Skeletal system.p2

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  • Osteoblasts Osteoblasts are responsible for building new bone and lie at the centre of bone physiology. Their functions include the synthesis of collagen and the control of mineralisation. Osteoclasts Osteoclasts are specialised cells that resorb bone. They work by sealing off an area of bone surface then, when activated, they pump out hydrogen ions to produce a very acid environment, which dissolves the hydroxyapatite. Osteocytes Bone adapts to applied forces by growing stronger in order to withstand them; it is known that exercise can help to improve bone strength. Osteocytes are thought to be part of the cellular feed-back mechanism which directs bone to form in the places where it is most needed. They lie within mineralised bone and it is thought that they may detect mechanical deformation and mediate the response of the osteoblasts.


  • 1. General Zoology Class
    • By: Sharnie Faye G. Buctuan
    Skeletal System
  • 2. Functions of the Skeletal System
    • Support - framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs.
    • Protection - for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain
    • Movement - bones act as levers for muscles.
    • Mineral storage - calcium & phosphate
    • Blood cell formation - hematopoiesis
  • 3. Bone Classification (e) Sesamoid bone (patella)
  • 4. Distal epiphysis Proximal epiphysis diaphysis yellow marrow Epiphyseal line periosteum compact bone spongy bone Endosteum hyaline cartilage Anatomy of a Bone Sharpey’s fibers
  • 5. GENERAL DIVISIONS OF THE SKELETON Skeletal system is divided into two general divisions. Axial & appendicular skeleton.
  • 6. Axial Skeleton
  • 7. Appendicular Skeleton
  • 8. Axial Skeleton
  • 9. Axial Skeleton
  • 10. Cervical Vertebrae (7) Thoracic Vertebrae (12) Lumbar Vertberae (5) Sacrum Coccyx The Vertebral Column Axial Skeleton
  • 11. Cervical Vertebrae
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. Sternum True Ribs (7) False Ribs (3) Floating Ribs (2) The Thoracic Cage Axial Skeleton
  • 15. Sacrum & Coccyx Axial Skeleton
  • 16. Bones of the Pectoral Girdle Appendicular Skeleton
  • 17. Appendicular Skeleton Humerus Ulna Radius 8 Carpals 14 Phalanges 5 Metacarpals
  • 18. Appendicular Skeleton Pelvis
  • 19. Ischium Ilium Acetabulum Pubis Ischium Obturator foramen Appendicular Skeleton Pelvis (lateral view)
  • 20. Male Pelvic Girdle                                                    Female Pelvic Girdle Male vs Female Pelvis
  • 21. Patella The Lower Limb (Legs) Appendicular Skeleton Femur Tibia Fibula 5 Metatarsals 14 Phalanges 7 Tarsals
  • 23. Slightly Movable Joint (amphiarthrosis) Cartilagenous Joints
  • 24. Immovable Joints (synarthrosis) Fibrous Joints (amphiarthrosis) suture pubis symphisis
  • 25. Synovial Joints (diarthrosis)- freely movable femur ligaments pelvis
  • 26. Synovial Joints femur pelvis hyaline cartilage synovial cavity joint capsule
  • 27. Abduction Extension Rotation Flexion Adduction Synovial Joint Movement
  • 28. 275 bones 12 weeks (6-9 inches long) Fetal Skeleton
  • 29. cartilage calcified cartilage bone epiphyseal plate epiphyseal line Endochondral Ossification 2 o ossification center Fetus: 1 st 2 months Adult Childhood Just before birth
  • 30. Osteoblast Osteocyte Osteoclast Eats bone Builds new bone Mature bone cell Bone cells that aid in remodeling
  • 31. hematoma callus bony callus Repair of Fractures bone remodeling
  • 32. VERTEBRATES VS INVERTEBRATES Scientists divided the Animal Kingdom into two main groups: vertebrates (animals with a backbone) and invertebrates (animals without a backbone)
  • 33. Similarities & d ifferences between Vertebrate & Invertebrate Invertebrate Vertebrate Kingdom: Animalia Animalia Phylum: Chordata Chordata Size: Small and slow moving. Big in size. Number of species: 2 million 57,739 Examples: Insects, flatworms etc. Parrots, Humans, snakes etc About: Animals without a backbone Animals with an internal skeleton made of bone are called vertebrates. Physical Characteristics: Multicellular; no back bone; no cell walls; reproduce sexually; heterotrophic. Well-developed internal skeleton; highly developed brain; have advanced nervous system; outer covering of protective cellular skin. Species: 98% of animal species areinvertebrates. 2% of the animal species are vertebrates. Classification: 30 phyla Classified into five groups: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Subphylum: Vertebrata
  • 34. Vertebrates Animals with backbones can be divided into five more groups: Mammals Birds Amphibians Fish Reptiles
  • 35. Invertebrates Invertebrates don't have an internal skeleton made of bone. Many invertebrates have a fluid-filled, hydrostatic skeleton, like the jelly fish or worm. Others have a hard outer shell, like insects and crustaceans. There are many types of invertebrates. The most common invertebrates includes the following: Coelenterates Echinoderms  Arthropods Worms Mollusks
  • 36.