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The main gland is the pititary gland. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located at the base of the skull between the optic nerves. The pituitary gland secretes hormones . The pituitary is sometimes referred to as the &quot; master gland &quot; as it controls hormone functions such as our temperature, thyroid activity, growth during childhood, urine production, testosterone production in males and ovulation and estrogen production in females . In effect the gland functions as our thermostat that controls all other glands that are responsible for hormone secretion.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) - As the name implies, TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones control basal metabolic rate and play an important role in growth and maturation. Thyroid hormones effect almost every organ in the body. Growth Hormone (GH) - This is the principal hormone that regulates growth. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) - ACTH triggers the adrenals to release hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. These hormones, in turn, regulate carbohydrate/protein metabolism and water/sodium balance, respectively. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) - These hormones control reproduction. Prolactin (PRL) - This hormone stimulates secretion of breast milk. Vasopressin - Also called anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) - This hormone promotes water retention.
research discoveries in the 1970s and '80s suggested that it regulates both sleeping cycles and the hormonal changes that usher in sexual maturity during adolescence. The pineal gland's production of melatonin varies both with the time of day and with age; production of melatonin is dramatically increased during the nighttime hours and falls off during the day, and melatonin levels are much higher in children under age seven than in adolescents and are lower still in adults . Melatonin apparently acts to keep a child's body from undergoing sexual maturation, since sex hormones such as luteotropin, which play a role in the development of sexual organs, emerge only after melatonin levels have declined. Tests with Fluoride : the human pineal gland contains the highest concentration of fluoride in the body . Fluoride is associated with depressed pineal melatonin synthesis by prepubertal gerbils and an accelerated onset of sexual maturation in the female gerbil. The results strengthen the hypothesis that the pineal has a role in the timing of the onset of puberty . Whether or not fluoride interferes with pineal function in humans requires further investigation
Rene Descartes called it the Seat of the Soul , believing it is unique in the anatomy of the human brain in being a structure not duplicated on the right and left sides. This observation is not true, however; under a microscope one finds the pineal gland is divided into two fine hemispheres. This gland is activated by Light , and it controls the various biorhythms of the body. It works in harmony with the hypothalamus gland which directs the body's thirst, hunger, sexual desire and the biological clock that determines our aging process . While the physiological function of the pineal gland has been unknown until recent times, mystical traditions and esoteric schools have long known this area in the middle of the brain to be the connecting link between the physical and spiritual worlds . Considered the most powerful and highest source of ethereal energy available to humans, the pineal gland has always been important in initiating supernatural powers . Development of psychic talents has been closely associated with this organ of higher vision.
The Thyroid gland , With the help of the thyroxine hormone secreted by the thyroid gland , 100 trillion cells are individually organized to function according to a certain rhythm and at a certain rate of speed. This hormone determines how quickly nutrients are converted into energy and how efficiently food burns in the body. This gland can increase or decrease your temperature . Parathyroid Glands Location In neck, behind thyroid gland. Hormone: Parathormone (parathyroid hormone). Purpose: Regulates levels of calcium throughout the body. Disorders: Hyperparathyroidism (overproduction of parathyroid hormone), which could lead to osteoporosis
A thyroid goiter is a dramatic enlargement of the thyroid gland . Goiters are often removed because of cosmetic reasons or, more commonly, because they compress other vital structures of the neck including the trachea and the esophagus making breathing and swallowing difficult. Sometimes goiters will actually grow into the chest where they can cause trouble as well. No one single laboratory test is 100% accurate in diagnosing all types of thyroid disease; however, a combination of two or more tests can usually detect even the slightest abnormality of thyroid function . For example, a low T4 level could mean a diseased thyroid gland ~ OR ~ a non-functioning pituitary gland which is not stimulating the thyroid to produce T4. Since the pituitary gland would normally release TSH if the T4 is low, a high TSH level would confirm that the thyroid gland (not the pituitary gland) is responsible for the hypothyroidism. If the T4 level is low and TSH is not elevated , the pituitary gland is more likely to be the cause for the hypothyroidism. Of course, this would drastically effect the treatment since the pituitary gland also regulates the body's other glands (adrenals, ovaries, and testicles) as well as controlling growth in children and normal kidney function. Pituitary gland failure means that the other glands may also be failing and other treatment than just thyroid may be necessary. The most common cause for the pituitary gland failure is a tumor of the pituitary and this might also require surgery to remove. Iodine Uptake Scan. A means of measuring thyroid function is to measure how much iodine is taken up by the thyroid gland (RAI uptake). Remember, cells of the thyroid normally absorb iodine from our blood stream (obtained from foods we eat) and use it to make thyroid hormone . Hypothyroid patients usually take up too little iodine and hyperthyroid patients take up too much iodine . The test is performed by giving a dose of radioactive iodine on an empty stomach. The iodine is concentrated in the thyroid gland or excreted in the urine over the next few hours. The amount of iodine that goes into the thyroid gland can be measured by a &quot;Thyroid Uptake&quot;. Thyroid Scan. Taking a &quot;picture&quot; of how well the thyroid gland is functioning requires giving a radioisotope to the patient and letting the thyroid gland concentrate the isotope (just like the iodine uptake scan above). Therefore, it is usually done at the same time that the iodine uptake test is performed. Pregnant women should not have thyroid scans performed because the iodine can cause development troubles within the baby's thyroid gland.
