communist societies were: the USSR and China
      • The various expression of communism shared a common ground:
        • It was a common ideology based on Marxism
        • Inspiration from the 1917 Russian Revolution
        • During the Cold War, the Warsaw Pact created a military alliance of Eastern European states as well as the USSR
        • However, relations between communist countries also had rivalry and hostility, even sometimes warfare
    • Chapter 22: Communist Feminism
      • Communist countries pioneered the “women’s liberation” movement
        • This was largely directed by the state
        • The USSR almost immediately declared full legal and political equality for women
        • Divorce, abortion, pregnancy leave, women’s work were all enabled or encouraged
      • In 1919, the USSR’s Communist Party set up Zhenotdel (Women’s Department)
        • Yet, Stalin abolished it in 1930
      • Communist China also worked for women’s equality
        • The Marriage Law of 1950 ordered that free choice in marriage, easier divorce, the end of concubinage and child marriage, and equal property rights for women
      • Limitations on communist women’s liberation
        • Stalin declared the women’s question “solved” in 1930
        • Women still worked the major of difficult housework and childcare, as well as paid employment
        • Very vew women made it into top political leadership positions
    • Chapter 22: The United States Superpower of the West (1945-1975)
      • The United States became the leader of the West against Communism
        • This led to the created of an “Imperial” presidency in the United States
        • A “national security state” was created by giving power to defense and intelligence agencies
        • Anticommunist witch-hunts, which occurred in the 1950s, narrowed the range of political debate
        • The “military-industrial complex” was also strengthened
      • The United States military was strengthened by the prospering economy and an increasingly middle-class society
        • The United States industrial society, unlike every other major one, was not harmed by the effects of WWII
        • The United States began to invest abroad
      • American Popular culture spread throughout the world
        • A variety of music styles began to spread around the world
        • By the 1990s, American movies held about 70% of the European market
    • Chapter 23: South Africa -- Ending Apartheid
      • South Africa won freedom from Great Britain in 1910, however its government was controlled by a white settler minority
      • White population was split between British descendants, who had economic superiority, and Afrikaners (Boers), who were of Dutch descent and had political dominance
        • Afrikaners failed to win independence from the British in the Boer
        • Both of these white groups felt extremely threatened by any move for their nation to move toward black majority rule
      • By the early 1900s, South Africa had a mature industrial economy
        • By the 1960s, they had major foreign investments and loans
      • Race became an overwhelmingly prominent issue
        • The policy of apartheid attempted to keep blacks and whites completely separate, while retaining black labor power
        • Huge repressive powers enforced social segregation
      • The African National Congress (ANC) was founded in 1912
        • This consisted of Africans who wanted a voice in society
        • In the 1950s it moved into a nonviolent civil disobedience
        • ANC eventually became banned and its leaders were put in prison
      • Negotiations began in the late 1980s
        • Key apartheid policies were abandoned
        • Nelson Mandela was freed and the ANC was legalized
      • In 1994, national elections brought the ANC to power
        • Apartheid ended without having major bloodshed
        • The most important threat was a number of separatist and “Africans only” groups
    • Chapter 23: Experiments with Culture -- The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran
      • The between Western-Style modernity and tradition has been an issue across the developing world
      • The case of Islam
        • Turkey and Iran approached the issue of how Islam and modernity should relate to each other very differently
      • Turkey emerged in the wake of World War 1, and was led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
        • There was a major cultural revolution in the 1920s and 1930s
        • A large majority of the Islamic underpinning of society was abolished or put under firm government control as a part of an effort to relegate Islam to private realm
        • Men were ordered to wear a fez hat elite women were ordered to give up the veil
        • Women achieved legal rights, polygamy was abolished, and women received the right to vote
        • The government remained authoritarian
        • In 2008, the Turkish parliament voted to end earlier prohibition on women wearing headscarves in universities
      • Iran became the center of the Islamic revival in the 1970s
        • A growing opposition to Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s modernizing, secularizing, and United States supported government grew
          • Many of the shah’s reforms offended traditional Islamic practices
        • The mosque became the main center of opposition to the government
