RDA from Scratch for Catalogers


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This is intended to be a two day workshop on RDA. This workshop will explore RDA with a specific focus on theories, practicalities, authority work and hands on cataloging. The workshop will take the student through understanding the theories behind RDA and then cataloging by RDA standards.

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  • Introduce yourself. Recommend including committee/task force work, general cataloging background/experience, any other teaching/workshop experience, RDA experience/involvementGroup intros: name, library, RDA experience, and: “If you could be any vegetable, what would you be and why?”
  • Multiple sets – different communities had their own sets – Law, serials, medical, etc.1940s the ALA cataloging rules emerged as more primary, but various rules had existed for many years (Cutter’s dictionary arrangement, etc.)AACR – North America and UK couldn’t agree on certain approaches (corporate bodies – US entered some under place instead of under the name itself)Resulted in the famous AACR2 migration and de-superimposition of headingsMARC flavors: UKMARC, USMARC, MARC21, MARCXML, etc.
  • AACR2 – based on cards; limited by that 3x5 environment (ex: rule of 3, abbreviations) – cards are expensive, data is cheap also limited to print world have to “shoehorn” non-print formats into MARC and AACR2 structure intertwined with MARC and ISBD tied to bibliographic *library* world – data in a siloRDA – designed for the web and online, looks to future of web interactions open our data up to be used and transferred and connected toRead RDA Toolkit 0.0 Purpose and Scope and 0.1 Key Features
  • Used during RDA development and testing for evaluation and guidance on future development/changes
  • ICP meetings outcome: IFLA Statement of International Cataloguing Principles (published Feb. 2009): http://www.ifla.org/publications/statement-of-international-cataloguing-principlesRDA tasks from U.S. Test Coordinating Committee: http://www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/rda/source/rda-execsummary-public-13june11.pdfRe-writing RDA in clear, unambiguous, plain English ; RDA Toolkit improvement ; RDA updating process ; full set of examples ; BIBFRAME development ; training plan ; documentation/toolsRDA: for awhile jokingly called “Recently Delayed Again” due to delays in drafts, reviews, publishing, etc.
  • RDA testWho: national libraries other institutionsOther groups also participated informally, submitting their records to be analyzed with the formal test created records, such as the ALCTS Continuing Resources Section Cataloging Committee, other groups for specialized formats (OLAC for audio-visual, etc.)
  • What is the economic impact?What is the impact on library operations?What are the direct costs?What are the training impact and costs?
  • There are four possible outcomes: Do not implement RDA Postpone implementation until certain changes are made Implement RDA Implement RDA with specific recommended changes or policy decisions for US libraries
  • Exemplifies why we do what we do – end goal: we make stuff findable!
  • Group 1 – products of intellectual of artistic endeavorGroup 2 – entitles responsible for Group 1 production/creationGroup 3 – serve as subjects for the workThese groups correspond to the user tasks: Find – work/expression – what I want – matches my search Identify – work/expression – this version of the work (recording, text, etc.) Select – manifestation – this is the format/language I want/need Obtain – item – how to I get it?Example? (suggestion from group)
  • Don Quixote – book ; video/DVD ; play ; English translationUse a white board and ask the group to identify how many works, expressions, manifestations, and items there are (circle using different colors to differentiate):Group 1: Print book (2 copies), ebook HTML, ebookePub, ebook Overdrive, ebook Kindle, audio book on CD, audio book on MP3, English translation in print, 2nd edition of the book, abridged version of the book [2 works (original print, 2nd ed.); 3 expressions (original, translation, abridged); 10 manifestations (4 print, 4 ebook, 2 audio); 11 items]Group 2: ask for an example from group
  • Communication format: just the “container” to hold the content of the description; a “wrapper” for the dataISBD tells us how to display that contentRDA/AACR2 tells us how to identify and enter the contentFRBR conceptual model tells us how to structure the content and what content needs to be includedExample: creator =/= 1xx field; creator can be entered any authorized access point e.g. the creator of the resource you are describing may have a creator role such as editor
