Communication Message PlanningPresentation Transcript
Communication Message Planning
Central Goal of AAC
To communicate messages so users can interact in conversations
Participate at school, home, work, recreational activities
Establish and maintain social roles
Meet personal needs
Purpose of Communicative Interaction
Communication of needs and wants
Janice Light, 1988
Vocabulary Selection Goals
Vocabulary selection should be:
Individualized to reflect the individual’s experiences, interests, and communication needs.
Reflective of the individual’s personality and culture.
A dynamic process, reflecting the individual’s changing needs and skills.
The individual should be involved in decisions related to vocabulary selection and maintenance.
Blank Page Activity
Common Vocabulary Selection Techniques
Core Vocabulary Lists
Involves asking informants to suggest words that might be useful to the individual in a number of different word categories :
Core Vocabulary Lists
Involves reviewing and prioritizing the words in one or more standard vocabulary lists
Core and fringe vocabulary
Word List Resources
Unguarded conversation of normal individuals in public places
300 most familiar concrete nouns
Fristoe and Lloyd (1979)
List of vocabulary items occurring in more than one of 20 manuals of signs.
Karlan and Lloyd (1983)
Words that individuals familiar with individuals with severe disabilities though would be important for individuals who are non speaking to have available
Word list Resources (cont’d)
Beukelman, Yorkston, Problete, Naranjo (1984)
500 most frequently occurring words in language samples from individuals with severe physical disabilities who used letter-by letter typing for their communication.
Prentke Romich Co.
Barkley AAC Lab University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Involves gathering the messages the individual attempts to communicate
Involves selecting vocabulary by observing or interviewing the individual
Involves brainstorming the vocabulary that is necessary for a particular activity, and priority-ranking it to match the number of targets the individual can access at one time.
Environmental Communication Teaching (ECT)
Scripting in MinSpeak
Musselwhite and Burkhart – Social Scripts
Communication Message Selection Issues
Messages should be
fun and motivating
purposeful and meaningful
natural and useful to activity
promote active, natural participation
generic and reusable
Communication messages should:
promote communication - not activity sequencing skills
have a high frequency of occurrence
be driven by the individual
continually be updated and reviewed
Planning AAC Displays for a Given Activity
Review the curriculum objectives to determine:
basic messages needed to carry out the activity
problem-solving messages needed
any general social politeness messages that would be age-and activity-appropriate
any recurrent words or phrases within the set of messages.
Activity - Initial Message Selection
Break into 2 groups
Use selection techniques (Categorical Inventory and Activity-based Scripts) to begin to select messages for chosen activity
Considerations for Selecting Symbols
individual’s visual/perceptual skills
frequency of use of symbol set
message gloss (labels)
Symbol Choices (continued)
Other Issues in Symbol Selection:
using symbols from more than one set/system
using the same symbol set (across individuals/classes) in all environments
transitions from one type of symbol set/system to another
impact of today’s decisions on an individual’s future
are messages predominately word or sentence based?
Pictures are Easy?
Communication message arrangement should :
allow for growth & power.
promote language flexibility.
include key messages on all arrangements.
Symbol selection & arrangement should consider:
black/white vs. color
* consistency of location
organization - frequency of occurrence
*consistency of location
use of supplemental symbols
ambulatory vs. non-ambulatory
varies from environment to environment
Guidelines for Organization of Communication Displays
Four Major types of organizational arrangements for displays:
Can include photo albums & conversation books, in addition to the activity-based miniboards.
May be helpful for young children/individuals with memory or cognitive deficits who depend upon episodic memory or contextual cues.
May necessitate repeating of symbols across multiple displays
Are groupings based on categories with vocabulary items arranged according to familiar subcategories, such as:
Can include pictionaries and topic boards, e.g., “I want to talk about home/feelings/school”
Require knowledge of concepts that typically develop with formal education
Make it difficult to express relational concepts and complex thoughts and very difficult to use appropriate syntax
Are groupings based upon some knowledge of grammar, even early semantic constructions
provide a way to generate more complex thoughts using expressive language, to develop linguistic skill, and to facilitate literacy skills
semantic arrangements (agent-action-object),
grammatical arrangements (subject-object-verb),
a modified Fitzgerald Key
Can make it possible for communicative partners to model language using augmented input/aided language stimulation techniques.
descriptive words (adjectives/adverbs),
Social greetings, miscellaneous, and numbers, letters, dates are on the far right.
are groupings based on the alphabet whose purpose is to provide unrestricted access to language, to provide word boards, to alphabetize elements within categories, and to encourage the development of spelling.
can include alphabet, word and combination boards.
depend, for configuration, on prior experiences, future goals and the message selection techniques being used.
Trends in Children’s Learning Suggest:
Schematic organizations are the first ways they classify the world
Taxonomic categories are learned with the development of language along with semantic-syntactic organizations
Alphabetic organizations require literacy skills and metalinguistic knowledge
There is no evidence to suggest individuals must progress through this sequence; rather, displays should be individualized to their cognitive or linguistic skills and to goals and objectives in these areas.
Combinations of these arrangements may be used effectively. A display can be:
Have semantic categories arranged within an activity-based display
And have alphabetic arrangement within a semantic category
Determine the type and size of the display that is compatible with the activity, considering:
student’s physical ability to manage the display, including mode of ambulation and positioning during the activity
degree of transportability required
size of grid needed for the student’s visual acuity
Planning - continued
Make a preliminary assignment of the vocabulary to the display, considering:
a general person-action-(attribute)-object- location left-to-right progression
frequency of use of the messages
placement of social politeness messages
“Templated maximum capacity overlay” approach
plan ahead and plan for growth
use of masks
use of open spaces
Activity - Display Configuration
Remember to consider the following for your student:
Size of display
Shape of display
Ambulatory vs. .non-ambulatory
Color or black/white symbols
Background - color vs. white
Revision Issues - Points to Ponder...
Which of the selected items may be used to represent a variety of communicative functions?
Which items have potential use for multi-word combinations?
Which items can best reflect the “here and now”?
Which items can reflect objects, people, events not salient in the immediate context?
Which items can potentially be used in peer interaction and play?
Revision Issues (Cont’d)
Have opposites of all items been included?
Can novel utterances be expressed?
Can vocal play occur with this vocabulary?
Which items can the individual express using residual oral, nonverbal, or idiosyncratic signaling systems?
How has the issue of future growth been dealt with?
Revision Issues (cont’d)
How has the issue of the use of concrete symbolic associations vs. moving towards Minspeak, Dynasyms, etc., been dealt with?
How do we deal with the ever-increasing vocabulary demands from academic and curricular areas?
Are the messages on the vocal output communication aid taking advantage of the output?
Are there vocabulary items that could be just manual board symbols?
Process for Selection and Display Creation Choose Activity Vocabulary Selection Symbol Selection Display Arrangement