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5 chapter3 5 chapter3 Document Transcript

  • CHAPTER 3:COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Coordination and Response Q1 Give example of changes in internal environment - body temperature -osmotic pressure - sug……level. S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Changes which cause responses in the body is called= s…………………………. Reaction of body to stimulus= r………………………….. Animals detect stimuli through r …………………. while effectors carry out the response. Plants show two types of response: t……………………and nastic movement. Movement of whole organism to external stimulus: t………………………………. Q2 Explain the pathway of information due to external stimuli: Rec……….. in sensory organs (eyes) Integrating center(brain) Stimu……… . Re………………… (Walk towards flower) Ef……………. (muscle in legs) Q3 Explain the pathway of information due to internal stimuli: 7. Body temperature becomes lower 6.Cooling response 1. Normal body temperature 5. E.…………. (skin and glands) rises 4. Integrating center in b………. or s…….….c……. 2. Body temperature increase (Sti……………) 3. Receptors in skin stimulated S6 Coordination = Process in the body whereby stimulus is detected, and the body responds. Involves the n……………. and e…………………. system. 1
  • Role of Human Nervous System Q1 Explain the role of human nervous system: Ans:  Receives information from r……………, transmits and interprets information to produce appropriate response  C………………. and control functions throughout the body  Maintains h……………………..in the body Organization of Nervous System Q1 Describe how the human nervous system is organized. Ans: Nervous System P……………nervous system - connect central nervous system to rest of body C……………nervous system -control center of body Brain Spinal cord Autonomic nervous system Somatic nervous system Structure and Function of the Brain S1 Label the three parts of the human brain and state its functions. 2
  • S2 The cerebrum has many grooves and folds so that it can store more n…………………. S3 The th……………….. receives information from sensory receptors(in the ears, eyes, nose, skin)and transmits to cerebrum. S4 The hy………………………….controls *the osmotic pressure, body temperature, glucose level in blood *emotion, anger, hunger , thirst, tiredness *coordinates the nervous system and e…………………. system Q1 Label the cross section of the spinal cord: Q2 What is the function of the spinal cord? Ans: Function of spinal cord is a) To connect the b………… to the p……………n………………s………….…… b) Control r……………………action such as sneezing, blinking, knee jerk S1 The dorsal root contains the a……………………. or s…………………..neurones. S2 The ventral root contains the e……………………or motor neurones. S3 Dorsal root ganglion consists of c………..b……………. of the afferent neurone Structure of the Neurone S1 The function of neurone is to carry messages in the form of nerve im…………… Q1 Label the structure of the efferent neurone: S2 Function of axon: transmit impulse away from the ………………..towards axon terminals. S3 Function of myelin sheath: - provide nutrients to axon - protect a…………from injury S4 Function of cell body: regulate all ………….activities S5 Function of axon terminal: Receive impulse from ………………..and transmit impulse to next n………………….. S6 The speed of impulse traveling along axon increases because the impulse jumps from one ………………to another. Q2 Complete the flow chart to show the transmission of impulse along a neurone: Nerve impulse d………. c……body a…… … A………… terminal 3 View slide
  • Q3 Complete the table below: Neurone Afferent Function Direction of flow of nerve impulse Interneuron e Efferent Pathway of Transmission of Information from Receptors to Effectors Q4 Describe how information from receptors travel to the effectors. Ans: R……….. in eyes detect stimulus to trigger i…………... S………… (See snake) impulse A………. .neurone impulse Re…..…… (Run) Effectors (muscles) E………. neurone impulse Brain integrates and interprets information, makes decision I……………….. .in the brain 4 View slide
  • Synapse and Transmission of Information Q1 Describe how information is transmitted along the synapse. Ans: Vesicles containing n…………………………. 2. Fusion of vesicles with m…………… 3. Neurotransmitters released into s………... 4. Neurotransmitters diffuse across synapse to the dendrite of another neurone Q2 Label the diagram below: che………… e…………… S1 The transmission of impulse is from electrical. S2 The function of synapse: - ensures nerve impulse flows in o………direction S3 Function of mitochondria: Produce e………….. for transmission of impulse across s…………………… S4 Examples of neurotransmitters:do…………………, acetylcholine and norad………………………… 5
