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Presentation by Pere Mayans and Nuria Alba, about Ctalan Immersion program for Languages and Social Cohesion, 2011. Presented for a Comenius Study Visit group interested in social Cohesion, at the ...

Presentation by Pere Mayans and Nuria Alba, about Ctalan Immersion program for Languages and Social Cohesion, 2011. Presented for a Comenius Study Visit group interested in social Cohesion, at the Department of Education. Includes teacher training trends and orientation for an implementation by the Inspectorate of Education .

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  • Good morning, I’ll talk about what we have named PIL (p-i-l), that is to say, the plan for updating immersion methodology in the new sociolinguistic context
  • So, from this slide onwards, I’ll try to explain how is our approach to language teaching. First of all, we must consider that here in Catalonian schools, there are plenty of coexisting languages: two official languages (Catalan and Spanish), one or two foreign languages (usually, English;but it depends on school project) and an important variety of languages (familiar languages) that have arrived with the migrant population. In this situation, obviously, one of the basic axis of our educational system is the approach given to language learning and teaching.
  • Children arrive in school knowing their family language (whatever that is). Some of them are monolingual. Other pupils are bilingual in catalan and spanish or, in some cases, in other languages. For instance, students born in Pakistan: they usually speak urdu, but they often also know panjabi, patani, even english... The Linguistic Policy Act no. 1/1998 , orders that the catalan education system must assure the right to know both official languages. So, the role of the school is: providing every student the linguistic skills to reach the competence in our two official languages, regardless of their family language, ON FINISHING COMPULSORY SCHOOLING, at 16 (Competence means be able to use correctly and fluently catalan and spanish). In addition to catalan and spanish, students at 16 also must be able to communicate, at least, in one foreign language. In fact, knowing both official languages guarantees equal rights to the citizens in our country. So, teaching in catalan, is not only a way of teaching and learning: we are also talking about equity and social cohesion.
  • As we can see on this graph (from an official source), the number of foreign students in our system has been increasing year after year. Two courses ago, it had reached the 13,5 % (thirteen point five percent of the total). In some parts of Catalonia, this percent is considerably higher.
  • Implementation of second language methodologies Considering that many chlidren don’t speak catalan when they start school, logically we need to use second language methodologies to facilitate them a quick access to the school language, Catalan: the same methodologies as if we teach a foreign language to native children. To allow acquisition of a segond language, this language must become the main tool (vehicle) for the class group to build knowledge and specially to interact (for relationships). IT MUST BE THE LANGUAGE OF THE CLASS GROUP. So, if we want our pupils to acquire a new language (catalan in this case) by means of using it to communicate in real contexts , we must place it in a real context of use. From the very begginning! TARGET LANGUAGE MUST GO BEYOND THE CATEGORY OF SCHOOL SUBJECT AND MUST BECOME THE VEHICLE FOR RELATIONSHIPS. If we want our pupils to acquire a new language (catalan, in this case) by means of using it to communicate in it in real contexts, to experience rewarding situations and to learn new things, we must place the target language in a real context of use from the very begining and take it beyond the category of school subject.
  • In Catalonia, since 1983, an action plan for bilingual education has been implemented to increase learning achievement of both official languages, Catalan and Spanish, as well as, at least, the learning of one foreign language. That methodology has been widely essayed in different countries. The map only shows a few samples: Canada (French in Quebec), USA (English in areas with strong immigration from Spanish speaking origin), Finland (Finnish in areas with Swedish speaking minorities; Vaasa is a university of reference in this field), Wales (Welsch, United Kingdom), Italy ( Fri ulian or Romansch in Friule). But also: German : South Tirol ( in Italy ), Als ace ( in France ). • Irish Gaèlic : in Ir e land. • Bret on : western Br ittany ( in France ). • Bas que : Basque Country, Navarra ( in Spain ) and North of Euskadi ( in France ). • Catal an : in Catalonia, Valencia (Valencian strand schools), Balearic Islands (b asically in State schools), Catalan speaking area in the South of France ( La Bressola, Arrels and bilingual strands in some state schools) , in the infant school La Costura in the Alg hero ( isle of Sardinia, in Italy ) • Occit an : in Occit any ( France ), Vall d’Aran ( Spain ).
  • Between 1998 and 2003 the competence in Spanish of pupils in Spain was assessed through common and agreed tools by the Quality and Evaluation Institute (INECSE) of the Ministry of Education and the Catalan Assessment Board of the Education System of the Department of Education. This graph shows what that evaluation revealed: as we can see, it compares the competence in Spanish between catalan students (pink) and students of the rest of Spain (purple). We can see similar results: The first column shows global results The second column shows listening comprehension results The third column shows reading comprehension results And the last one shows written expression results We can see that the statistical results are similar showing that the pupils of Catalonia and those of the rest of Spain reach the same level in Spanish. So, it demonstrates that our methodology is not an impediment to reach good levels in Spanish.
