Open Public Data Future Scenarios
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Reflecting on the Consequences of Open Public Data - Daniel Kaplan

Reflecting on the Consequences of Open Public Data - Daniel Kaplan

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  • Thanks were due to your report on other slides as well:) The context of these slides was the 'Open Data' strand during PICNIC 2010 in Amsterdam, where people like Rufus Pollock, Julian Tait, Ton Zijlstra, Jarmo Eskelinen and Frank Kresin spoke and discussed issues during workshops. Where we go from here is still unclear to me... But I'd love to discuss it! -- Daniel Kaplan
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  • Sorry, I thought comment above was being posted by favorite system just for me own ref - rather than comment on the slideshow. In longer form: this is a really useful presentation. Many thanks for sharing (and for the kind thanks at the end - which led Google Alerts to point me in this direction).

    I've only had a quick skim through - but going to spend a lot more time looking at this in detail. Would love to know more about the context of these slides and where other work on the issues they raise might be going on...
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  • Comprehensive critical look at open data.
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  • 1. Reflecting on the Consequences of Open Public Data Daniel Kaplan, Fing September, 2010 [email_address]
  • 2. What happens if…?
    • A significant share of "public-service information" (PSI) has become available for access and re-use, in machine-readable format
    • What consequences on
      • The daily lives of citizens and firms?
      • Public agencies and public policy-making?
      • Innovation and growth?
      • Democracy and public spirit?
    • Are there ways of managing Open Public Data that produce different sets of consequences?
      • Consider this the beginning of an ongoing discussion…
  • 3. The dominant story Large sets of PSI released, raw, mostly free… … Reused by a broad diversity of actors, producing… Transparency and accountability New / improved services New knowledge and insights Citizen empowerment
    • Less corruption
    • Better use of public resources
    • Less duplication in public IT investments
    • Better policy impact evaluation
    • More trust in government
    • Better services for the end-users
    • Better quality of life
    • Growth and innovation
    • More efficient public agencies
    • Scientific advancement
    • Data activists & media join forces in exposing failures
    • Better policy impact evaluation, better public decisions in the future
    • Self-confidence
    • Social trust
    • Better data thru citizen feedback
    • Democratic participation
    • Service co-design and co-production
  • 4. But isn't this story just as likely? Large sets of PSI released, raw, mostly free… … Reused by a broad diversity of actors, producing… Transparency before accountability Privately-supplied public services Dubious, unshared new knowledge Citizen frustration
    • Endless discussion on individual spending decision
    • Court trials
    • Privacy breakdown
    • Less trust in government
    • Better services for affluent or community- bound end-users
    • Gvt. barred from reusing its own data
    • Privatization of specialized public data producers
    • Less public data
    • Data-based research influenced by funders' agendas
    • Incentive for data falsification
    • Highly unequal power to interpret data
    • Fragmentation of deliberative space
    • Data empower the empowered: lobbies and corporations
    • Increase inequality, both in terms of service quality and power distribution
    • Less social trust & participation
  • 5. What causes the difference? Large sets of PSI released, raw, mostly free… … Reused by a broad diversity of actors, producing… Transparency before accountability Privately-supplied public services Unbeneficial new knowledge Citizen frustration Transparency and accountability New / improved public services New knowledge and insights Citizen empowerment ?
  • 6. Are there other scenarios? How & Why do they differ from one another?
  • 7. Does this also sound plausible? Large sets of PSI released, raw, mostly free… … Reused by a rather small number of actors, producing… Issue-based transparency Useful, but anecdotal services Not very significant knowledge product° Citizen indifference
    • Lobbies and activists expose what they see fit, ignore rest
    • Most other data remain little used
    • Untrust in government spreads to lobbies, geeks and techno-activists
    • Most applications created for fun and not maintained