        • The shah was forced to step down in 1979, and the Ayatollah Khomeini assumed control of the state
        • The Islamic revolution moved Iran towards Islamization of public life
    • Chapter 23: Experiments in Political Order
      • Certain conditions confronted all efforts to establish political order:
        • Huge population growth
        • Extremely high expectations for independence
        • There was a lot of cultural diversity, with very little loyalty to a central space
      • During the 1950s, the British, French, and Belgians, set up democratic institutions in their African colonies
        • Many of these were swept away by military coups
      • In India, Western-style democracy succeeded
        • Power was handed over very gradually
        • More Indians had administrative and technical skills at the time of independence than did Africans
        • The Indian Congress Party symbolized the entire nationalist movement
      • Arguments as to why Africans initially rejected democracy
        • Some argue that Africans were not ready for democracy or lacked some necessary element
        • Another argument is that African traditional culture (communal) was not compatible with party
        • Lastly, it was argued that Western-style democracy was inadequate to the task of development
      • There was a widespread economic disappointment that discredited early African democracies
        • There was a widespread economic hardship
        • Modern governments staked their popularity on economic success
      • The well educated elite benefited most, and obtained high-paying bureaucratic jobs that caused resentment
        • Economic resentment caused ethnic conflict
      • Beginning in the 1980s, Western-style democracy resurfaced
        • A series of grassroots movements began after authoritarian governments failed to improve economic situation
    • Chapter 24: International Feminism
      • The “women question” became a global issue during the 20th Century
        • Patriarchy began to loose some legitimacy
        • The UN declared that 1975 was International Women’s Year, and also stated that from 1975-1985 that it was the Decade for Women
      • However, there were sharp divisions within global feminism
        • Such as, who had the right to speak on behalf of women?
        • Often times, third world groups disagreed
    • Chapter 24: Fundamentalism on a Global scale
      • “ Fundamentalism” is a reaction against modernization and globalization
      • Fundamentalism represented a religious response, since many features of the world appeared threatening to established religion
        • The customary class, family and gender relationships were upset
        • Nation states were undermined by the global economy and foreign culture
      • Fundamentalists have often responded with rejection of modernity
      • The term fundamentalist comes from United States religious conservatives in the early 20th century,
        • These individuals called for a return to the fundamentals of faith, of Christianity
          • Many persons saw the United States on the edge of a moral abyss
      • In the 1980s, Hindutva (Hindu Nation) developed in India as another fundamentalism
        • They formed a political party entitled: Bharatiya Janata Party
        • These individuals opposed state efforts to cater to Muslims, Sikhs, and the lower castes
        • The Bharatiya Janata Party, attempted to promote a dinstinct Hindu identity in education, culture, and religion
      Bharativa Janata Party
    • Chapter 24: Green and Global
      • Response to the Industrial Revolution in the 19 century began environmentalism, however, it did not draw a mass following
      • During the second half of the 20th century, environmentalism became a global phenomenon
        • This began in the west with Rachel Carson’s book, Silent Spring
        • Motivation for action to help the environment came from grass roots and citizen protests
      • Environmentalism took hold in developing countries between the 1970s and 1980s
        • These however, tended to be more localized and involved poorer individuals
        • They were more concerned with the safety of their food, their health and their survival. Also, they cared more about saving those individuals who were threatened rather than plants and animals (like in the west)
      • By the end of the 20th century, environmentalism became a global concern
        • Legislation was passed that would control pollution in a large amount of countries
        • Businesses and individuals were encouraged to go “green”
        • A ton of research was done on alternative energy sources
        • Conferences were even created to discuss global warming
      • However there were sharp conflicts that occurred between the north and south
        • The Northern’s attempts to control pollution and global warming could potentially limit the South’s industrial development
        • There was a ton of controversy over export of hazardous wastes by rich countries
      • Global environmentalism has come to symbolize a “one-world” thinking, that focuses on the plight of humankind across the artificial boundaries of nation-state
        • Challenges modernity, and its commitment to endless growth
        • A growing importance of ideas about sustainability and restraint formed