  • We must mention here that this Act on linguistic policy, 1/1998, replaced a previous one, act 7/1983 (actually, second act is based on first one). Act 1/1998 was aproved in the Catalan Parliament with 133 votes in favour out of 135 members. So, the school linguistic model is a result of a democratic Act. I’m going to read the main points of this act: States that Catalan, as Catalonia’s own language, is also that of education, at all levels and types of schooling States the right of children to receive their initial education in their usual language States that students shall not be separated into different groups, on the grounds of language Guarantees that all the school population must be able to use normally and correctly both official languages by the end of their compulsory education, whatever their family language (or languages) is (or are) States that teaching staffs in educational establishments of Catalonia, at any level of non-university education, shall know both official languages and must be able to use them in their teaching tasks States that educational establishments at all levels shall make Catalan the vehicle of normal expression in their educational and administrative activities, both internally and externally.
  • As we have said, catalan is the language of education in Catalonia. Not only because it is Catalonia’s own language, but also because in contexts in which catalan is not the family language, nor even the language usually spoken in the area, it’s the only way to guarantee that all students will be able to learn and use both official languages correctly. Our students not only learn catalan: Spanish is also taught, and we have seen that students reach the same levels as in the rest of Spain, together with at least one foreign language (usually that language is English, but it depends on each school linguistic project). The linguistic educational target is that Catalan citizens become proficient in at least 3 languages, if not four. Finally, our system doesn’t forget to give importance to family languages that immigrant pupils bring along, considered an heritage, one more richness in today’s catalan society.
  • Immersion methodology fits in the language, interculturality and social cohesion plan (LIC), that considers three educational levels, that work togheter for social cohesion and language learning: The classroom, the natural space for insertion of the children The school, conceived as an inclusive and cosy space The environtment: neighbourhood, civil society, town, ... Each one of three levels contributing to the education from different angles
  • Let us take a look at the advanced plan for immersion methodology in the new sociolinguistic context, running from year 2007 to 2010
  • As we can read, this plan should: Update oral language teaching at infant and primary school. Systematize language teaching at all cycles Put into practice input linguistic strategies Improvement of organizational and methodological weaknesses Improvement of coherence in linguistic usages at school Blending (combining) of linguistic training and social environment - Intensify coordination between primary and secondary education
  • Between 2007 and 2010, the plan has provided to schools: initial and continuous training, didactic materials, and model schools with good practices.
  • To each particular linguistic situation (and we have plenty of them), there has been adapted the plan.
  • If we want to provide speaking opportunities (in other words: interaction), we ought to modify the classical form of the magistral class, where the teacher explains, and the students just listen and do individual tasks. So the plan includes spreading and explaining different ways of organising the classroom, specially the methodology of collaborative learning. Si volem generar oportunitats d’ús de la llengua, cal modificar el plantejament clàssic de la classe magistral, en el qual el professor explica i els estudiants escolten i fan tasques individuals, i fomentar la interacció entre els estudiants de l’aula, amb el treball cooperatiu.
  • We must try different forms of evaluating the students, in order to assess their real results in scholar context. Their lack of language competence can’t hide their improvements . And teachers must have it in mind. L'avaluació ha de mirar només els progressos de l'alumnat i de les seves capacitats . No ha de quedar emmascarada pel coneixement que l'alumnat té de la llengua de l'escola. S'ha de considerar una altra manera d'avaluar l'alumnat on tingui més pes la seva actuació real en el context escolar.
  • The plan is also favouring the use of new technologies, what we name TIC (information and communication techs), and TAC (learning and communication techniques). We use to joke with this nomenclature: tic-tac, as the sound of a clock…. And the plan is also promoting networking inside the school (beetween students, between levels, …) and outside: between different schools, even (sometimes) between schoolsfrom different countries.
  • Success with language changing programs (from home language to school language) is related to the way we consider family languages in the school context. We mean both its simbolic valoration as its incorporation on educational practice. L’èxit dels programes de canvi de llengua de la llar a la de l'escola es relaciona amb la manera de tractar la llengua familiar de l'alumnat. El tractament de la llengua familiar de l'alumnat en els programes de canvi de llengua de la llar a l'escola implica tant el seu reconeixement simbòlic en el context escolar com la seva incorporació a la pràctica educativa.
