RDA and Editing Bibliographic Records


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This is a short (1.5 hour) presentation for support staff about RDA and the do's and don'ts of editing bibliographic records in MARC format. Covers background material on RDA, identifying RDA records vs AACR2 records, changes to records and cataloging practices due to RDA (fields, vocabularies, terms, etc.), hybrid AACR2/RDA records, and the basic rules of editing (both general and for specific fields).

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  • Multiple sets – different communities had their own sets – Law, serials, medical, etc.1940s the ALA cataloging rules emerged as more primary, but various rules had existed for many years (Cutter’s dictionary arrangement, etc.)AACR – North America and UK couldn’t agree on certain approaches (corporate bodies – US entered some under place instead of under the name itself)Resulted in the famous AACR2 migration and de-superimposition of headingsMARC flavors: UKMARC, USMARC, MARC21, MARCXML, etc.
  • ICP meetings outcome: IFLA Statement of International Cataloguing Principles (published Feb. 2009): http://www.ifla.org/publications/statement-of-international-cataloguing-principlesRDA tasks from U.S. Test Coordinating Committee: http://www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/rda/source/rda-execsummary-public-13june11.pdfRe-writing RDA in clear, unambiguous, plain English ; RDA Toolkit improvement ; RDA updating process ; full set of examples ; BIBFRAME development ; training plan ; documentation/toolsRDA: for awhile jokingly called “Recently Delayed Again” due to delays in drafts, reviews, publishing, etc.
  • AACR2 – based on cards; limited by that 3x5 environment (ex: rule of 3, abbreviations) – cards are expensive, data is cheap also limited to print world have to “shoehorn” non-print formats into MARC and AACR2 structure intertwined with MARC and ISBD tied to bibliographic *library* world – data in a siloRDA – designed for the web and online, looks to future of web interactions open our data up to be used and transferred and connected to
  • Essentially “flipping AACR2 on it’s head” in terms of approachRDA starts with the content, describing the elements of the WORK first, then the EXPRESSION and MANIFESTATIONAACR2 is organized by format (carrier) – the tangible comes firstI largely work with web resources. So I have online books. Online videos. Online videos that are issued as serials. All of these things require me to review and cross reference and flip back and forth like an insane woman in AACR2 from chapter to chapter. The first and second examples both require using 2 chapters. The third example requires I use THREE distinct chapters in AACR2 to fully describe the thing I'm looking at since the format determines how the thing is described. This is not efficient.But core goal of making things findable (uniquely identifiable) is still the same
  • MARC documentation
  • Registered – what does that mean? – in the metadata registry for the webControlled: *Closed* lists for content, media, and carrier types *Closed* lists for relationship terms LCSH – process to submit new subjects via the SACO form can petition to add new terms as identified
  • Transcription – appearance on the piece is important in RDA; record what you see (capitalization is an appendix!) use for titles, statements of responsibility in their entirety, place and publisher, etc. abbreviate ONLY if found on the source itselfSource – the resource itself, including accompanying material, container, storage, presentation, etc. if taking information from something outside the resource itself or supplying data, enclose data in square brackets
  • Handout: chart of examplesPull up examples on OCLC and walk through fields ; “What do you see that’s different?” printed monograph: 838124078 ; 842392618 (240 field) ; 811004727 ; 826382429 (multipart mono); 842256261 (130 field) serial: 830844725 ; 833139957 (130 field)Order of fields in 040: |a |b |e |e |c |d |d
  • What is a hybrid record? A record that contains elements from more than one content standard e.g. AARC2 record with 33x fields or relationship terms can safely add as many elements as you desire that don’t impact the transcription based descriptive fields – those form the “bibliographic integrity” of the record e.g. add notes, change the authorized access points, add authorized access points, but don’t edit the publisher or title informationWhen do you re-describe? When you need to edit the descriptive fields that are based on transcription (generally the “core” elements of a record) – Refer to a cataloger!Why hybrid records? goal is to support access – add things that will enhance and contribute to the user tasksOn PCC website: http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/rda/PCC%20RDA%20guidelines/Post-RDA-Implementation-Guidelines.html
  • Printouts of RDA Authority records personal names corporate bodiesPull up sample record in OCLCOrder of fields in 040: |a |b |e |e |c |d |d
  • Primary tool for using/accessing text and content of RDA
  • Updates content and metadata: updates both major and “fast track” changes and corrections May 14 – all reworded chapters are now released/publishedRDA Toolkit Essentials – archives available on RDA Toolkit Teaching and Training page; new sessions held regularly
  • BIBFRAME?Linked Data/semantic web? – based on relationshipsLinked open data: http://lod-cloud.net/ - focus on upper right quadrant – lots of libraries/library related groups participatingMetadata map: http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/~jenlrile/metadatamap/Tools: Handout of resources links books
  • Introduce yourself. Recommend including committee/task force work, general cataloging background/experience, any other teaching/workshop experience, RDA experience/involvementGroup intros: name, library, RDA experience, and: “If you could be any vegetable, what would you be and why?”