Graves' Disease is a type of autoimmune disease that causes over-activity of the thyroid gland, causing hyperthyroidism . When the thyroid is too active, it makes more thyroid hormones than the body needs. High levels of thyroid hormones can cause side effects such as weight loss, rapid heart rate and nervousness. These are the most common symptoms of Graves’ Disease and hyperthyroidism: trouble sleeping - fatigue - trouble getting pregnant - frequent bowel movements - irritability -weight loss without dieting - heat sensitivity - increased sweating- muscular weakness -changes in vision or how your eyes look - lighter menstrual flow - rapid heart beat hand tremors Graves’ Disease is the only kind of hyperthyroidism that is associated with swelling of the tissue around the eyes and bulging of the eyes . And rare cases, patients will develop a lumpy reddish thickening of the skin in front of the shins called pretibial myxedema . This skin condition is usually painless. The symptoms of this disease can occur slowly or very suddenly and are sometimes confused with other medical problems. Women can also have Graves’ Disease and have no visible symptoms at all. Test measures the thyroid hormones Free T4 and TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) to find out if the levels are in the normal range. There are other tests that your doctor may choose to do, such as blood tests to find out if levels of the thyroid hormones Free T4 and Free T3 are in the normal range. Another test, called a Thyroid Stimulating Immunogobulin (TSI), TSI is also measured in pregnant women who have hyperthyroidism to diagnose Graves' disease and to assess the risk to the baby . Medicine. There are some medicines called antithyroid drugs that can lower the amount of thyroid hormones made by the thyroid, causing it to make, normal levels. Patient taking drug for 1 to 2 years have a remission from Graves’ disease; their thyroid function may remain normal even without medication. Radioactive iodine. The radioactive iodine damages thyroid cells, shrinking and eventually destroying the thyroid gland in order to reduce hormone levels Surgery. All of the thyroid gland will be removed.. If left untreated, Graves’ Disease can lead to heart problems and problems in pregnancy, and an increased risk of a miscarriage . TSI antibodies do cross the placenta and can interact with the baby’s thyroid. Although uncommon (2-5% of cases of Graves’ disease in pregnancy), high levels of maternal TSI’s, have been known to cause fetal or neonatal hyperthyroidism. Severe, untreated Graves’ Disease can be fatal. Thyrotoxic storm is a rare life-threatening condition that develops in cases of untreated hyperthyroidism. It is usually brought on by an acute stress, such as trauma surgery or infection. Symptoms are severe, with a pounding heart, sweating, restlessness, shaking, diarrhea, change in consciousness, agitation and confusion. Congestive heart failure can develop rapidly and lead to death. Uncontrolled maternal hyperthyroidism has been associated with fetal tachycardia (fast heart rate), small for gestational age babies, prematurity, stillbirths and possibly congenital malformations. Thyroid storm requires emergent treatment and hospitalization. The main treatment is to decrease the circulating thyroid hormone levels and decrease their formation. PTU and methimazole are two agents that decrease thyroid hormone synthesis and are usually prescribed in fairly high doses. Beta blockers such as propranolol (Inderal, Inderal LA) can help to control the heart rate, and intravenous steroids may be used to help support the circulation. Previously, the mortality of thyroid storm approached 100%. However, now, with the use of aggressive therapy as described above, the death rate from thyroid storm is less than 20%.
In the thymus gland lymphocytes become specialized (B cells, T cells). The thymus plays an important role in lymphocyte specialization and immunity. Lymphocytes are the white blood cells that fight infections.
