Our aim is to inform, educate and prevent the onset of
Type 2 diabetes in middle adulthood
Why do we want to prevent Type 2 Diabetes?
The New Zealand government has identified Diabetes has become a primary health challenge as a major cause of death and illness.
157,000 people have diabetes in New Zealand, 142,000 have Type 2, that’ s 90%! 1
Type 2 is largely preventable, caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors which damage the insulin producing cells. Obesity and excess weight accelerate the damage. 1
People that are more likely to get Type 2 Diabetes are people who are overweight or people that don ’t exercise enough 1
Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in adulthood after the ages of 30 - 40 years. However, increasing numbers of teenagers and children are developing Type 2 diabetes . 1
Type 2 diabetes can be passed down the generations from a blood relative, this doesn ’t necessarily cause it but with the combination of poor diet and lack of exercise, there ’s a greater chance Type 2 could develop. 1
A 78% increase in cases of Type 2 diabetes from 1996 has been predicted for the year 2011! 1
The cost to society for treatment of diabetes was estimated in 2004 as $340M per year, expected to increase to $1B in 2021 2
New Zealand supports both a biomedical health model and through the Maori Health Strategy recognises a more holistic approach to healthcare and well-being, in line with cultural values held within the Maori community in New Zealand (Ministry of Health, 2008).
The campaign against diabetes recognises the diversity in this unique approach to healthcare by demonstrating the Treaty principles of Partnership, Participation and Protection (Broom et al., 2007).
Campaign material and presentation is culturally safe. Proposed plans do not impose or impact negatively on other cultures, but encourage the principle of protection; children and schools are actively recruited to implement the fight against diabetes campaign, and the campaign itself targets children as educating them now ensures future improvement (Broom et al., 2007).
By working alongside the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education and their partnering Maori committees, our campaign demonstrates partnership and participation principles (Broom et al., 2007).
“ Physical activity is recognized to produce multiple general and diabetes-specific health benefits. Yet despite the multitude of benefits, many people are physically inactive” (Hayes & Kriska, 2008, pg. 19)
Exercise is beneficial by avoiding both the acute and long-term complications of ﾊﾊ diabetes mellitus (Erasmus et al, 2008) Because:- Likelihood of the occurrence of heart problems is decreased (Praet, 2008)
G lycaemic control is improved (Praet, 2008)
L ipid profile and blood pressure regulated due to maintenance of regular blood p ressure (Lilly, 2006)
Enhances insulin sensitivity (Lilly, 2006)
R eversal of endothelial dysfunction in individuals with diabetes mellitus (Moien-Afshari et al, 2008)
As incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is not apparent until middle adulthood (Diabetes New Zealand, 2008), early education is necessary. Targeting this age group also addresses the rising incidence of Type 2 Diabetes among teenagers (Diabetes New Zealand, 2008).
To build into the teaching curriculum, a programme toward healthier eating and better exercise
By linking the programme to existing subjects in school curricula, the benefit of education will carry through to completion of secondary education. For example Te Reo, Health, Physical Education, and subjects that encompass life skills education.
We have developed incentives with our strategies in line with positive reinforcement to ensure a successful outcome in the future. Positive reinforcement involves having a positive consequence to a positive action therefore reinforcing the action and making it appealing (Sarafino 2004).
W e have based positive reinforcement both into our exercise and nutrition plan. I n the nutrition plan we did this by making a competition of who can cook the healthiest food with the reward being their food in the tuck-shop and the prize draw for sports gear when they buy food that meets NZ health standards. I n the exercise plan we did this by providing an opportunity to gain credits through the leadership program and by providing a cup that can be won through the interschool competitions.
O ur goal in using this strategy is so healthy eating and regular exercise becomes a positive part of the student s’ lives now and in the future, which ties in with our primary goal in preventing diabetes type 2 in our future generations.
Erasmus, R. T., Blanco, E., Okesina, A. B., Gqweta, Z., & Matsha, T. (1999). Assessment of glycaemic control in stable type 2 b lack South African diabetics attending a peri-urban clinic. The Fellowship of Postgraduate Medicine. Retrieved 30 May 2008, from: http: //pmj . bmj .com/cgi/content/full/75/888/603
Broom, D., Deed, B., Dew, K., Durie , M., Germov , J., Kirkman , A., et al. (2007). Health in the context of Aotearoa New Zealand. Melbourne , Australia: Oxford University Press.
Diabetes New Zealand. (2008). About type 2 diabetes. Retrikeved June 10, 2008, from http://www.diabetes.org.nz/about_diabetes/type_2_diabetes
Fuelled4school. (2008). Retrieved June 10, 2008, from http://www.fuelled4school.co.nz/FuelUp.aspx
L illy, L. S. (2006). Pathophysiology of heart disease. A Collaborative Project of Medical Students and Faculty. Boston: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .
Layman, D. K. , Clifton, P. , Gannon, M.C. , Krauss, R.M. , & Nuttall , F.Q. ( 2008). Protein in optimal health: Heart disease and type 2 diabetes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87 (5), pp. 1571S-1575S.
Macdonald, P. (2008). Making the Connection Between Diet and Nutrition and Cardiovascular and Alzheimer's Diseases. E xplore: The Journal of Science and Healing 4 (2), pp. 148-153
Ministry of Health, (2008). Retrieved June 10, 2008 from http://www.moh.govt.nz/
Moien-Afshari , F. , Ghosh , S. , Khazaei , M. , Kieffer , T.J. , Brownsey , R.W. , & Laher , I. (2008). Exercise restores endothelial function independently of weight loss or hyperglycaemic status in db/db mice. D iabetologia, pp. 1-11. ﾊﾊ Hayes, C., & Kriska, A. (2008). Role of Physical Activity in Diabetes Management and Prevention. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 108 (4 SUPPL.), pp. S19-S23.
New Zealand Health Information Service. (2008). Mortality and demographic data 2002 and 2003. Retrieved June 10, 2008, from http://www.nzhis.govt.nz/moh.nsf/pagesns/71
New Zealand Ministry of Education. (2008). Retrieved June 10, 2008, from http://www.minedu.govt.nz/
Praet, S. F. E., Van Rooij , E.S.J. , Wijtvliet , A. , Boonman-De Winter, L. J. M. , Enneking , Th . , Kuipers , H. , Stehouwer , C. D. A. , & Van Loon, L. J. C. (2008). Brisk walking compared with an individualised medical fitness programme for patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial. D iabetologia 51 (5), pp. 736-746.
Praet, S. F. E., & Van Loon, L. J. C. (2008). Exercise: The brittle cornerstone of type 2 diabetes treatment. Diabetologia 51 (3), pp. 398-401.
Sarafino, E. P. (2004). Bahavior Modification . Illinois, Waveland Press.
Maori Health. (2008). Addressing Maori health: Maori health models . Retrieved June 3, 2008, from http://www.maorihealth.govt.nz/moh.nsf/950284e05722fc25cc25710300036c2c/1c22c439ddc5f5cacc2571bd00682750?OpenDocument