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Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
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Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice dr kalicharan ramnarine

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  • 1. Prevention The MedicalApproachPresented By: Dr. Kalicharan Ramnarine
  • 2. OUTLINEINTRODUCTION/DEFINITIONHEALTH SURVEILLANCEPROGRAMMESTRESS IN THE WORKPLACE(SYMPTOMS)DETERMINANTS OF STRESSMANAGEMENT OFWORKPLACE STRESSCONCLUSION
  • 3. INTRODUCTIONOccupational Health is the promotion and maintenance ofthe highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations by preventingdepartures from health, controlling risks and theadaptation of work to people, and people to their jobs.(ILO/WHO 1950)The concept of workplace health surveillance is new toOccupational health and is different from medicalscreening.
  • 4. INTRODUCTION CONTHealth screening refers to the early detection andtreatment of diseases associated with particularoccupations.NIOSH defines occupational health surveillanceas “the tracking of occupational injuries, illnesses,hazards, and exposures.”The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (or NIOSH).
  • 5. INTRODUCTION CONT: The Joint ILO/WHO Committee onOccupational Health at its 12th Session in 1995defined an occupational health surveillancesystem as “a system which includes afunctional capacity for data collection,analysis and dissemination linked tooccupational health programmes.This means having a system to look for early signsof ill health caused by hazards at work.
  • 6. INTRODUCTION CONT:It includes health records for individuals andmay involve questionnaires or medicalexaminations to inform the employer.Corrective action may involve referral fortreatment and/or adaptations to work forindividuals affected.Serve as an indication that controls may befailing, review of risk management and action.
  • 7. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SURVIELLANCEIt is essential to the planning, implementation andevaluation of occupational health programmes and controlof work-related ill health and injuries and the protectionand promotion of workers’ health.
  • 8. SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMMEYou must decide whether the work you do needshealth surveillance. Ask yourself whether any of yourworkers are at risk from: noise or vibration solvents, fumes, dusts, biological agents and othersubstances hazardous to health asbestos, lead or work in compressed air ionizing radiations or commercial diving – theserequire a particular type of high-level medicalsurveillance.
  • 9. DEVELOPING A HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROG (HSE)
  • 10. SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMME CONTNIOSH defined three indicators of workplacehealth surveillance programme.Availability of easily obtainable dataPublic health importance of the occupationalhealth effect or exposure to be measuredPotential for intervention activities
  • 11. SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMMESMajor limitations: underreporting of occupational health disorders (verycommon in most of the undeveloped and developingcountries) inability to diagnose the etiology by the occupationalhealth care workers and availability of the data such as death records.
  • 12. WORK STRESS
  • 13. INTRODUCTION/ BURDENHigh job demands and unjust effort-rewardare risk factors for mental and physicalhealth problems.Studies have indicated that work stress isassociated with heart disease, depression,and musculoskeletal disorders .Leads to increased spending on healthcare.Prevention and management of thispsychosocial risk not priority.
  • 14. WORK STRESSDefinition:“Work-related stress is the responsepeople may have when presented withwork demands and pressures that arenot matched to their knowledge andabilities and which challenge theirability to cope.”WHO 2007.
  • 15. IMPACT OF WORK STRESS According to Marmot & Wilkinson, 2006 theworking environment and the nature of work itselfare both important influences on health. Systematic reviews shows stress at work isassociated with heart disease, depression, andMSDs ( Melchoir et al.2007) Leads to absences from work and also presenteeism,(although present at work, the performance is poor andsometimes even hazardous to themselves as well asothers around them).