  • Primary tool for using/accessing text and content of RDA
  • Updates content and metadata: updates both major and “fast track” changes and corrections May 14 – all reworded chapters are now released/publishedRDA Toolkit Essentials – archives available on RDA Toolkit Teaching and Training page; new sessions held regularly
  • RDA 0.3.3 – Alignment with FRADNow called authorized access points
  • MARCdocumentationSome are for Group 1 and Group 2, some only apply to Group 2 entities
  • READ the LC documentation on changes to the authority file both for names and subjects sent out over various lists also posted on PCC website
  • Families – subject and name authorities – separate records, one in each file; can’t use a family in the name authority file as a subject and vice versaExamples – as class Miss Piggy Kermit Millie the dog Socks the cat
  • Many more options to qualify a name to differentiate itAuthority – whole *identity* of a person; not just the heading itselfConferences, congresses, etc. separate records for each individual conference also a record for the “generic” version for use with serials/multi-part if needed
  • Printouts of RDA Authority records personal names corporate bodiesPull up sample record in OCLCOrder of fields in 040: |a |b |e |e |c |d |d
  • Essentially “flipping AACR2 on it’s head” in terms of approachRDA starts with the content, describing the elements of the WORK first, then the EXPRESSION and MANIFESTATIONAACR2 is organized by format (carrier) – the tangible comes firstI largely work with web resources. So I have online books. Online videos. Online videos that are issued as serials. All of these things require me to review and cross reference and flip back and forth like an insane woman in AACR2 from chapter to chapter. The first and second examples both require using 2 chapters. The third example requires I use THREE distinct chapters in AACR2 to fully describe the thing I'm looking at since the format determines how the thing is described. This is not efficient.But core goal of making things findable (uniquely identifiable) is still the same
  • MARC documentation
  • Registered – what does that mean? – in the metadata registry for the webControlled: *Closed* lists for content, media, and carrier types *Closed* lists for relationship terms can petition to add new terms as identified
  • Transcription – appearance on the piece is important in RDA; record what you see (capitalization is an appendix!) use for titles, statements of responsibility in their entirety, place and publisher, etc. abbreviate ONLY if found on the source itselfSource – the resource itself, including accompanying material, container, storage, presentation, etc. if taking information from something outside the resource itself or supplying data, enclose data in square brackets
  • Circulate sample recordsPull up examples on OCLC and walk through fields ; “What do you see that’s different?” printed monograph: 838124078 ; 842392618 (240 field) ; 811004727 ; 826382429 (multipart mono); 842256261 (130 field) serial: 830844725 ; 833139957 (130 field)Order of fields in 040: |a |b |e |e |c |d |d
  • OCLC #811140443AACR2, added 33x fields
  • OCLC #822230423RDA – early test record so has additional RDA fields (testers often applied every applicable option to fully test all possibilities/options in RDA)Repeating 33x fields
  • OCLC# 50469952HYBRID 260, use of brackets careful with 222 – ISSN still qualifies by manifestation
  • #823260252HYBRIDLook at 130 – qualified by manifestation, not expressionUniform titles are only at the *expression* level
  • What is a hybrid record? A record that contains elements from more than one content standard e.g. AARC2 record with 33x fields or relationship terms can safely add as many elements as you desire that don’t impact the transcription based descriptive fields – those form the “bibliographic integrity” of the record e.g. add notes, change the authorized access points, add authorized access points, but don’t edit the publisher or title informationWhen do you re-describe? When you need to edit the descriptive fields that are based on transcription (generally the “core” elements of a record)Why hybrid records? goal is to support access – add things that will enhance and contribute to the user tasksOn PCC website: http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/rda/PCC%20RDA%20guidelines/Post-RDA-Implementation-Guidelines.html
  • Focus on core and core+ elementsBIBCO Standard Record
