Data orinformation that has not been Data that has analyzed or been analyzed evaluated census data laws books diaries articles speeches reviews autobiographies textbooks tech reports bibliographies transcripts Web sites e-mail musical scores letters
Periodical Literature Popular Trade Scholarly
POPULAR MAGAZINES •Easy to understand language •No specific format •Professional Journalists •Commercial Publishers •General Audience •Color Photos •Glossy Paper •Brief non-technical articles •No Citatiations •Credentials or authors often not identified •Commercial Advertisements
TRADE JOURNALS • Specific group with an interest in a particular trade/industry. • Provide general news, information, and statistics about a specific industry. • Industry specific advertising. • Professional technical, business, and staff writers. • Writers not always identified. • Rarely cites-bibliographies. • Professional publishers. • Glossy paper, color photos. Main Purpose is to: Support industry, public relations, and professionals.
Scholarly Journals schol·ar·ship (skŏlər-shĭp) n. Knowledge resulting from study and research in a particular field. Main Purpose Investigate, experiment, inform, persuade, and share
Authors inScholarly Journals • Always acknowledged in the article (credentials and affiliation) • Recognized experts with significant knowledge in a subject area • Possess the credentials to speak to a subject authoritatively
Peer review(also known as refereeing or jurying)is a process of subjecting an authorswork, research, or ideas to thescrutiny of others who are experts inthe same field. It is used primarily byeditors to select and to screensubmitted manuscripts. Scholars: • cite their sources • Use formal writing, tables, • professional jargon • List their affiliations
The Research Process (Before you Start Writing) Topic Materials Library Catalog for Identify Topic Books & MediaCreate Research Q or Indexes & Databases for Thesis Statement Scholarly ArticlesGather Background Info InternetIdentify Info Needs & Evaluate Sources
Term Paper Topics health • Abortion • Affirmative Action • AIDS Science • Animal RightsA topic is general. It is a • • Anthrax Assisted Suicidecategory, frequently Technology • Asteroids • Blackoutexpressed in a single word • Capital Punishmentor phrase, such as • • Child Abuse Cloning Politics“alcoholism" or “teenage • Conjoined Twins • Diabetesmothers.” A topic is a good • Drunk Drivingstarting point, but by • Easter Island Religion • Eating Disordersitself, it is usually too • E-mail Spam • Empire State Buildingbroad, and so it must be Business • Global Warmingrefined. • • Gangs Gender Issues Health Care • Holocaust Immigration Islam
Ask Yourself QuestionsAbout Your Topic:•Is the topic of interest tome?•Is my topic appropriate formy audience? Is it relevant tomy course?•How much or how little do Iknow about it?
Population Time What time period are you Who are you talking about? talking about?Teens, men, women, seniors, chi This year, next year, the last ldren, left-handed people decade, 100 years ago Place Viewpoint How are you looking at this Where are you talking about? topic? In the US, in the classroom, in Legality, ethics, taboo, economi outer space, the Arctic Region cally, psychological
Recap (To narrow and refine topic) Limiters ResearchTopic Question
My Topic: What about it? : Charter Schools Are they Better? Population- Time- K-12 Present Place- Viewpoint- Arkansas Reading scoresMy Research Question: Are the test scores of children in Arkansas k-12 charterschools better than those of conventional schools?
EvidenceFind evidence to support your research question
Before You SearchDefine Your Topic• Use who, what, where, when, why – Viewpoint, time, place, population• Create a research question or thesis statement – Choose keywords – Find synonyms » Search with these Words
SearchStrategies Keywords - use words from your thesis statement or RQ Synonyms - try using some alternative words if you aren’t satisfied w/results
Boolean Operators• And• Or• Not• Use “ “ around phrases
Library Catalog Use to find books, print periodical locations, multimedia.Words used in Catalog:• Stacks - on the shelf• Compact Shelving- bound periodicals, gov• Computer File - ebook
Free or Fee Bases -D Scholarly journals are FEE based and found on the library websiteA General (multidiciplinary) or Subject SpecificT Full-text or Citations OnlyA Either type will have bibliographic info (author, title, journal) Many times this Will include the article abstractBASES
www.worldcat.org Sharing College and UniversityDatabase for locating Libraries in Arkansasmaterials in libraries also share theirall over the world materials by giving privileges to students from other schools.Find what you arelooking for and Sign up for a card at therequest it through circulation desk and use.Interlibrary Loan (ILL) See website for more info.
If you must…Websites• Use a directory such as the Internet Public Library• Use links from reliable sites (library page)• Google Scholar• Generally results with .edu, .gov, .org domains are reliable. – Although wikipedia is a .org• Do the CRAPP test • Currency, Reliability, Authority, Purpose & Point of View o http://www.csbsju.edu/Libraries/Evaluating-Webpages.htm