  • RDA and Editing Bibliographic Records

    1. 1. RDA and Editing Bib Records Shana L. McDanold Head, Metadata Services
    2. 2. Cataloging brief history  Early cataloging codes  No “one” set for US libraries  1940s: ALA cataloging rules  1961 IFLA’s Paris Principles  Cutter’s Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalog  1967: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR)  2 versions!: North American text and a British text  1969: ISBDs (consolidated in 2007)  1978: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules Revised (AACR2)  Revisions: 1988, 1998, 2002  1960s: MARC developed (Henriette Avram)  Work completed 1969  US standard by 1971; international standard 1973  Several “flavors” of MARC 2
    3. 3. RDA – the birth story  2005: Final update of AACR2 2002 ed.  1997: International Conference on the Principles & Future Development of AACR  2002: AACR3 development begins  2003-2007: meetings of the International Cataloguing Principles (ICP)  2005: AACR3 renamed RDA: Resource Description and Access  2006, 2007: drafts of RDA chapters and appendices  2008: first full draft of RDA  2009: delivered to the publishers  2010: first published in the RDA Toolkit  2010/2011: testing, testing  2012: re-writing by an editor, other tasks designated by U.S. Test Coordinating Committee  March 31, 2013: RDA implementation! 3
    4. 4. So why RDA?  AACR2 is based on a card environment  Rules/Structure limited by that 3x5 inch boundary  RDA is designed for the web and online communication, making use of how intertwined the web is to share information  From RDA 0.0 Purpose and Scope:  “RDA provides a set of guidelines and instructions on formulating data to support resource discovery.”  “RDA provides a comprehensive set of guidelines and instructions covering all types of content and media.” 4
    5. 5. Bibliographic records  RDA is fundamentally different in its approach to describing materials/resources/things  Focus on content *first* and carrier/format second  RDA cultivates relationships  “Guidelines and instructions” rather than rules  Cataloger’s judgment 5
    6. 6. Bib records – vocabulary changes AACR2 RDA Heading Authorized access point Author, composer, artist, etc. Creator Main entry Preferred title, and, if appropriate, authorized access point for the creator Uniform title Two RDA counterparts: 1. Preferred title + differentiating information 2. Conventional collective title like “works” Physical description Carrier description General material designator (GMD) Three elements: 1. Content type 2. Media type 3. Carrier type Chief source Preferred source(s) 6
    7. 7. Bib records – new MARC fields  336 – content type  337 – media type  338 – carrier type  344 – sound characteristics  345 – projection characteristics of moving image  346 – video characteristics  347 – digital file characteristics  264 – production, publication, distribution, manufacture, and copyright notice  New subfields for relationships (mostly $e)  New subfields to parse 502 Dissertation information 7
    8. 8. Bib records – controlled vocabularies  Fields using controlled vocabularies:  336, 337, 338 [RDA]  Relationship subfield (|e) [RDA]  6xx [LCSH]  MUST use a term from the lists in those fields  Terms are registered on the web 8
    9. 9. Bib records – key changes  Transcription – record what’s there!  Source(s)  Relationships for authorized access points  *Required* for the creator  Rule of three – gone!  Be liberal in recording alternate titles  Related works are no longer in a general note field, but rather traced so they can be linked  GMD replaced by 336 (content type), 337 (media type), 338 (carrier type) 9
    10. 10. Bib records – key changes  Spelling out of abbreviations  p.  pages  ill.  illustrations  cm is not an abbreviation, it is a symbol, like ©  Latin terms no longer used  [S.l. : s.n.]  [Place of publication not identified] : [publisher not identified]  [et al.]  [and # others]  [sic]  245 has title as appears on piece; 246 contains corrected form of title  Adjacent bracketed elements are bracketed separately 10
