REPUBLIC OF TURKEYMINISTRY OF NATIONAL EDUCATION
REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF NATIONAL EDUCATION EDUCATION SYSTEM IN TURKEYOUTLINE OF EDUCATION Education is: * Planned, * Operated, * Managed, * Controlled, * Financed by State in Turkey. The Ministry of National Education (Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı) is the responsible ministry for all education, with the exception of military education..
REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF NATIONAL EDUCATION EDUCATION SYSTEM IN TURKEY PREP. SOCIALSCIENC ES SCHOOL GENERAL GRADUATE HIGH SCHOOL PRIMARY EDUCATION SCHOOL SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOLKINDERGARTEN & PRE-SCHOOL ANATOLIAN RELIGIOUS HIGH SCHOOL POST GRADUATE ANATOLIAN TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL UNDER GRADUATE ANATOLIAN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Education System in TurkeyThe Turkish NationalEducational System iscomposed of two mainsections:• Formal Education• Non-formal Education inaccordance with Basic Law No.1739 for National Education. 5
Formal EducationMeans the school system andcomprises the institutions ofpreschool education, primaryeducation, secondary educationand higher education. 6
Non- formal educationIt includes all the activitiesorganized outside or alongside theschool. 7
Pre-school educationIt is optional, aims at contributing tothe physical, mental and emotionaldevelopment of the children, to helpthem acquire good habits, and toprepare them for primary education.Pre-school education is given inkindergartens, daycare homes, nurseryclasses in primary schools andpreparatory classes by variousministries and institutions, and by theMinistry of National Education. 8
Primary education Provides children with basic knowledge and ensurestheir physical, mental and moral development inaccordance with national objectives. It generallycomprises the education of children in the 6-14 yearage group. Eight years of primary education iscompulsory for all Turkish citizens who have reachedthe age of six. This level of education is free of chargein public schools. There are also private schools understate control. Also, foreign language lessons and elective secondforeign language lessons have started to be givenbeginning from the 4th year of primary education. 9
Secondary educationIt is classified in two categories ofeducational institutions, namely generalhigh schools and vocational andtechnical high schools (lycées) where aminimum of four years of schooling isimplemented after primary education. 10
General high schoolsThey are educational institutionsthat prepare students forinstitutions of higher learning.They implement a four-yearprogram over and above primaryeducation, and comprises studentsin the 15-18 year age group. 11
Vocational andtechnical high schoolsThey provide specialized instructionwith the aim of training qualifiedpersonnel. The organization and periodsof instruction of these schools aredifferent. Some of them have a four-year program in which case theschooling age is 15-18. 12
The objective of secondary education is to provide thestudents with a common general culture at a minimumlevel and to prepare them to be ready for takingresponsibility for the democratic society, to make themrespectful of human rights and to prepare them for highereducation or business life in the direction of theirinterests, abilities and capabilities. Some of the secondary schools and the privatesecondary schools, have foreign language preparatoryclasses, in conformity with the targets of the educationalprograms, and education in a foreign language isprovided in science group and mathematics. 13
Higher education In Turkey, the higher education includes allthe educational institutions after secondaryeducation, which provide at least two years ofhigher education and educate students forassociates, bachelors, masters or doctoratedegree levels. Institutions of higher educationconsist of universities, faculties, institutes,schools of higher education, conservatories,vocational schools of higher education andapplication-research centers. 14
REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF NATIONAL EDUCATION The 15 non-formal training institutions affiliated to the MONE provide people of all age groups with various types of services.Non-formal training institutions are:1. Public training centers2. Apprenticeship training centers3. Practical art schools for girls4. Maturity institutes5. Industry practical arts schools6. Vocational training centers7. Technical training centers for adults8. Job Training centers9. Science and art centers10. Training and applications school11. Private courses of training12. Private courses of education13. Open primary education school14. Open education high school15. Vocational and Technical Open Education Schools.
REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF NATIONAL EDUCATION PUBLIC TRAINING Education activities organized outside formal educationinstitutions are carried out mostly by the 920 public trainingcenters where the following courses are organized for students ofall ages and education levels:* Literary courses;* Vocational courses;* Social and Cultural courses; and* Social and cultural applications. The period for apprenticeship is 3 years. Those who achievedthis education can take journeyman exams. Those who havereceived journeyman certificate can take mastership examinationafter 3 years of mastership training or 5 years of work experience.Persons who do not have a mastership certificate are not allowedto open an independent workplace or to work as a master.
REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF NATIONAL EDUCATION PUBLIC TRAINING Vocational courses are organized in order to prepare persons who have left theformal education system do not have the necessary employment qualifications forpositions of employment in working life. Those who attend the courses benefit fromthe rights granted by the said Law to apprentices and students while attending thecourses. In all the three applications of education and training, the individual canreach the highest level of proficiency specified for skilled intermediate manpower andreceive the mastership certificate envisaged for that level of proficiency. Apprenticesreceive the theoretical education for one day a week at an apprenticeship trainingcenter or at premises provided by business and the practical education for 5 days aweek in the real working environment at business. Those who are employed in a business in one of the occupations covered by the Lawand have an apprenticeship contract benefit from all the rights of a student, and theirsocial right premiums during the period of training are paid out of the appropriationsincluded in the budget of the Ministry at 50% of the minimum wages applicable totheir age under Article 33 of Labor Law no. 1475.
NUMBER OF SCHOOLS, STUDENTS AND TEACHERS NUMBER OF STUDENTS NUMBER OF NUMBER OF EDUCATION LEVEL TOTAL BOYS GIRLS SCHOOLS TEACHERS PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION 22.506 701.762 366.209 335.553 25.901PRIMARY SCHOOLS 34.093 10.870.570 5.676.872 5.193.698 445.452SECONDARY SCHOOLS 8.280 3.245.322 1.789.238 1.456.084 160.049 GENERAL 3.830 1.980.452 1.044.607 935.845 106.270 VOCATIONAL 4.450 1.264.870 744.631 520.239 84.771 NON-FORMAL EDUATION 11.864 5.117.623 2.942.086 2.175.537 87.285 HIGHER EDUCATION 131 2.453.664 1.409.125 1.044.539 89.329GENERAL TOTAL 76.874 22.388.941 12.183.530 10.205.411 808.016