  • Types of Coordinated Response Q1 What are the differences between voluntary , involuntary and reflex actions? Types of Part of nervous Characteris Reaction Effector action system involved tics time Voluntary Cerebrum Under the Slow Skeletal control of muscles the will Involuntary Reflex M…………… o……………….. S……………. c…………… Not under the control of the will Not under the control of the will Fast Fast Example - - C…………… Muscles - Glands - S……….. muscles Skeletal muscles - Reflex Action S1 Reflex action is a f…………, a…………….. and without conscious control to prevent body from danger. S2 Reflex action involves t………………or three neurones. S3 The pathway along which an impulse flows during a reflex action is caleed r………..a…………. S3 In the knee jerk reflex only the afferent and the e…………………….neurones are involved. Q1 Explain the transmission of impulse when a person accidentally touches a hot object. P………….. Receptors in the skin impulse S………… neurone Muscles contract to move away hand impulse impulse Interneurone M……………. neurone 6
  • Diseases Related To Nervous System Q1 Give example of nervous system related diseases. Ans: P………… disease because Diseases Related To Nervous System -Lack of d…………. -not inherited Epilepsy Polio -Loss of grey matter because of polio virus A………… disease effect -tremors -impaired balance -muscles weak because -lack of a………………… - can be inherited Multiple scle……………….. -myelin sheath breakdown -Shaky limbs, speech difficulties effect -loss of intelligence -lose ability to read, write and talk 7
  • ROLE OF HORMONES IN HUMANS S1 H……………………….are chemicals in bloodstream. S2 Endocrine system is made up of e…………….............glands. There are no ducts. Hormones are secreted directly into bloodstream. S3 Endocrine system complements the n………………system in ensuring all activities of the body are carried out efficiently. S4 Examples of body process which require both nervous system and endocrine systems are m………………….. cycle, development of secondary sex characteristics, blood water and salt regulation, and growth. S4Label the endocrine system and state the functions for the hormones below: 8
  • Secretion of Hormones Q1 Describe how secretion of hormones are regulated in the body. Ans: a)Secretion of hormones are regulated by another h…………………… Example: Pit………….. g…………. to secrete t…………….. s…………….. h……………. stimulates Low thyroxin level stimulates T…………... secretes t……………. inhibits Produce less ………… effect b) Secretion of hormones regulated by levels of certain s…………………… Example: Pancreas secrete stimulates Insulin converts excess g………..to glycogen i……………… High level of glucose Eat food such as rice, mee Normal level of glucose in blood Normal level of glucose Fasting Low level of glucose stimulates Pancreas secrete Glucagon converts glycogen to glucose g………… c) Secretion of hormones regulated by nervous system. Example: - Hypothalamus receives impulses from the receptors in the body. Hypothalamus stimulates a……………………..gland to release hormones. - Adrenal gland releases a……………………when stimulated by nervous system. - Heartbeat rate , blood pressure and blood flow increases 9
  • Coordination Involving Both Nervous System and Endocrine System in a ‘Fight or Flight Situation’. Q1 Describe how the nervous and endocrine systems are involved in a Fight or Flight Situation’. Ans: -In a fight and flight situation, both the ……………….system and ………………….system are involved. -Example: impulse brain a………… gland impulse secrete a…………. . effect Escape Run!!! effect Increase in heart b…………., blood pressure, blood flow to muscles to increase energy in muscles Effects of Hormonal Imbalance Q1 Explain briefly the effects of excess of hormones and deficiency of hormones in humans. Endocrine Gland Hormone Excess of hormone Deficiency of hormone Pituitary Growth hormone G…………………. D……………………… ADH(antidiuretic hormone) O……………….. Thyroid Thyroxine - Enlarged thyroid gland known as hypert…… - Increase in metabolic rate, weight loss, heart rate, bulging eyes. Pancreas Insulin Causes hypoglycemia -fatigue, convulsions, mental confusion d…………………… i……………………; very thirsty, can cause dehydration -Condition known as hypo………………. - Slow heart beat rate, weight gain, fatigue -In children it causes c…………… which results in dwarfism and slow m………… growth. D…………… m…………. 10
