The potential of adaptive interfaces as an accessibility aid for older web users David Sloan , University of Dundee, UK Ma...
Outline <ul><li>Barriers to progress in how web accessibility advancements can support age-related decline </li></ul><ul><...
Web accessibility developments and age-related decline  <ul><li>Progress in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web content accessibili...
Age-related capability decline – barriers to web use <ul><li>Age-related capability decline might take place in: </li></ul...
Age-related capability decline – barriers to web use <ul><li>Why might current accessibility developments not benefit some...
Adaptation for accessibility <ul><li>Adaptive interfaces have a long history of involvement in accessibility R&D </li></ul...
Adaptation for accessibility: related work <ul><li>Notable work includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM Web Adaptation Technol...
User profiling <ul><li>Critical part of adaptivity for accessibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHO International Classificatio...
Ethical issues <ul><li>Relating to the sensitive nature of data gathered that reveals the extent of age-related decline. <...
SuS-IT project and accessibility adaptations for older people <ul><li>SuS-IT is a multi-disciplinary project aim to explor...
Technical work <ul><li>Developing and evaluating effectiveness of a framework that offers: </li></ul><ul><li>a library of ...
Early user engagement <ul><li>Used theatre to present early concepts in a prototype to group of older people (n=32) </li><...
Key observations <ul><li>Absence of negative reaction to adaptations from both groups </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency of both g...
Ongoing challenges <ul><li>Technical testing of accessibility adaptation framework: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy of capa...
Acknowledgements <ul><ul><ul><li>http://sus-it.lboro.ac.uk </li></ul></ul></ul>
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The Potential of Adaptive Interfaces as an Accessibility Aid for Older Web Users

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Presentation given at W4A 2010, Raleigh, NC, 27th April 2010. It described our work on investigating how

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The Potential of Adaptive Interfaces as an Accessibility Aid for Older Web Users

  1. 1. The potential of adaptive interfaces as an accessibility aid for older web users David Sloan , University of Dundee, UK Matthew Tylee Atkinson , Colin Machin , Yunqiu Li Loughborough University, UK W4A 2010, Raleigh, NC, April 27 th 2010
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Barriers to progress in how web accessibility advancements can support age-related decline </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations and accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>The SuS-IT project and our approach to an adaptivity framework for accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Early results of user engagement </li></ul>
  3. 3. Web accessibility developments and age-related decline <ul><li>Progress in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web content accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistive technology development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing effort paid to supporting the needs of older web users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding accessibility/usability issues (WAI-AGE project and others) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified browsers/computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work on understanding how to educate older people to be more informed web users </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Age-related capability decline – barriers to web use <ul><li>Age-related capability decline might take place in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision, hearing, dexterity, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence: short term memory, decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline is dynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature and effect is unpredictable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If unaddressed, the outcome may lead to compromised used of the Web/ICT… or abandonment </li></ul>
  5. 5. Age-related capability decline – barriers to web use <ul><li>Why might current accessibility developments not benefit someone experiencing age-related capability decline? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of awareness of one’s changing (increasing) accessibility needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The paradox of discoverability of access solutions – from advice to tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative attitude to use of assistive technology </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Adaptation for accessibility <ul><li>Adaptive interfaces have a long history of involvement in accessibility R&D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation acknowledges that ‘universal design’ can mean different solutions benefit different needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires two conditions to be fulfilled: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate detection of a person’s accessibility needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate selection and implementation of adaptation(s) that accommodate these needs as helpfully and unobtrusively as possible </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Adaptation for accessibility: related work <ul><li>Notable work includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM Web Adaptation Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessmonkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AEGIS project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But…work may be limited to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single applications (e.g. browser) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>single impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>severe impairments </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. User profiling <ul><li>Critical part of adaptivity for accessibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CC/PP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 24751 – accessibility metadata for people and resources, from an e-learning context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiles that can be easily populated and kept up-to-date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiles that bridge human characteristics and functional capabilities </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ethical issues <ul><li>Relating to the sensitive nature of data gathered that reveals the extent of age-related decline. </li></ul><ul><li>(How) should we make that data available to the user? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How should we manage the impact on personal well-being of a user on discovering extent of capability decline? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(How) should we make that data available to others who might need to know (clinicians, family)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If data gathered revealed some underlying medical issue? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. SuS-IT project and accessibility adaptations for older people <ul><li>SuS-IT is a multi-disciplinary project aim to explore role of IT in sustaining independence for older people… </li></ul><ul><li>… and minimising negative impact of age-related decline </li></ul><ul><li>Our contribution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop an accessibility adaptation framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To explore how it can accommodate age-related capability decline </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Technical work <ul><li>Developing and evaluating effectiveness of a framework that offers: </li></ul><ul><li>a library of adaptations that match specific accessibility needs </li></ul><ul><li>Detection of capability change (implicit or explicitly recorded) </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning system to choose appropriate adaptations and apply them to relevant applications </li></ul><ul><li>Retention and modification of capability/adaptation profile over time </li></ul>
  12. 12. Early user engagement <ul><li>Used theatre to present early concepts in a prototype to group of older people (n=32) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two groups, one novice users, one more experienced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Script designed to expose automated adaptations based on detected capability change, and characters reaction to these changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberately exaggerated adaptations to emphasise effects on interface - and on user(!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acts paused at strategic moments to provoke discussion on reaction to issues raised </li></ul>
  13. 13. Key observations <ul><li>Absence of negative reaction to adaptations from both groups </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency of both groups to see system as being for those less capable than themselves: “would be really helpful for older people…” </li></ul><ul><li>Shared suspicion of storage, use, and sharing of capability data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ would my optician find out my eyesight had decreased?” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Ongoing challenges <ul><li>Technical testing of accessibility adaptation framework: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy of capability change detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy of applying appropriate adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User-acceptance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of appropriate levels of obtrusiveness of the monitoring system; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data curation/access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploring to what extent a system such as this successfully sustains ICT access and use by older people? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Acknowledgements <ul><ul><ul><li>http://sus-it.lboro.ac.uk </li></ul></ul></ul>
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