Chapter Three                                Who are Today’s                                 Students in a                ...
Sources of Student Diversity• Racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds• Language (other than English)• Academic abilities,...
Race and EthnicityEthnicity                           Race• Racial similarity or              • Common ancestry &  differe...
Projections of the                             U.S. Population© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning                    3|4
Assimilation v.                             Cultural PluralismCultural Pluralism                    Assimilation• Each sub...
Approaches to                           Multicultural Education•     Teaching the exceptional and culturally different•   ...
Culturally Responsive Teaching• Takes a social justice perspective• Responds to conflicts of communication styles,  expect...
VIDEO CASE: Culturally Responsive Teaching© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning           3|8
ELL Student Language Backgrounds•     Spanish - 77%•     Vietnamese - 2.4 %•     Hmong - 1.8 %•     Korean - 1.2 %•     Ar...
Bilingual Education ModelsImmersion                       Teaching is in EnglishEnglish as a                    Short-term...
Howard Gardner’s                           Multiple IntelligencesEight distinct intellectual capacities:•     Verbal/Lingu...
Gardner’s Five Minds•     The Disciplined Mind•     The Synthesizing Mind•     The Creating Mind•     The Respectful Mind•...
Four Basic Learning Styles•     Visual - seeing•     Auditory - hearing•     Kinesthetic - moving•     Tactile - touching ...
Specific Disabilities Among Children               Age 6-21© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning            3 | 14
Six Principles of                             Special Education• Six principles provide the framework of IDEA  (Individual...
Mainstreaming and InclusionInclusion                       Mainstreaming• Students in regular           • Students with  s...
VIDEO CASE: Inclusion: Classroom       Implications for the General and Special                        Educator© Wadsworth...
Guidelines for Teaching                    Students With Disabilities• Be open to including students with disabilities in ...
Acceleration and Enrichment for Gifted       and Talented StudentsEnrichment                       Acceleration• Go beyond...
Guidelines for Teaching Gifted and             Talented Students• Provide teaching that allows use of the regular class as...
Glasser’s Choice Theory• Students make choices to satisfy basic needs     –   Survival     –   Love and Belonging     –   ...
VIDEO CASE: Motivating Adolescent Learners:      Curriculum Based on Real Life© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning            3 |...
Promoting Gender Equity• Have high expectations for all students, boys and girls.• Organize classroom, technology schedule...
VIDEO CASE: Gender Equity in the               Classroom: Girls and Science© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning                  ...
Making School Safer for Students of All           Orientations• Establish classroom guidelines against name-  calling.• Re...
Teaching Your                                 Diverse Students• Seek out experiences to broaden your cultural and  societa...
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1301 chapter 3

  1. 1. Chapter Three Who are Today’s Students in a Diverse Society?© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3|1
  2. 2. Sources of Student Diversity• Racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds• Language (other than English)• Academic abilities, achievements, and learning styles• Diverse needs (develop at different rates)• Gender• Sexual orientation• Socioeconomic backgrounds © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3|2
  3. 3. Race and EthnicityEthnicity Race• Racial similarity or • Common ancestry & difference physical• Common culture characteristics – Language – Customs – Religion © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3|3
  4. 4. Projections of the U.S. Population© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3|4
  5. 5. Assimilation v. Cultural PluralismCultural Pluralism Assimilation• Each subculture • Members of maintains its own subcultures expected individuality to give up their own• Seeks healthy customs and learn interaction among American ways diverse groups © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3|5
  6. 6. Approaches to Multicultural Education• Teaching the exceptional and culturally different• Human relations• Single-group studies• Multicultural approaches• Multicultural social justice © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3|6
  7. 7. Culturally Responsive Teaching• Takes a social justice perspective• Responds to conflicts of communication styles, expectations between students and teacher or school – Equity pedagogy © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3|7
  8. 8. VIDEO CASE: Culturally Responsive Teaching© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3|8
  9. 9. ELL Student Language Backgrounds• Spanish - 77%• Vietnamese - 2.4 %• Hmong - 1.8 %• Korean - 1.2 %• Arabic - 1.2 %• French (Haitian) Creole - 1.1 %• Cantonese - 1.0 %• All others together - less than 1% © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3|9