  • BIBFRAME?Linked Data/semantic web? – based on relationshipsLinked open data: http://lod-cloud.net/ - focus on upper right quadrant – lots of libraries/library related groups participatingMetadata map: http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/~jenlrile/metadatamap/Tools: Handout of resources links books
  • RDA from Scratch for Catalogers

    1. 1. RDA from Scratch for CatalogersShana L. McDanoldHead, Metadata Services
    2. 2. Introductions and Acknowledgments Who am I and why am I teaching this? Attendees intro Slide content credits: Adam Schiff (University of Washington) Library of Congress Barbara Tillett, Judy Kuhagen, the staff of the Cataloging &Acquisitions Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division Jacquie Samples (Duke U.) Joint Steering Committee for the Development of RDA And many more who have contributed bits and pieces
    3. 3. Course outline Day 1 RDA – where did it come from? FRBR – the core concepts Authorities  Authorized Access Points Bibliographic records Day 2 Bibliographic records (continued) Game: is it RDA or AACR2? Step by step as a group Step by step as individuals What’s next? Relationships! Wrap-up
    4. 4. Cataloging brief history Early cataloging codes No “one” set for US libraries 1940s: ALA cataloging rules 1961 IFLA’s Paris Principles Cutter’s Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalog 1967: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR) 2 versions!: North American text and a British text 1969: ISBDs (consolidated in 2007) 1978: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules Revised (AACR2) Revisions: 1988, 1998, 2002 1960s: MARC developed (Henriette Avram) Work completed 1969 US standard by 1971; international standard 1973 Several “flavors” of MARC
    5. 5. So why RDA? And why now? AACR2 is based on a card environment, thus it islimited by that 3x5 inch boundary RDA is designed for the web and onlinecommunication, making use of how intertwined theweb is to share information From RDA 0.0 Purpose and Scope: “RDA provides a set of guidelines and instructions onformulating data to support resource discovery.” “RDA provides a comprehensive set of guidelines andinstructions covering all types of content and media.”
    6. 6. So why RDA? And why now? RDA Objectives (RDA 0.4.2): Responsiveness to user needs Cost efficiency Flexibility Continuity RDA Principles (RDA 0.4.3) Differentiation Sufficiency Relationships Representation Accuracy Attribution Common usage or practice Uniformity
    7. 7. So why RDA? And why now? Specific RDA Goals Easy to use and interpret Applicable to an online, networked environment Provide effective bibliographic control for all types ofmedia Encourage use beyond library community Compatible with other similar standards Have a logical structure based on internationallyagreed-upon principles Separate content and carrier data, and separatecontent from display Examples – numerous and appropriate
    8. 8. RDA – the birth story 2005: Final update of AACR2 2002 ed. 1997: International Conference on the Principles & FutureDevelopment of AACR 2002: AACR3 development begins 2003-2007: meetings of the International Cataloguing Principles(ICP) 2005: AACR3 renamed RDA: Resource Description and Access 2006, 2007: drafts of RDA chapters and appendices 2008: first full draft of RDA 2009: delivered to the publishers 2010: first published in the RDA Toolkit 2010/2011: testing, testing 2012: re-writing by an editor, other tasks designated by U.S. TestCoordinating Committee March 31, 2013: RDA implementation!
    9. 9. RDA – testing, testing Goal: assure the operational, technical, andeconomic feasibility of RDA Who: U.S. RDA Test Coordinating Committee Test participants: Library of Congress, NationalAgricultural Library, National Library of Medicine, 23partner institutions Timeline: June-Sept. 2010: training Oct.-Dec. 2010: record creation Jan.-Mar. 2011: analyze results Apr.-June 2011: report and decision
    10. 10. RDA – testing, testing Questions answered by the test and the reports Does RDA meet the stated goals? What is user reaction to the records? What is the economic impact? How was the data being assessed and collected? Review and analysis of records Surveys Statistics on time Record use and impact in shared environment (OCLC,SkyRiver) to ensure RDA/AACR2 compatibility
    11. 11. RDA – testing, testing CONCLUSION! Finally. Decision published June 13, 2011 Overarching conclusion: “Contingent on the satisfactory progress/completion of thetasks and action items below, the CoordinatingCommittee recommends that RDA should beimplemented by LC,NAL, and NLM no sooner thanJanuary 2013. The three national libraries should commitresources to ensure progress is made on these activitiesthat will require significant effort from many in and beyondthe library community.”