  • 16. LEGISLATION T&T - OSHA The Occupational Safety and Health Act, 2004 No mention of work stress
  • 17. EFFECTS OF WORK STRESSPhysical symptomsMental health symptomsSocial symptomsEmotional health symptoms
  • 18. SYMPTOMS OF WORK STRESSPHYSICAL BEHAVIOURALUlcers (G. I.)Weight lossHigh blood pressureHeart diseaseMusculoskeletal disordersPain (generalized)An increase in alcoholconsumptiondifficult in the workplaceless co-operative, more accident prone, less sociable. inability to cope withfamily/domestic roles, neglect of personalappearance
  • 19. LOOK OUT FOR THESE SIGNSPSYCHOLOGICALMemory LossDepressionMental ConfusionDifficulty ConcentratingLoss of Sexual DesireIrritabilityInsomniaFeelings of guilt and uselessness
  • 20. DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSPSYCHOSOCIAL HAZARDSWorkloadWork Schedule/Pressure (urgency/competing demands)Surveillance (by management)/ controlJob insecurityStructural and Managerial ChangesPhysical conditions (environment)/ Equipment.Job designWork organization/ Work-home interface
  • 21. DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSJob contentLack of variety or short work cycles, fragmentedor meaningless work, under use of skills, highuncertainty, continuous exposure to peoplethrough workWorkload & work paceWork overload or under load, machine pacing,high levels of time pressure, continually subject todeadlines
  • 22. DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSWork scheduleShift working, night shifts, inflexible workschedules, unpredictable hours, long orunsociable hoursControlLow participation in decision making, lack ofcontrol over workload.
  • 23. DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSEnvironment &equipmentInadequate equipment availability, suitability ormaintenance; poor environmental conditionssuch as lack of space, poor lighting, excessivenoiseOrganisational culture& functionPoor communication, low levels of support forproblem solving and personal development .
  • 24. DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSInterpersonal relationships at workSocial or physical isolation, poor relationshipswith superiors, interpersonal conflict, lack ofsocial support, bullying, harassmentRole in organizationRole ambiguity, role conflict, and responsibilityfor people
  • 25. DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSCareer developmentCareer stagnation and uncertainty, underpromotion or over promotion, poor pay, jobinsecurity, low social value to workHome-work interfaceConflicting demands of work and home, lowsupport at home, dual career problems
  • 26. STRUCTURAL/MANAGERIAL CHANGES INTHE MODERN WORLDPrivatizationGlobalisationMergers/acquisitionsDownsizingGrowing too rapidlyTechnological introductionAll contribute to work stress !
  • 27. Management of WORK STRESSAn effective risk assessment approach isnecessaryMeasure the current situation (using surveysand/or other techniques)Work in partnership with employees and theirrepresentatives to make practical improvementsAgree and share an action plan with employeesand their representativesRegularly review the situation to ensure itcontinues to improve
  • 28. Management of Work stress Medical Management of physical sign /symptoms. Employee Assistance Programme Present in many larger organizations in Trinidadand Tobago. Confidential UK National model for work stress (see slide below)
  • 29. Stress Management cont:HSE developed the Management Standards fordealing with work-related stress in an organizationwhatever the size or type.The Standards identify six factors to be addressed:Demands – including issues such as workload, workpatterns and the work environmentControl – how much say the person has in the way theydo their workSupport – including the encouragement, sponsorshipand resources provided by the organization, linemanagement and colleagues
  • 30. STRESS MANAGEMENT CONTRelationships – including promoting positiveworking to avoid conflict and dealing withunacceptable behaviourRole – whether people understand their role withinthe organisation and whether the organisationensures that they do not have conflicting rolesChange – how organisational change (large or small)is managed and communicated
  • 31. ACTIVITIES THAT CAN IMPROVEEMOTIONAL HEALTHRead something you enjoyListen to soothing musicDo breathing exercisesWalkExperience natureTake a relaxing bathPlay with a petTend to your bodyEngage in a physical activity
  • 32. CONCLUSIONDuring the implementation of a health surveillancesystem, involve your workers and theirrepresentatives at an early stage, so they understandits purpose and their roles and responsibilities in anyresulting health surveillance programme.Ask for advice from a competent occupational healthprofessional in developing a health surveillanceprogrammer
  • 33. CONCLUSION CONT:Work-related stress is the response people mayhave when presented with work demands andpressures that are not matched to their knowledgeand abilities and which challenge their ability tocope. (WHO, 2003)Psychosocial risks (work-related stress ) are majorchallenges to occupational health and safety (EU-OSHA, 2007

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