  • Q2 How are hormones used in medicine? Ans: • T………………….. is used to treat cretinism • I,…………………… is injected into diabetics • A…………………………….hormone is used to treat diabetes insipidus patient • G………………. hormone is used to treat dwarfism • E……………….. is used to treat menstrual problems • P…………………..is injected into pregnant women to prevent miscarriage Homeostasis in Humans S1 Optimal physical and chemical conditions must be maintained in the internal environment to ensure: a) p………………………… processes in the body can proceed at optimum rates. b) organisms can adjust to changes in the i………………and ex………………….environment. c) so that the organism can s………………… S2 The regulation of the internal environment so that it is always in optimal condition is known as h………………………………. S3 The physical factors that affect the internal environment are t………………………and blood pressure. S4 The chemical factors of the internal environment are partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, o……………p………………….and s………….levels. S5 The osmotic pressure of blood depends on the w…………and m…………………… content in blood. Q1 What is relationship between the blood osmotic pressure and urine output? Ans: H………osmotic pressure of blood Water reabsorbed back into blood by kidneys C…………... urine L………osmotic pressure of blood Less water reabsorbed back into blood by kidneys D………… .urine Normal osmotic pressure of blood Normal osmotic pressure of blood Normal osmotic pressure of blood S6 The function of kidneys are: - E………………… - O……………………………….. - Regulate chemical composition of blood - Regulate blood p… 11
  • Q2 Label the kidney below: S7 Each kidney consists of numerous functional units known as………………………. Q3 Label the nephron below: S8 The cortex part of the kidney consists of the B………………c………………….., P………………c………………………t………… and D………………c………………… t………… S9 The medulla part of the kidney consists of L ………………of H………………………. 12
  • Q4 Describe the formation of urine. Ans: S10The formation of urine consists of three processes:U…………………………………, R…………………………………………..and S………………………………… Ultrafiltration: Diameter of a…………… arteriole is bigger than e………………arteriole. High hydrostatic pressure of blood in glomerulus. The wall of glomerulus is one-cell thick. All blood components filter out of glomerulus except for r………… b……..cells, p……………and large p………………..molecules. The components inside the cavity of Bowman’s capsule is known as g………………f……………… Reabsorption: -Reabsorption takes place along the t………………….and the contents are returned back into the blood capillaries. -The tubules are one-cell thick. The proximal tubules have a lot of b…………c………….. -At the proximal tubules, 80% water is reabsorbed by o…………………. -100% glucose, amino acids reabsorbed by ac……….. transport - u…………… .is not reabsorbed - At the descending limb of loop of Henle w……………is reabsorbed; at the ascending limb of loop of Henle sod…….. and calc………..ions are actively pumped out into the blood capillaries. - At the distal convoluted loop and c………………….. duct, more water, sodium and chloride ions are reabsorbed into the blood capillaries. Secretion: -Urea, ur………ac………and amm……………are removed from blood capillaries into distal convoluted tubules by a………….. transport. - Other toxic substances and d………are secreted out by sim………d………..…….. - The final product in the collecting duct is called u………… - Urine is made of ……………..%water, …………………..%nitrogenous waste such as urea, u…………a…………., a…………………………..and c………………………and ………..% of salt and bile pigments. Osmoregulation S1 The kidneys are also known as o…………………………….organs. S2 The kidneys regulate the osmotic pressure of blood by regulating the w……………..and s…………………content in blood. Excess s……….and less w…………..in blood High Osmotic pressure Excess water and less salt in S3 Osmoregulation is controlled by 2 hormones:Anti-d………….hormone and a…………………… Low of blood blood 13
  • S4 Both hormones regulate the salt and water content in blood. S5 A……………………………..hormones controls the reabsorption of water; this hormone makes the tubule wall more permeable to water. S6 A………………………..hormones controls the reabsorption of salts; this hormone makes the tubule wall more permeable to salts. Mechanism of osmoregulation by negative feedback mechanism: Corrective mechanisms by effectors O……………… in hypothalamus detect change H……….. blood osmotic pressure P…………gland release A……… + tubules become more p………….. to water More water is reabsorbed into blood A………….gland not stimulated to release a……………... -Less salt is reabsorbed into blood Less water and more salt in blood Urine is c…………… .and small amount Blood osmotic pressure falls Salty food/ sweating Normal osmotic pressure of blood Normal osmotic pressure in blood Drink lots of water Corrective mechanisms by effectors L…..blood osmotic pressure Osmoreceptor in h………………. .detect change Pituitary gland not stimulated - tubules not permeable to water - Less water is reabsorbed into blood Adrenal gland release a…………… More salt is reabsorbed into blood Blood osmotic pressure rises More salt and less water in blood Urine is d…… and l…… amount 14