  • So, the school guarantees respect for all languages as well as knowledge of Catalan and Spanish The Department of Education promotes the inclusion in the schools linguistic project document (PLC) of the following principles: Respect for all languages Positive valoration of language diversity Actions to fight against linguistic prejudices inside the school  And actions to inculcate the pupils the importance of learning a new language Many different languages are spoken in Catalonia today, and linguistic diversity mustn’t be a problem but a richness. Have in mind that, at present, we have students from 160 different countries and according to the linguist of the University of Barcelona, Dra. Carme Junyent, we can state that more than 250 different languages are spoken in our schools . For example, if we consider only Morocco, with around 25.000 pupils from that country in our schools, linguistic diversity is also present as Arabic is not the only language. Amazigh language is the language spoken at least by 50% of our migrant pupils coming from Morocco. Amazign is also spoken in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria and Mali . Nowadays, Department of Education offers classes from some of these family languages, in collaboration with other institutions: Arabic, Amazigh, Romanian and Chinese language education. These classes are given to pupils in schools outside the compulsory curriculum, and after the school schedule. For more information you can visit the web where you can find information on different languages.
  • What is the task in each stage? The year before the first stage, inspectors select the schools that are going to take part in the seminar The first year, there’s a local training seminar, for all the schools involved. It’s a twenty hours seminar (10 sessions). And, during that first course, the school updates their school linguistic project (PLC), advised by LIC staff.
  • The second year, -teachers who have attended the seminar, helped by LIC advisors, transfer the contents of the seminar to the rest of the teachers in their school -the school makes a self-evaluation and decides the methodological changes it needs to do, -implements the linguistic plan, -and creates a working team in order to plan and implement every change Also, -some teachers of the school, voluntarily follow some specific training, such as: reading aloud, multimedia tools for oral language, content and language integrated treatment, teacher speech skills, and so on (some of them are telematic courses).
  • Working teams coordinate tasks in the pass from primary to secondary school, as well as -accord criteria around: curriculum, evaluation strategies, and teaching learning strategies, In order to assure the coherence and continuity of linguistic uses between primary and secondary education Specific seminars, as those we have seen in previous slides, are offered to teachers all along the process. At the end of the process, centers must pass a final evaluation from inspection. They will be asked to show the methodologic changes that have been implemented.
  • All along the process outside staff are working for the school, specially trainers, LIC advisors, and inspectors . On this slide we can see the role of the trainer, the person who Conducts the local seminar (ten two-hours sessions) Trains the schools that attend the seminar, modelling (doing a class with children in the presence of the teacher), and observing …..
  • The other person working to help the school in this process is the consultant or advisor (LIC), who advises the revising and updating of the linguistic project, to update curricular framework, linguistic usages and organization, and also to include an approach to treatment of linguistic diversity. It will result in proposals for improvement, that the advisor will help to monitor during the whole process .
  • During the second stage, the advisor: helps... Follows... Monitors... Detects... Monitors ... Helps...
  • And so on during the third stage…
  • Finally, the role of the Inspectorate of Education is to: Make the diagnosis .... Monitor... And .... Give ... And evaluate the whole process. THAT’S ALL. THANKYOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION. I’M AFFRAID THERE’S NO TIME FOR QUESTIONS, BUT IF YOU HAVE A SMALL ONE, WE CAN TRY....

Catalan immersion Catalan immersion Presentation Transcript

    • Immersion Methodology
    • in the new sociolinguistic context
    • Advanced plan
    • 2007-2013
    • Núria Alba
    • [email_address]
  • Approach given to language teaching ...
  • Speak Catalan Speak Catalan and Spanish Speak Spanish Speak neither Catalan nor Spanish, But speak other languages Know both official languages (Catalan & Spanish) and communicate, at least, in one foreign language Starting school: On finishing compulsory schooling: The School provides every student the linguistic skills needed to become competent and engaged citizens applying second language methodologies
  • Foreign students 9.868 16.921 19.793 23.778 34.797 51.926 74.491 93.831 106.746 121.622 0,81 % 5,4 % 7,65 % 9,3 % 10,5 % 11,8 % 12,5 % 133.000 148.525 13,5 %
  • Implementation of second language education methodologies for the pupils who do not speak the language of schooling.
  • Fully endorsed implementation of second language education methodologies: In Catalonia, since 1983, an action plan for bilingual education has been implemented to increase learning achievement of both official languages, Catalan and Spanish, as well as, at least, the learning of one foreign language. Italy ....... Applied elsewhere Quebec (Canadà) In some areas of the United States Finlànd Wales
  • Students’ competence in Spanish Our Education System guarantees the learning of Spanish at the same level of achievement as the other students in Spain. Source: Instituto Nacional de Evaluación y Calidad del Sistema Educativo (INECSE), 2003. (Quality & Evaluation Institute) Spanish language In Primary Education (12 years-old )
  • According to legislation: “ Catalan will normally be used as vehicular language in the teaching and learning process in non-university education” (Article 21) Act no.1, of 7th January 1998, on linguistic policy
    • Catalan is taught following a holistic approach.