    11. 11. Bib records – identification/examples  Identification of an RDA record:  040 |e rda  LDR/18 (Desc) = i (ISBD), c (ISBD not included), blank (non-ISBD)  Identification of an AACR2 record:  040 has NO |e  LDR/18 (Desc) = a (AACR2) 11
    12. 12. RDA or AACR2? Maybe both!  Hybrid records  A record that contains elements from more than one content standard  Such as an AACR2 record with 33x fields or |e relationship terms  can safely add as many elements as you desire that don’t impact the transcription based descriptive fields – those form the “bibliographic integrity” of the record  Add notes, correct authorized access points, add authorized access points, but don’t edit the publisher or title information  If more edits are needed, give the record and resource to a cataloger  Why?  goal is to support access – add things that will enhance and contribute to the user finding what they need 12
    13. 13. Bib records – basic rules of editing  The goal of editing a bibliographic record should be focused on enhancing the record to improve user access to the resource by contributing to the user tasks: find, identify, select, and obtain  If it's not wrong, leave it alone  If it’s wrong, correct it; only delete when you can’t fix it  Don’t edit just for style/phrase/etc.  Accept capitalization and abbreviations!  Ask first if you are not sure  Do NOT use abbreviations  Unless present on the piece in hand 13
    14. 14. Bib records – what can I or can’t I edit? Field Delete? Add? Edit? (change or correct data) 050/090 (LC call number) YES YES YES 0xx (codes/numbers) YES YES YES 1xx (creator or preferred title) NO NO YES 240 (preferred title) NO NO YES 245 |a |n |p |b (title) NO NO CORRECT ERRORS ONLY GMD (245 |h) NO NO NO 245 |c (author) NO YES YES 246 3_ (alternate title) NO YES YES 14
    15. 15. Bib records – what can I or can’t I edit? Field Delete? Add? Edit? (change or correct data) 300 NO YES (if not present) YES 336/337/338 NO YES* YES* 5xx fields (notes) NO YES YES 6xx fields (subjects) NO YES* YES* 700/710 (additional names) NO YES YES 1xx/7xx |e (relationship term) NO YES* YES* 856 41 (URLs) YES YES YES 15 *MUST use controlled vocabulary terms for these fields/subfields
    16. 16. Bib records – what can I or can’t I edit? 16  260 field versus 264 field  260: Imprint  still valid if present, but not preferred, do not use  264: Production, Publication, Distribution, Manufacture, and Copyright Notice  Repeatable  Second indicator has meaning!  0 - Production  1 - Publication  2 - Distribution  3 - Manufacture  4 - Copyright notice date – can ONLY have a |c (date)!  Can I edit the 264? CORRECT ERRORS ONLY.
    17. 17. Authority records  ALL authority records MUST be RDA compliant as of March 31, 2013  Identification:  040 |e rda  008/10 (Rules) = z (other)  Records with a 667 note that says “DO NOT USE”  Give the record to a cataloger 17
    18. 18. RDA Toolkit  Tabs  RDA – text of RDA  Tools  RDA element set  RDA mappings (MARC-RDA; MODS-RDA)  RDA record examples  Workflows – can be global (public) or local  Maps – Metadata Application Profiles  Entity Relationship Diagrams (FRBR, FRAD, etc.)  Schemas – element sets  Resources  AACR2  LC-PCC PS (policy statements)  Other (various links) 18
    19. 19. RDA Toolkit  Updates  “When there is a new release for RDA Toolkit, it is made on the second Tuesday of the month. Releases typically contain updates to content and metadata, enhancements to RDA Toolkit functionality, and fixes to existing bugs.” (RDA Toolkit blog)  May 14, 2013  Next: July 9, 2013  Training  RDA Toolkit Essentials - FREE 19
    20. 20. So what’s next?  BIBFRAME  Linked Data and the Semantic Web  Tools  Bibframe.org  RIMMF – RDA in Many Metadata Formats  VTLS Sandbox (subscription) – “FRBRize” records  Linkeddata.org 20
    21. 21. Wrap-up ?? 21
    22. 22. Image created by: Jennifer Young Northwestern University 22
    23. 23. Acknowledgments  Slide content credits:  Library of Congress  Barbara Tillett, Judy Kuhagen, the staff of the Cataloging & Acquisitions Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division  Jacquie Samples (Duke U.)  Joint Steering Committee for the Development of RDA  And many more who have contributed bits and pieces 23
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