    12. 12. FRBR family? Family: FRBR: Functional Requirements for BibliographicRecords FRAD: Functional Requirements for Authority Data FRSAD: Functional Requirements for Subject AuthorityData Conceptual model used as the foundation for RDA FRBR: WEMI attributes/elements (resource) FRAD/FRSAD: entitles (persons, corporate bodies) andsubjects (concepts) associated with the resource Focus: user tasks and relationships
    13. 13. FRBR User Tasks Find to locate either a single entity or a set of entities as the result ofa search using an attribute or relationship of the entity Identify to confirm that the entity described corresponds to the entitysought, or to distinguish between two or more entities withsimilar characteristics Select to choose an entity that meets the users requirements withrespect to content, physical format, etc., or to reject an entity asbeing inappropriate to the users needs Obtain to acquire an entity through purchase, loan, etc., or toaccess an entity electronically through an online connection
    14. 14. FRBR Structure Group 1 (WEMI): products of intellectual of artisticendeavor Work Expression Manifestation Item Group 2: entitles responsible for Group 1production/creation Person Corporate Body Family Group 3: subjects for works (Group1) Concept Object Event Place
    15. 15. 15WorkExpressionManifestationItemis realized throughis embodied inis exemplified byInherent Group 1RelationshipsFRBR Structure – Group 1
    16. 16. OriginalWork - SameExpressionSame Work –New ExpressionNew WorkCataloging RulesCut-Off PointDerivativeEquivalent DescriptiveFacsimileReprintExactReproductionCopyMicroformReproductionVariationsor VersionsTranslationSimultaneous“Publication”EditionRevisionSlightModificationExpurgatedEditionIllustratedEditionAbridgedEditionArrangementSummaryAbstractDigestChange of GenreAdaptationDramatizationNovelizationScreenplayLibrettoFreeTranslationSame Style orThematic ContentParodyImitationReviewCriticismAnnotatedEditionCasebookEvaluationCommentaryFamily of Works
    17. 17. FRBR Structure - Relationships17WorkExpressionManifestationItemis owned byis produced byis realized byis created byPersonCorporate BodyFamilyRelationshipsBetween Groups 1 and 2
    18. 18. FRBR exercise What are the identifying elements of the: Work Expression Manifestation Item Relationship(s) Other Group 1 entities? Group 2 (person, family, corporate body)?
    19. 19. An important distinction FRBR conceptual model RDA/AACR2: content standard ISBD display format/standard MARC/MARC21 communication format other communication formats: ONIX, Dublin Core
    20. 20. RDA Toolkit Tabs RDA – text of RDA Tools RDA element set RDA mappings (MARC-RDA; MODS-RDA) RDA record examples Workflows – can be global (public) or local Maps – Metadata Application Profiles Entity Relationship Diagrams (FRBR, FRAD, etc.) Schemas – element sets Resources AACR2 LC-PCC PS (policy statements) Other (various links)
    21. 21. RDA Toolkit Updates “When there is a new release for RDA Toolkit, it is madeon the second Tuesday of the month. Releases typicallycontain updates to content and metadata, enhancementsto RDA Toolkit functionality, and fixes to existing bugs.”(RDA Toolkit blog) May 14, 2013 Next: July 9, 2013 Training RDA Toolkit Essentials - FREE
    22. 22. Authorities Based on attributes and relationships identified inFRAD Person Family Corporate body Place Authorized/variant access points and elements willfor now continue to be documented in authorityrecords
    23. 23. Authority records - vocabulary changesAACR2 RDAHeading Authorized access pointSee reference Variant access pointSee also reference Authorized access point for relatedentity
    24. 24. Authority records – new MARC fields 046 : associated dates (Work, Expression, Person,Family, Corporate Body) 336 : content type (Work, Expression, Person, Family,Corporate Body) 370 : associated place (Work, Expression, Person,Family, Corporate Body) 371 : address (Person, Family, Corporate Body) 372 : field of activity (Person, Family, Corporate Body) 373 : affiliation (Person, Family, Corporate Body) 374 : occupation (Person, Family, Corporate Body) 375 : gender (Person) 376 : family information (Family) 377 : associated language (Person, Family, CorporateBody entities)