  10. 10. Bilingual Education ModelsImmersion Teaching is in EnglishEnglish as a Short-term or pull-out English lessons;Second Language may be used with immersion(ESL) ProgramTransitional Intensive English instruction combined with some subject instruction in native languageMaintenance or Preserve and build on native languageDevelopmental skills while adding English as a second language© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 10
  11. 11. Howard Gardner’s Multiple IntelligencesEight distinct intellectual capacities:• Verbal/Linguistic • Logical-mathematical• Spatial • Bodily-kinesthetic• Musical • Interpersonal• Intrapersonal • Naturalist• Tentative identification of a ninth intelligence (existential) that Gardener is currently trying to validate © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 11
  12. 12. Gardner’s Five Minds• The Disciplined Mind• The Synthesizing Mind• The Creating Mind• The Respectful Mind• The Ethical Mind © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 12
  13. 13. Four Basic Learning Styles• Visual - seeing• Auditory - hearing• Kinesthetic - moving• Tactile - touching © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 13
  14. 14. Specific Disabilities Among Children Age 6-21© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 14
  15. 15. Six Principles of Special Education• Six principles provide the framework of IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ), around which education services are designed and provided to students with disabilities:• Free appropriate public education• Appropriate evaluation• Individualized Education Program (IEP)• Least restrictive environment• Parent and student participation in decision making• Procedural safeguards © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 15
  16. 16. Mainstreaming and InclusionInclusion Mainstreaming• Students in regular • Students with school and disabilities in classroom as general education much as possible classrooms for at• Brings services to least part of the the child in the day. classroom. • Additional classes, services as needed© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 16
  17. 17. VIDEO CASE: Inclusion: Classroom Implications for the General and Special Educator© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 17
  18. 18. Guidelines for Teaching Students With Disabilities• Be open to including students with disabilities in your classroom• Learn each child’s limitations and potential• Learn instructional methods & technology that can help each child• Insist that needed services be provided• Use a variety of teaching strategies• Co-teach with a special education teacher © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 18
  19. 19. Acceleration and Enrichment for Gifted and Talented StudentsEnrichment Acceleration• Go beyond regular • Learn regular curriculum curriculum at a pace• Greater depth and commensurate with breadth abilities• Individual or • Progress to advanced collaborative inquiry materials faster than activities age norms or grade• Develop problem- levels solving abilities © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 19
  20. 20. Guidelines for Teaching Gifted and Talented Students• Provide teaching that allows use of the regular class as a forum for research, inquiry, and projects• Encourage curiosity and confidence• Allow exploration beyond standard curriculum• Differentiate instruction• Help students develop the skills required for self-directed learning• Group students of varying ability levels by interest for cooperative projects• Teach complex thinking processes• Look for alternative curriculum materials• Implement curriculum compacting• Match students with mentors © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 20
  21. 21. Glasser’s Choice Theory• Students make choices to satisfy basic needs – Survival – Love and Belonging – Power – Freedom – Fun• Class works better if teachers plan learning activities that help satisfy, instead of frustrating, needs © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 21
  22. 22. VIDEO CASE: Motivating Adolescent Learners: Curriculum Based on Real Life© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 22
  23. 23. Promoting Gender Equity• Have high expectations for all students, boys and girls.• Organize classroom, technology schedules so students don’t segregate or monopolize by sex.• Avoid biased instructional materials.• Examine and address, if needed, the frequency with which students are called on and the kind of responses teachers provide.• Eliminate sex-stereotyped assignments & tasks.• Structure learning to give girls equal opportunity to participate.• Model sex-equitable behavior. © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 23
  24. 24. VIDEO CASE: Gender Equity in the Classroom: Girls and Science© Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 24
  25. 25. Making School Safer for Students of All Orientations• Establish classroom guidelines against name- calling.• Respect different points of view.• Make no assumptions about students’ families or their sexual orientations.• Be a role model; treat all students with respect and dignity. © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 25
  26. 26. Teaching Your Diverse Students• Seek out experiences to broaden your cultural and societal understanding.• Spend time with people who differ from your ethnicity, culture, or language.• Volunteer in schools that differ from those you attended.• Learn about and appreciate the values and backgrounds of your students.• Teach to your students’ strengths.• Provide a variety of educational experiences.• Involve students’ families. Respect values of both school and families. © Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 3 | 26

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