The thymus gland is a pink-grey organ that lies underneath the top of the breast bone . In animals it is known as the sweetbreads . No one knew much about the thymus until recently. On autopsies it was noticed that young adults that had died in traumatic accidents often had much larger thymus glands than those dying from diseases of a chronic nature, and it was also believed that the thymus ceased to function after childhood . The thymus processes a type of white blood cell known as a T-lymphocyte. These T-lymphocytes govern cellular immunity which means they help cells recognize and destroy invading bacteria, virus, etc., abnormal cell growth such as cancer, and foreign tissue. Symptoms of Thymus Dysfunction: Allergies,swollen glands, depression, extreme sweating, puffiness of the throat. The person will be a likely candidate for cancer as well as immunodeficiency diseases. Some positive results have been demonstrated by transplantation of bone marrow and thymus and by the use of the hormone thymosin .
is part of both the endocrine system and the digestive system. As an endocrine gland, it releases the hormone insulin into the blood. As a gland of digestive system, it secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine.
People can get diabetes at any age. There are three main kinds. Type 1 diabetes , formerly called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is usually first diagnosed in children, teenagers, or young adults. With this form of diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas no longer make insulin because the body’s immune system has attacked and destroyed them. Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes taking insulin , making wise food choices, being physically active, taking aspirin daily (for some), and controlling blood pressure and cholesterol. Type 2 diabetes , formerly called adult-onset diabetes or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes. People can develop type 2 diabetes at any age—even during childhood. This form of diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance , a condition in which fat, muscle, and liver cells do not use insulin properly. At first, the pancreas keeps up with the added demand by producing more insulin. In time, however, it loses the ability to secrete enough insulin in response to meals. Being overweight and inactive increases the chances of developing type 2 diabetes. Treatment includes using diabetes medicines, making wise food choices, being physically active, taking aspirin daily, and controlling blood pressure and cholesterol. Some women develop gestational diabetes during the late stages of pregnancy. Although this form of diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born, a woman who has had it is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life . Gestational diabetes is caused by the hormones of pregnancy or a shortage of insulin. After many years, diabetes can lead to serious problems with your eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. But the most serious problem caused by diabetes is heart disease. When you have diabetes, you are more than twice as likely as people without diabetes to have heart disease or a stroke .
When you are in trouble the nerve systems tells the adrenal glands in or above your kidneys to release special chemicals into the blood. These chemicals prepare your body to fight or to run away &quot;fight or flight&quot;. They make your breathing deeper and faster. They turn off the blood flow to your stomach and send it to the muscles in your arms and legs. They make the pupils of your eyes grow larger (dilate). When you are in danger your sight sharpens and you become more aware of everything around you. Your sense of pain goes down. Your immune system gets ready for action.
Symptoms vary, but most people have upper body obesity, rounded face, increased fat around the neck, and thinning arms and legs . Other symptoms appear in the skin, which becomes fragile and thin . It bruises easily and heals poorly . Purplish pink stretch marks may appear on the abdomen, thighs, buttocks, arms and breasts. The bones are weakened, and routine activities such as bending, lifting or rising from a chair may lead to backaches, rib and spinal column fractures. Most people have severe fatigue, weak muscles, high blood pressure and high blood sugar. Irritability, anxiety and depression are common. Women usually have excess hair growth on their faces, necks, chests, abdomens, and thighs. Their menstrual periods may become irregular or stop. Men have decreased fertility with diminished or absent desire for sex. What causes Cushing's syndrome? Cushing's syndrome occurs when the body's tissues are exposed to excessive levels of cortisol for long periods of time. Many people suffer the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome because they take glucocorticoid hormones such as prednisone for asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and other inflammatory diseases, or for immunosuppression after transplantation. Others develop Cushing's syndrome because of overproduction of cortisol by the body. Normally, the production of cortisol follows a precise chain of events. Hypothalamus sends corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) to the pituitary gland. CRH causes the pituitary to secrete ACTH (adrenocorticotropin), a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands. When the adrenalsreceive the ACTH, they respond by releasing cortisol into the bloodstream. Cortisol performs vital tasks in the body. It helps maintain blood pressure and cardiovascular function , reduces the immune system's inflammatory response, balances the effects of insulin in breaking down sugar for energy, and regulates the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats and help the body respond to stress . People suffering from depression, alcoholism, malnutrition and panic disorders, highly trained athletes and women in third trimester also have increased cortisol levels.