    25. 25. Authority records – new MARC fields 380 : form of work (Work) 381 : other distinguishing characteristic of work orexpression (Work, Expression) 368 : additional corporate body attributes 378 : fuller form of personal name 382 : medium of performance (Work) 383 : numeric designation of a musical work (Work) 384 : key (Work)
    26. 26. Key changes for Authorities Authorized access point is based on *usage* orpreferred name Date of birth/death are required (if known) Spell out born, died, approximately, use – (hyphen) foropen dates Include titles or terms associated with surnames Such as Junior (Jr.), Senior, etc. Separate guidelines for royalty, nobility, religious persons
    27. 27. Key changes for Authorities Families Fictitious persons and real non-human entities cannow be authors Treatment of pseudonyms – separate identities If pseudonym is preferred and real name is not used,establish under pseudonym; otherwise establish eachidentity separately
    28. 28. Key changes for Authorities Undifferentiated names – avoid creating Options: Dates Qualifiers Titles/designations Profession/field of activity And more! Conferences, Congresses, other events with dates Include frequency in the name Include number, date, and location
    29. 29. Key changes for Authorities Uniform titles Language: Polyglot no longer used Separate authorized access points for each language oftranslation Works always present Selections.  Works. Selections. Bible: removal of O.T. and N.T. Bible. O.T. Genesis  Bible. Genesis. AND Bible. OldTestament. (for the whole) Koran  Qur’an
    30. 30. RDA authority record example(s) Identification: 040 |e rda 008/10 (Rules) = z (other)
    31. 31. Bibliographic records RDA is fundamentally different in its approach todescribing materials/resources/things Focus on content *first* and carrier/format second RDA cultivates relationships “Guidelines and instructions” rather than rules Cataloger’s judgment MARC record contains a mix of Group 1 WEMIattributes as well as Group 2 and Group 3 entities.
    32. 32. Bib records – vocabulary changesAACR2 RDAHeading Authorized access pointAuthor, composer, artist, etc. CreatorMain entry Preferred title, and, if appropriate, authorizedaccess point for the creatorUniform title Two RDA counterparts:1. Preferred title + differentiating information2. Conventional collective title like “works”Physical description Carrier descriptionGeneral material designator(GMD)Three elements:1. Content type2. Media type3. Carrier typeChief source Preferred source(s)
    33. 33. Bib records – new MARC fields 336 – content type 337 – media type 338 – carrier type 344 – sound characteristics 345 – projection characteristics of moving image 346 – video characteristics 347 – digital file characteristics 264 – production, publication, distribution,manufacture, and copyright notice New subfields for relationships New subfields to parse 502 Dissertation information
    34. 34. Bib records - vocabularies Registered and controlled
    35. 35. Key changes for Bibs Transcription – record what’s there! Source(s) Relationships for authorized access points *Required* for the creator Rule of three – gone! Be liberal in recording alternate titles Related works are no longer in a general note field,but rather traced so they can be linked GMD replaced by 336 (content type), 337 (mediatype), 338 (carrier type)
    36. 36. Key changes for Bibs Spelling out of abbreviations p.  pages ill.  illustrations cm is not an abbreviation, it is a symbol, like © Latin terms no longer used [S.l. : s.n.]  [Place of publication not identified] :[publisher not identified] [et al.]  [and # others] [sic]  245 has title as appears on piece; 246 containscorrected form of title Adjacent bracketed elements are bracketedseparately
    37. 37. RDA bib record example(s) Identification: 040 |e rda LDR/18 (Desc) = i (ISBD), c (ISBD not included), blank(non-ISBD)
    38. 38. RDA or AACR2?
    39. 39. RDA or AACR2?
    40. 40. RDA or AACR2?
    41. 41. RDA or AACR2?
    42. 42. RDA or AACR2? Hybrid records
    43. 43. Hands on practice! Group record creation Individual record creation
    44. 44. Image created by:Jennifer YoungNorthwestern University
    45. 45. What’s next? BIBFRAME Linked Data and the Semantic Web Tools Bibframe.org RIMMF – RDA in Many Metadata Formats VTLS Sandbox (subscription) – “FRBRize” records Linkeddata.org
    46. 46. Wrap-up??
    47. 47. Image created by:Jennifer YoungNorthwestern University