From open data to data-driven services

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The data-driven economy promises the creation of enormous amounts of economic activity and growth opportunities. However these projections lie to a large extent in the development of new services. …

The data-driven economy promises the creation of enormous amounts of economic activity and growth opportunities. However these projections lie to a large extent in the development of new services. Currently, the results in terms of service creation remain below the expectations of open data promoters. Indeed most services created are not sustainable and / or do not use the variety of datasets. They are to a wide extent relying on a limited number of very popular datasets. To increase the reuse and the value extracted by services from data, our hypothesis is that service innovation approaches can help understand the mechanisms that drive the creation of services. We therefore propose a review the current approaches to encouraging the creation of services based on data, an analysis of the creation of services from two open data platforms, in the UK and in Singapore, and a description of the roles that the data can have in the design of services based on a theoretical framework of service innovation.

Muriel Foulonneau 1, Slim Turki 1, Géradine Vidou 1, Sébastien Martin 2
1 Public Research Centre Henri Tudor, Luxembourg-Kirchberg, Kirchberg
2 Université Paris 8, Vincennes-Saint-Denis, France
muriel.foulonneau@tudor.lu
slim.turki@tudor.lu
geraldine.vidou@tudor.lu

Proceedings of 14th European Conference on eGovernment – ECEG 2014
12-13 June 2014
Brasov, Romania

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  • Synopsis: minimum level of description of the service, the summary of the concept
    Context: in which the service is delivered (time, space technological components, regulatory context: norms, standards...)
    Target: customers of the service and the reason why they would buy it
    Resources: required to deliver the service (human resources: skills and competences, technological resources, process & organizational resources, norms and standards, partners, financial resources…). 
    Service system: way in which resources are combined to deliver the service to the target in the context (key activities, key partners as stakeholders)
    Innovativeness and sustainability: highlights the innovative aspects of the service system through its ingredients and the expected economical, societal & environmental impacts.