  • Consequences of Impaired Kidney Function S1 If the kidney fails to function, metabolic waste such as u……., excess w……………… and s………. and the o……………p…………………..of blood cannot be maintained. S2 Kidney failure patients can be treated by:h………………………….or k………………… t………………….. S3 The process whereby a dialysis machine remove toxic waste, urea and excess water and mineral salts is known as h…………………….. S4 The dialysis fluid must be hyp……………………to blood plasma. This is important to enable excess water, salt, all glucose, amino acids to be removed from blood. S5 The dialysis blood is constantly changed to remove the w……………p………………. and to maintain the c………………………….gradient between the patient’s blood and dialysis fluid. S6 The coiled tubing is semi permeable so that r…………b……………c………., p…………………….., and l…………p……………molecules cannot diffuse out. S7 The u……….and salt concentration in the dialysis fluid is lower than blood so that all urea and excess salt can be removed from the blood. Regulation of Blood Sugar Level S1 Normal concentration of blood glucose is ……………..mg in 100cm3 of blood. Q1 Describe the regulation of blood sugar level in the body. High g………. in blood Pancreas secrete i……………… Eat sweet food/drinks Corrective mechanisms - ………glucose level Normal glucose level ………glucose level fasting ………glucose in blood Pancreas secrete g…………. Corrective Mechanisms - S2 The Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas has two types of cell:a…………( b………………( cells). cells)and 15
  • S3 …………………cells produce insulin; ……………………..cells produce glucagon. Regulation of Body Temperature S1 Normal human body temperature is ……………………..oC. S2 The t……………………in the skin detect change of temperature in the external environment and the h……………………… detect change of temperature in the internal environment. S3 P……………means - body hair - blood capillaries - sweat glands Thermoreceptors in skin impulse h…………..... impulse effectors m……………..process -muscles -adrenal glands -thyroid glands Regulation of Body temperature by Physical Means Q1 Describe the regulation of body temperature in the body by physical means. Cold environment Action of hair erector muscles -Hair erector muscles contract -Hair become erect -A thick layer of air is trapped -Reduce loss of heat by conduction and radiation Hot environment Action of hair erector muscles - Action of blood capillaries -vasoconstriction -less blood flow close to body surface -Reduce loss of heat by conduction and radiation Action of sweat glands - Action of blood capillaries Action of sweat glands -sweat glands active -sweating increase -Sweat evaporates fast -More heat loss from skin Regulation of Body temperature by Metabolism Process Q2 Describe the regulation of body temperature in the body by physical means. 16
  • Cold environment Action of muscles -muscles contract and relax quickly -shivering caused by involuntary muscles produces heat Hot environment Action of muscles - Action of adrenal glands - Action of adrenal glands -adrenal gland not stimulated -metabolic rate reduced -Less heat produced Action of thyroid gland -Thyroid gland stimulated -Metabolic rate increase -More heat produced Action of thyroid gland - The n………………f………………………mechanism in the body ensures that in a c………..environment, less heat is lost and more heat is produced and in a h………..environment, more heat is lost and less heat is produced. S1 H……………………..= process whereby the factors controlling the internal environment is maintained in spite of changing external environment. S2 In homeostasis both the n…………system and e………….……system regulate the negative feedback mechanism. Practising a Healthy Lifestyle S1 A d.......…. is a chemical that causes change in a persons behavior. S2 Drug a……………….. is the intentional misuse of drugs. S3 Examples of misused drugs are m………………., c………………….., and h………………. S4 Repeated use of drugs can lead to drug add…………… S5 Drugs are divided to 3 groups: s……………………, d…………………….and hallucinogens Q1 describe the effect of drug abuse on humans. Ans: Type of drug Effect on body Long-term effect Example of drugs S………………. It increases h………..rate, -Blood circulation is -Co………………. Stimulants breathing rate and not efficient in body increase the b……………….pressure -Caffeine(coffee, activities of Also increase the release of -Can h…………….. cola drinks) n………………… n……………………. system. A t the sy…………… in -Depression(mental -N……………….. the brain. This makes a illness) person feel energetic. -A……………….. D………………… It decreases h………..rate, Slows down the breathing rate and -Memory loss - Lung and liver -B………………. 17
