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Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
Industrial hygiene & control   ms eva karpinski
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Industrial hygiene & control ms eva karpinski

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  • 1. Trinidad and Tobago National Safety WeekApril 28 – May 4, 2013Recognition and Prevention ofOccupational DiseasesIndustrial Hygiene PerspectiveEva Karpinski, M.Sc., P.Eng.Industrial Hygiene EngineerOccupational Health and Safety DivisionWorkplace Directorate
  • 2. 2Definition of Occupational Disease Occupational disease – a disease associated withexposure to a chemical, physical, biological, ergonomic, orpsychosocial hazard in a workplace.Canadian Standard Association (CSA):CSA Z795-03 Coding of Work Injury or Disease Information (notreferenced in the COHSR)
  • 3. 3Workplace hazards which may cause occupationaldisease Chemical hazards – dusts, fumes, smoke, aerosols, mists, gases andvapours Physical hazards – noise, vibration, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation,thermal stresses Biological hazards – bacteria, viruses, fungi, moulds, insects Ergonomic hazards – improperly designed tools/work areas, improperlifting/reaching, repeated motions, mechanical vibrations Nanomaterials – materials with any external dimention in the nanoscale orhaving internal structure or surface structure in the nanoscale (1 nm to 100nm) Psychosocial hazards – violence, bullying, harassment, other chronicstressors identified by workers
  • 4. 4Effects of exposure to hazardous substances Acute effects – the ill-health effects caused by sudden one-time exposure torelatively high concentrations of hazardous substances. Most acute effectsare over in a few minutes, hours, days or at most, in a few weeks. Recovery iscomplete (e.g. pulmonary edema) or there is a permanent disability or death(e.g. exposure to IDLH condition). Chronic effects – the ill-health effects caused by repeated exposure torelatively low concentrations of hazardous substances or as long term effect ofa short but severe exposure to a hazardous substance. Recovery is complete(e.g. tendonitis) or there is a permanent disability or death (e.g. pleuralthickening, mesothelioma).Latent period – the time from the first exposure to the disease development
  • 5. 5Routes of entry Inhalation Skin absorption Ingestion Eyes
  • 6. 6Examples of occupational diseases Asthma, e.g., caused or triggered by exposure to isocyanates Silicosis, caused by exposure to silica Hearing impairment caused by noise Tuberculosis, caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis Carpal tunnel syndrome, caused by repetitive motions combinedwith extreme postures of the wrist and forceful exertions Mesothelioma, caused by exposure to asbestos
  • 7. 7Occupational diseases in CanadaInjuries Musculoskeletal system disorders continue to rank the highest but areshowing a sharp decline over the 11 year period. (It may be related toincreased knowledge of the importance of ergonomics.)Note: Musculoskeletal system disorders have made up at least half ofoccupational injuries every year in the 11 year period. Infectious diseases peculiar to the intestines over the 11 year period(15% increase from 2001 to 2011, peaking in 2010). Other diseases seem to be trending downward.
  • 8. 8Fatalities• Malignant neoplasms and tumors continue to rank the highest and areshowing an upward trend.Note1: This disturbing trend is likely due to:– work practices in the past– long latency periods– increased association of adverse health outcomes with work history– advances in occupational medicineNote2: This trend is expected to peak within the next few years and thentrend downwards
  • 9. 9Prevention of occupational disease Primary prevention – preventing development of disease by takingnecessary measures to eliminate or control worker exposure Secondary prevention – early detection of disease, intervention andtreatment to prevent from further development, e.g. medicalsurveillance Tertiary prevention – medical management of established disease
  • 10. 10Primary prevention of occupational diseaseIndustrial hygiene elements include: anticipation recognition evaluation controlof hazards which may cause illness, impaired health, or significantdiscomfort among workers.
  • 11. 11RecognitionIn order to recognize a hazard it is necessary to: study the process identify all the ingredients used and their quantities obtain their safety data sheets understand the chemistry involved identify and quantify all the products and by-products of theprocess identify sources of contaminant generation
  • 12. 12• establish the toxicity of the hazardous substances andtheir limits of exposure• study their physical properties• determine the effectiveness of control measures already in place
  • 13. 13EvaluationIf a potential hazard to the health of a worker is identified, the next stepis to evaluate the hazard.At the evaluation stage, the following factors must be determined: the number of employees exposed and the duration of exposure the number of samples the type of samples and period of activity to be sampled
  • 14. 14• the concentration or level of the hazardous substance towhich a worker is exposed• whether this concentration or level of the hazardoussubstance is in excess of the occupational exposure limitfor that hazardous substance, e.g., TLV
  • 15. 15Types of control measuresSource Elimination Substitution Source or process modification Automation Isolation/containment/enclosure Local exhaust ventilation
  • 16. 16Path• General ventilation• Increased distanceWorker• Good work practices• Operating procedures• Job rotation/work scheduling• Personal protective equipment
  • 17. 17Secondary prevention of occupational diseasesEmployers may establish a medical surveillance program for the benefit ofworkers that includes: medical examination (pre-employment, pre-placement, periodic)– history, e.g., previous exposure, smoking, signs and symptoms– physical examination clinical tests, e.g., pulmonary function tests, chest x-ray, blood and urine tests action levels health education, e.g., personal cleanliness, hazards, discussion of examinationresults record keeping
  • 18. 18Tertiary prevention of occupational diseasesMedical management of established disease
  • 19. 19Questions?Thank you!

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