    • Life at school is conducted in Catalan, as a language is only learnt when used.
    • Students are taught Catalan, Spanish and, at least, one foreign language.
    • Value is given to all languages and cultures of the families, because roots are important and play a major role in enriching society and enhancing social cohesion.
    Language education in schools...
  • Language and social cohesion plan Environmental educational plan Inclusive school Insertion class
    • Advanced plan for
    • immersion methodology in the new sociolinguistic context
    • 2007-2010
    • This plan should :
    • UPDATE ORAL LANGUAGE TEACHING AT INFANT AND PRIMARY SCHOOL.
    • SYSTEMATIZE LANGUAGE TEACHING AT ALL CYCLES
    • PUT INTO PRACTICE INPUT LINGUISTIC STRATEGIES
    • IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND METHODOLOGICAL WEAKNESSES
    • IMPROVEMENT OF COHERENCE IN LINGUISTIC USAGES AT SCHOOL
    • BLEND OF LINGUISTIC TRAINING AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
    • INTENSIFY COORDINATION BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION
    • Initial and continuous training
    • Didactic Materials
    • Model schools with good practices
    ACHIEVEMENT OF 2007-2010 PLAN
  • Fit the linguistic plan to each particular situation : Catalan Spanish Foreign language Foreign language
    • Schools with highly linguistic diversity
    • Schools with most Catalan speaking students but with increasing presence of other languages
    ACHIEVEMENT OF 2007-2010 PLAN Other family languages Occitan
    • Schools with predominance of Spanish speakers
    • Spread and explain different ways of organising the classroom -according to the aim of the task- and the collaborative learning
    ACHIEVEMENT OF 2007-2010 PLAN
        • Promotion of personal and continuous evaluation of the students and of the educational practices
    REALIZATION OF 2007-2010 PLAN
    • Favour the use of information and communication technologies (TIC) and learning and communication techniques (TAC)
    • Promote networking inside and outside the school
    ACHIEVEMENT OF 2007-2010 PLAN
        • Promote acknowledgment of family language
    ACHIEVEMENT OF 2007-2010 PLAN
  • The school guarantees respect for all languages and knowledge of Catalan and Spanish. Many languages are spoken in Catalonia: http://www.xtec.cat/lic/intro/documenta/annex2_protocol.pdf
    • First stage (first year):
    • The Inspectorate of Education selects the school candidates to take part in the local seminar. (4/6 teachers per school)
    • Carrying out the local training seminar
    • Updating the school linguistic plan (PLC) supported by language and cohesion consultants (LIC)
    REALIZATION OF 2007-2010 PLAN ACHIEVEMENT OF 2007-2010 PLAN
    • Second stage (2nd year):
    • Transferences from seminar to school teachers
    • Self-evaluation and planning of methodological changes
    • Implementation of linguistic plan
    • Create team working at primary and secondary schools
    • Specific training
    • LIC advice (primary/secondary)
    • Monitoring from inspection
    ACHIEVEMENT OF 2007-2010 PLAN
    • Third stage (3rd year):
    • Teamwork (primary and secondary school)
    • Specific seminars
    • Final evaluation from inspection
    ACHIEVEMENT OF 2007-2010 PLAN
  • Trainer’s functions: Conducts the seminar (one session, 2 hours per week) Trains the schools that attend the seminar: . Modelling . Observation: .Students linguistic level .The organization in the classroom .One task designed by the teacher (optional) ACHIEVEMENT OF 2007-2010 PLAN
    • Consultants functions:
    • 1 st stage (2nd & 3rd term 2007-2008):
    • Advice the revising or updating of PLC:
      • In curricular framework: Catalan, Spanish, foreign language (2nd term)
      • Uses and organization (3rd term)
    • Revising of the implementation and establishing improvement proposals
    ACHIEVEMENT OF 2007-2010 PLAN
    • 2nd stage (course 2008-2009):
    • Help to transfer the contents of seminar to teachers team
    • Follow the implementation of PLC
    • Monitoring the implementation of the teachers team agreements
    • Detection of further needs
    • Designing to assure the coherence and continuity of linguistics uses between primary and secondary education
    • Help to focus the oral language at middle stage (CM) and high stage (CS) -8/10 and 10/12 years old
    • 3rd stage (2009-2010):
    • Follow the PLC implementation
    • Give advice for the creation of team works (primary and secondary)
  • Funtions and tasks of the Inspectorate of Education
    • Diagnosis of educational needs
    • Monitoring the training at the regional seminar
    • Monitoring the specific training of each school
    • Giving advice to school
    • Evaluation
    REALIZATION OF 2007-2010 PLAN ACHIEVEMENT OF 2007-2010 PLAN