Transcript

  • 1. From Open Data To Data-Driven Services Muriel Foulonneau, Slim Turki, Géradine Vidou, Sébastien Martin ECEG 2014 – 14th European Conference on e-Government 12-13 June 2014 - Brasov, Romania
  • 2. Data-driven economy promises Data-driven economy promises the creation of enormous amounts of economic activity and growth opportunities. Lie to a large extent in the development of new services. Results in terms of service creation remain below the expectations of open data promoters. Most services created are not sustainable and / or do not use the variety of datasets; relying on a limited number of very popular datasets. June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 2 Open data: Unlocking innovation and performance with liquid information
  • 3. Objectives Increase the reuse and the value extracted by services from data Service innovation approaches can help understand mechanisms driving service creation. 1. Review current approaches to encourage the creation of services based on open data 2. Analysis of the creation of services from two open data platforms 3. Identification of the roles that the data can have in the design of services based on a theoretical framework of service innovation. June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 3
  • 4. Approaches to encourage creation of services based on open data
  • 5. From Open Data To Data-Driven Services Competitions Opening Datasets • Datasets available, open licence, sufficient quality • Interesting for citizens and reusers Identification of datasets • Portals aggregate metadata on datasets Datasets accessibility • Harmonization of metadata vocabularies (DCAT) Datasets discoverability • Lowest possible barrier to reuse Intellectual Property Rights June 12, 2014 5 Publicizing datasets and apps • Make datasets known to reusers • Events, virtual community channels Publicizing new datasets • Section in open data portals to show services and apps using datasets Publicizing services to show reuse and encourage service usage Training & support • World Bank platform, basic knowledge to get data and represent it into maps. • Open Knowledge Foundation, School of data Training • APIs to lower technical barrier and time to develop services • Reusers do not address format heterogeneity and less knowledge required Support Hackathons Off-site competitions Calls for contribution
  • 6. Analysis of the creation of services from two open data platforms
  • 7. Observation Open datasets and services created based on open data listed Cases selected due to (i) expressed willing of supporting authorities to promote creation of services based on open data sets (ii) availability of data concerning open datasets and developed services June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 7
  • 8. June 12, 2014 315 apps listed • Economy, Environment, Transparency, Society, Local services, Education, Citizen life 78% reuse only a single dataset • Sketchmap.co.uk uses 19 datasets. Most reused datasets • Code-Point® Open • National Public Transport Access Nodes (NaPTAN).. 17869 datasets and 315 apps 8 102 apps listed • Mobility, Tourism, Environment, Security, Religion, Business, Open jobs in public administrations. 85% reuse only a single dataset • Only 13 apps use more than one dataset Most re-used dataset • “Singapore map (OneMap) data” used in 33 apps. • Traffic and parking datasets used in 19 apps. No more than 100 from 5000 publicly-available datasets are used From Open Data To Data-Driven Services
  • 9. June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 9 Distribution of Apps based on datasets published Distribution of datasets by topic  Discrepancy between the low number of geographic and transportation datasets and the very large proportion of transportation services.  While transportation datasets appear to have a high reusability potential, education datasets attract less reusers in proportion of their quantity.  Quite uneven potential of datasets for reuse.  Domain is clearly not the only element to take into consideration when assessing the reusability of a dataset.
  • 10. How to increase open data reuse and the number of created services? Open data portals describe many datasets, available in a variety of formats and with many different access modes Data producers make their data available for reuse but reuse does not always happen. Understand the service creation process and how data sources can be integrated in this process. June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 10
  • 11. Service design process Idea Generation • Ideation phase, birth of the idea • Born spontaneously or from systematic exploration of various fields of innovation • Can be triggered by a stimulus, call for ideas, ideation contest. Maturation • Exploring the idea related issues • Validate or not options • Investigate which other technologies and services are out there already. Concept Evaluation • Idea has reached a level of maturity, • Assess the potential of the idea by a group of experts who can decide to invest in its development June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 11 Service System Context Innovativenes s & Sustainability SynopsisResources Target Synopsis: summary of the concept of the service Context (time, space technological components, regulatory context, etc.) Target: customers of the service and the reason why they would buy it Resources required (HR, technologies, organization, partners, financial resources…). Service system: way in which resources are combined (key activities, key partners as stakeholders) Innovativeness and sustainability: innovative aspects of the service system, expected impacts.
  • 12. Roles of data in the service design process Data can play different roles: 1. the service is based on data, 2. the service uses data as a resource, and 3. the service is validated or enriched with data but the data is not directly used or is not directly visible in the service. June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 12
  • 13. 1- Service based on data (1/4) When the availability of the data is used as impulse to the service ideation process, it represents the core of the service concept. • The objective of the ideation process is to determine with one or more datasets which services could be designed based on them. • The data producer should wonder who currently uses the data; who else could be interested by these data; and if there is any combination of these data with other data which could be of interest to a stakeholder. June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 13
  • 14. 1- Service based on data (2/4) The service allow visualizing the data publicspending.net to view budgetary data nosdeputes.fr, activity of French members of parliaments handimap.org, paths through cities for disabled citizens The Narrative science company generates texts from data to make it more user friendly; sport new s articles from the raw results of local competitions June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 14
  • 15. 1- Service based on data (3/4) Google ngrams benefits from the Google book digitization program: • Millions of books from various countries at various times digitized; • Optical Character Recognition process to enable full text search functionalities • By combining the bibliographic data (including the date of publication) and the individual words used in each book, Google ngrams allows visualizing the evolution of the use of particular words over time. June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 15 Evolution of the words "republic" and "democracy" between 1800 and 2000 The service gives a new meaning to the data.
  • 16. 1- Service based on data (4/4) Data, main resource or one of the main resources. Analyse the characteristics of the datasets and their impact on the feasibility of the service: • update frequency • data quality (reliability, completeness etc.) • data source • maintenance processes, • intellectual property rights attached and conditions of use • cost • accessibility, including its technical accessibility (e.g., API, data dump …) • formats (e.g., RDF/XML, JSON, spread sheet) • interoperability with other datasets, typically to mix it with third party datasets • documentation including its underlying semantic model to adequately interpret and use it. June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 16 At the maturation phase
  • 17. 2- Services with data as resources Delivery service • Location and traffic data are not the core of the concept. • However they are resources that will help design the service. Data enrichment • can use Wikipedia for the translation of a dataset of postcodes to automatically fill the city in an address form. As for the services based on data, characteristics of the datasets should be analysed June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 17 Idea Generation • Concept defined without any specific relation with the datasets Maturation • Investigating service feasibility, datasets have to be taken into consideration as necessary resources
  • 18. 3- Service validation • A dataset of postcodes can be used to validate postcodes provided by users in a form. • Recommendation systems are often tested against standard datasets: Authors of new algorithms can then test their algorithm against the dataset to verify that it can accurately predict the ratings provided by users. • Datasets used to validate business models, through gathering economic indicators, from statistical institutes • Simulation environments require many datasets to recreate the context of execution of a service (traffic related services) External datasets do not appear in the final service. • Critical role to increase the quality of the service and ensure its viability. June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 18 Datasets used in the service design phase but not in the service itself Concept Evaluation • use external datasets only for testing a service concept or validating data which are already hold by the service designer. • Datasets can be used for validating the data already used in the service.
  • 19. Conclusion Understand the roles that the data can have in a service • Data can help at the maturation and the validation phases of the service design. • New opportunities for the reuse of data Different approach to measuring the impact of opening datasets beyond the mere number of services created. • Benefit of opening data could be adequately measured Open datasets reuse is not only a matter of promotion but also a matter of asset value, i.e., the characteristics of the datasets are critical to ensure their effective reuse by service designers. June 12, 2014 From Open Data To Data-Driven Services 19
  • 20. From Open Data To Data-Driven Services Muriel Foulonneau, Slim Turki, Géradine Vidou, Sébastien Martin slim.turki@tudor.lu @sl_tu ECEG 2014 – 14th European Conference on e-Government 12-13 June 2014 - Brasov, Romania Thank you for your attention.
  • 21. Welcome to Luxembourg #EDF2015 data-forum.eu November 16-17, 2015