  • activity of the nervous system H……………….. b……………….pressure It causes muscles to r…………. and can reduce tension It makes a person less stressed and fell satisfied. Makes a person see or hear things that is non-existent. c…………. -Inability to concentrate -Breathing problems -S………………. -Confusion -C…………. Very emotional person - H………………. -Morphine -Tranquilisers -Al………….. -Marijuana -LSD S6 A…………………..is a depressant. It slows down body r………………, disrupts c……………………………….. and impairs j…………………….. S7 If a person takes too much of alcohol it can cause confusion, affect m…………….. coordination and causes blurred v…………………. S8 Consuming too much of alcohol can also make a person become angry and v………………. easily. S9 Abuse of alcohol can cause addiction, b…………… and l……………… damage. S10 An a……………………..is a person who has become very dependent on alcohol Q3 State 3 factors that can cause drug and alcohol abuse. Plant Hormones S1 A plant hormone is a chemical substance produced by a plant and influences the g………………… and d……………………..of plants. S2 Some examples of plant hormones are a…………………, g………………………, cytokinin and e…………………… S3 Auxins are produced at the m………………………of the shoots and roots. S4 Auxins controls p…………………………in plants. S5 Auxins always accumulates at the cell e………………………..zone. S6 High concentration of auxins promotes growth in s…………but inhibits growth in r………… Q1 Describe how auxins causes growth in shoots. Ans: -Auxins are produced in the a…………………meristem of the shoot -Auxins d……………..from tip of coleoptile into the zone of e………………….. -Auxins cause cells to elongate -E……………….distribution of auxins cause cells to elongate evenly -Coleoptile grows straight up 18
  • Q2 Draw and explain the growth of shoots in the diagrams below: Exp. Description of experiment Expected result I Explanation Auxin diffuse into the zone of e………………. Auxin is distributed e…………. II Rate of growth of cells in zone of elongation is the same. Coleoptiles grows straight up. Auxin diffuse into the zone of e………………. More auxin accumulate on s………………side. Rate of growth of cells in shaded side is m…….. than light side. III Coleoptile b…… and g……… towards light. Auxin diffuse into the zone of e………………. Auxin is distributed e…………. IV Rate of growth of cells in zone of elongation is the same. Coleoptile grows straight up. Auxin diffuse from agar into the zone of e………………. Auxin accumulate under jelly block side. Rate of growth of cells under jelly block is m…….. Coleoptile b…… and g……… to the left side. 19
  • V Unilateral light causes auxin to be transported to the shaded side. Auxin from meristem cannot diffuse through m…... No cell elongation occurs.Coleoptile cannot bend and grow. VI Mica prevents the auxin from being transported to the right. Therefore, concentration of auxin is the s……… on both sides. Cell elongation occurs evenly. The coleoptile grows s…………… up. Q3 Explain why roots show positive geotropism and shoots show negative geotropism. -A higher concentration of auxins in shoots p………………… elongation of cells. -Therefore the lower side of the shoot with higher concentration of auxin will grow faster -The shoot curves and grows u……………. -A higher concentration of auxins in roots i………………….. elongation of cells. -Therefore the lower side of the root with higher concentration of auxin will grow slower -The shoot curves and grows d………………… Q2 Explain the effect of auxin concentration on the elongation of roots and shoots in the graph below. H……….. concentration of auxins p………………… cell elongation in the s………………. L……… concentration of auxins p………………… cell elongation in the r………. Use of Hormones in Agriculture Q1 State the uses of hormones in agriculture. Hormones Use of hormone Promote r………….. to grow from stem cuttings A……………. As a weed killer. For p…………………………. Flowers are sprayed with auxins. Fruits are formed without fertilization. These fruits do not have s……………. To prevent fruits from falling before it is ripe Gibberellins Promote growth of plants Promote s……………… germination Ethylene To make fruits ripe faster 20