Latin word testis means “witness” or “one who testifies”. In Roman courts, no man was allowed to testify unless he could prove his testes were intact. The testes in the scrotum were a visible witness of manhood. He was required to take an oath with his hand on his testes. Early Greeks saw a resemblance of testes to bulb of an orchid plant and assumed medicinal qualities in the orchid to treat diseases of the testes, including sterility.Penis is also referred to as the phallus (word used in psychology). Both Romans (Latin) and Greeks thought tip of penis resembled an acorn. Greek = balan/o and Latin=glans (glans penis) means acorn.The volume of ovum is 100,000 times larger than spermataozoa.
Genit/o genitaliaDidym/o testes (twin structures)Perine/o perineum Spermat/o or sperm/o spermTest/o or orchi/o or orch/o testesBalan/o glans penisSemin/o spermatozoon (sperm)Coit/o or Pareun/o or venere/o sexual intercourseCrypt/o hiddentroph/o or trophy process of developmentPhim/o closed tightPriap/o persistent erectionGynec/o femaleMast/o breast (mastoid process)Prostat/o prostateVas/o vans deferens or blood vesselOlig/o scantyHyper- above, more than normalEpi- upon, aboveDys- painful, difficult, abnormalPost- after, behindTrans- across, throughAIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndromeBPH benign prostatic hypertrophyED erectile dysfunctionFSH follicle stimulating hormone (stimulation of seminiferous tubules to produce sperm)HIV human immunodeficiency virusHPV human papilomavirusLH lutenizing hormone (stimulation of testosterone)PSA prostate-specific antigenSTD sexually transmitted diseaseVD venereal diseaseVDRL venereal disease research laboratory (test for syphilis)
Scrotum containstestes or testicles (gonads) contain semineferous tubules that produce spermatozoa (sperm)testosterone (hormone) matures spermepididymisattached outer wall of testes. Sperm receive enzyme “coating”;epididymis turns into vans deferens (ductus deferens), then merges with seminal vesicles (glands that produce seminal fluid)ejaculatory duct enters prostate gland, (ejaculatory duct at prostatic end of urethra)Bulbourethral glands secrete mucus to neutralize acidity (urine in urethra)Penis functions both reproductive and urinary systems. Glans penis head of penis with urethral opening. Prepuce (foreskin) covers uncircumsized males.Erectile tissues are corpora cavernosa(upper surface) and corpus spongiosum(center underside). Tissues fill with blood during arousal causing erection, necessary for coitus (sexual intercourse)
65 million of people living in the US with STD15 million of new STD cases each year 2/3 of all STD's occurs in people 25 yrs of age or younger; one in four new STD cases occur in teenagers cervical cancer in women is linked to HPVdoctors are required to report newly diagnosed STD cases of gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia and hepatitis B to state health departments and the CDC one in four Americans have genital herpes, 80% of those with herpes are unaware they have it at least one in four Americans will contract an STD at some point in their lives 15% of all infertile American women are infertile because of tubal damage caused by untreated STD 12% of all infertile American men are infertile because of inflammation of the testicles and sterility caused by untreated STD
Prostatitis generally caused by bacterial infection and can be caused by STD infection or Bladder infection.Many men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have no symptoms. When symptoms (known as lower urinary tract symptoms, or LUTS) occur, they may range from mild and barely noticeable to serious and disruptive. Symptoms may become worse during cold weather or as a result of physical or emotional stress. Some medicines can make your symptoms worse. These include over-the-counter cold medicines, and prescription medicines such as antidepressants, water pills (diuretics and pain medicines (narcotics).The symptoms of BPH may involve problems emptying the bladder or problems with bladder storage. (Difficulty starting a urine stream (hesitancy and straining),Decreased strength of the urine stream (weak flow),Dribbling after urination. Feeling that the bladder is not completely empty. An urge to urinate again soon after urinating. Pain during urination (dysuria). Waking at night to urinate (nocturia). Frequent urination. A sudden, uncontrollable urge to urinate. These symptoms are not always related to prostate enlargement and can be caused by other conditions. Prostate cancer occurs when cells in the prostate gland grow out of control. There are often no early prostate cancer symptoms, but some men have urinary symptoms and discomfort. Prostate cancer treatment options are surgery, chemotherapy, cryotherapy, hormonal therapy, and/or radiation.Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a substance produced by the prostate gland. Elevated PSA levels may indicate prostate cancer or a noncancerous condition such as prostatitis or an enlarged prostate.Most men have PSA levels under four (ng/mL) and this has traditionally been used as the cutoff for concern about risk of prostate cancer. Men with prostate cancer often have PSA levels higher than four, although cancer is a possibility at any PSA level.
Transcript of "Male reproductive system"
Male Reproductive System<br />
Terminology Basics<br />Genit/o<br />Didym/o<br />Perine/o<br />Spermat/o or sperm/o<br />Test/o or orchi/o or orch/o<br />Balan/o<br />Semin/o<br />Coit/o or Pareun/o or venere/o<br />Crypt/o<br />troph/o<br />Phim/o<br />Priap/o<br />Gynec/o<br />Mast/o<br />Prostat/o<br />Vas/o<br />Olig/o<br />Hyper-<br />Epi-<br />Dys-<br />Post-<br />Trans-<br />AIDS<br />BPH<br />ED<br />FSH<br />HIV<br />HPV<br />LH<br />PSA<br />STD<br />VD<br />VDRL<br />