Diabetes Insipidus (DI) is a disorder in which there is an abnormal increase in urine output, fluid intake and often thirst. It causes symptoms such as urinary frequency, nocturia (frequent awakening at night to urinate) or enuresis (involuntary urination during sleep or &quot;bedwetting&quot;). Urine output is increased because it is not concentrated normally. Consequently, instead of being a yellow color, the urine is pale, colorless or watery in appearance and the measured concentration (osmolality or specific gravity) is low. *Diabetes Insipidus (water diabetes) is not the same as diabetes mellitus (&quot;sugar&quot; diabetes) it resembles diabetes mellitus because the symptoms of both diseases are increased urination and thirst. However, in every other respect, including the causes and treatment of the disorders, the diseases are completely unrelated. *D iabetes Insipidus is divided into four types, each of which has a different cause and must be treated differently. The most common type of DI is caused by a lack of vasopressin , a hormone that normally acts upon the kidney to reduce urine output by increasing the concentration of the urine . This type of DI is usually due to the destruction of the back or &quot;posterior&quot; part of the pituitary gland where vasopressin is normally produced. Hence, it is commonly called pituitary DI . It is also known as central or neurogenic DI . Pituitary DI is usually permanent and cannot be cured but the signs and symptoms (i.e. constant thirst, drinking and urination) can be largely or completely eliminated by treatment with various drugs including a modified from of vasopressin known as desmopressin or DDAVP .
Ovaries are a pair of female reproductive organs. They are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries are connected to each other by the Fallopian tubes. Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries have two functions: they produce eggs (also called ova) and female hormones. (estrogen and progesterone). These hormones control the development of female body characteristics, such as the breasts, body shape, and body hair. They also regulate the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The Testies make sperm, male reproductive cells; nourish the sperm; and make the male hormone testosterone , which Enhances Sexual Drive, Heightens Sexual Performance, Increases Energy Levels, Enhances Mood, Promotes Bone and Muscle Growth.
121 Week 9 Endocrine
Objectives <ul><li>Recognize glands and hormones produced by each gland of the endocrine system </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize common symptoms of endocrine diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize common laboratory and diagnostic tests of the endocrine system </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate various diseases of the endocrine system Cushing’s Disease Grave’s Disease Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Inspidus </li></ul>
Common Symptoms <ul><li>Mental abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual change in energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in skin, nails, or hair </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle atrophy </li></ul><ul><li>Growth abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Cold or heat intolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual weight gain or loss </li></ul>
Pituitary <ul><li>Near the base of the skull is the pituitary gland, which releases hormones influencing body chemistry. </li></ul>
Pineal Gland <ul><li>The pineal gland lies deep within the brain and produces melatonin. </li></ul>
Pineal: the Third Eye <ul><li>the human body has another physical eye whose function has long been recognized by humanity. It is called the 'Third Eye' which in reality is the Pineal Gland. It is long thought to have mystical powers. Many consider it the Spiritual Third Eye, our Inner Vision </li></ul>
Thyroid Gland <ul><li>On either side of the larynx is the thyroid, producing thyroxine, which controls the rate at which the body converts food into useful energy. </li></ul>
Grave’s Disease <ul><li>Overactivity of thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>Affects primarily women 20-40 </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosed by simple blood tests </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment with radioactive iodine </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment can cause hypothyroidism </li></ul>
Thymus Gland <ul><li>The thymus is located above the heart and produces lymphocytes, which form a vital part of the body's immune response. </li></ul>
Thymus Gland <ul><li>A person with an underactive thymus gland will be prone to getting sick often. Infection will be common and will often be chronic and prolonged </li></ul>
Islets of Langerhans (pancreas) <ul><li>The pancreas secretes substances for the digestion of food, such as insulin. </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause problems with excess blood sugar, the major cause of diabetes. </li></ul>
Diabetes Mellitus <ul><li>Type 1, Type 2 and gestational DM </li></ul><ul><li>Affects all body systems </li></ul><ul><li>Can be treated, but not cured </li></ul>
Adrenal Glands <ul><li>At the top of the kidneys are the adrenal's that produce several hormones including adrenalin, which stimulates the "fight or flight" response </li></ul>
Cushing’s Disease <ul><li>Cushing’s Disease (hypersecretion of cortisol) </li></ul><ul><li>Cohn’s Syndrome (hypersecretion of aldosterone) </li></ul>
Diabetes Insipidus <ul><li>Insufficient secretion of vasopressin and ADH which regulate kidneys to release urine </li></ul><ul><li>Polyuria of 4-16 liters/day 9normal output: 2 or less liters/day </li></ul>
Ovaries and Testes <ul><li>The ovaries control sexual development and egg creation as well as controlling the levels of oestrogen and progesterone. </li></ul>