    • Most good services don't scale or spread beyond "niches"
    • Low demand for data
    • Ability to draw meaning out of data remains rare
    • Spectacular dataviz, scant production of usable knowledge
    • Highly divergent interpretations of same data
    • Data empower the empowered: lobbies and corporations
    • Crowdsourcing peters out after initial successes
    • Data not seen as a means to take back power / autonomy
  • 8. Write your story Large sets of PSI released, raw, mostly free… (Democracy) (Services) (Knowledge) (Citizens)
  • 9. What do we know? What do we know we don't know?
  • 10. Driving forces of PSI opening Economic Institutional Technological Societal
    • Liberalization
    • Growth found in service-based innovation
    • "Information wants to be free"
    • Lack of money
    • Achieve more with less, produce non-tax revenues
    • Transparency & participation drive
    • Web of data
    • Semantic web
    • Web 2.0
    • Open source
    • Damanining
    • Dataviz
    • Complexity
    • Demand for participation & empowerment
    • Consumerism
    • Low trust in institutions
    Open Public-Service Information (PSI)
  • 11. Tensions and uncertainties Government as facilitator / as service provider Government as primary data source / re-user or data Transparency / Privacy Transparency / Ability to make bold decisions Financing of public agencies whose job is to produce data Privatization of services / Data openness Empowering the empowered / the disenfranchised Empowering the public / Empowering corporations Creating trust / Destroying trust … Divergence about the meaning of data Power in establishing data structure, categories, granularity Incentive for data falsification, vandalism, etc. Distribution of ability to effectively use data …
  • 12. What levers do we have in hand?
  • 13. A few building blocks Data Mapping data Reference docs End-user info &quot;Grey&quot; docs Observation data Production data Financial data Directory data Actors IT businesses Government Local govts. Public services Other businesses Research Citizens Media Uses Reveal Facts Produce information Provide Interfaces Create new services Improve services Outcomes Improved services Transparency, accountability Efficiency, productivity New knowledge Innovative services Service coproduction Democratic participation Citizen empowerment NGOs <Special thanks to Tim Davies, Practical Participation>
  • 14. Identifying levers Internal (directly related to PSI access policies)
    • Release conditions (price, licensing)
    • Transferability of release licenses to derivative uses
    • Data (re-)use capacity within the public sector
    • Public-sector funding, eg. of specialized information producing agencies
    • Data re-use ecosystem
    External (No direct lever)
    • Distribution of ability to understand and re-use PSI
    • Ability to generate meaningful, shared public debate based on data
    • Relative importance of transparency uses / service-oriented uses
    • Level of service creation and improvement
    • Level of user involvement in the design and provision of these services
    Political (can become levers if we so choose)
    • Promotion of a &quot;culture of data&quot;
    • Specific actions against &quot;data divide&quot;
    • Extension of open data to some private data
    • Data crowdsourcing
    • Hard thinking on &quot;transparency&quot; PSI
    • Specific public regulatory and proactive roles on PSI
  • 15. Let's take it from here! Daniel Kaplan, Fing September, 2010 [email_address]
  • 16. <Backup Material>
  • 17. &quot;Public Data&quot; typology/ies Other possible typologies: by source, by destination, by finality (eg, &quot;end-product&quot; vs. &quot;intermediary&quot; data)… Stability Economic interest Public interest Documents   Normative and reference documents (regulations, decisions…) ++ + ++ Mediated information directed towards end-users + + ++ &quot;Grey&quot; documents (eg, mail, studies, reports…) - + + Datasets   Mapping data + ++ ++ Observation data (eg, stats, measurements…) - ++ ++ Production data (eg, filled-in forms, MIS data, inventories, real-time system data…) -- + + Budget and financial data - + ++ Directory data (eg, addresses, org charts…) - + +
  • 18. Types of actors Produ-cers Re-users Inter-mediaries Economic interest Public interest Public institutions   National / Continental (&quot;Governments&quot;) ++ + + + ++ Local ++ + - + ++ Agencies & operational public services ++ + - ++ ++ Businesses   Within the information sector +? ++ ++ ++ - IT providers - + + + + Other existing businesses +? ++ - ++ - Startups - ++ + ++ - Others   Media, bloggers - ++ + + ++ NGOs, activists, lobbyists - ++ + - ++ Researchers + ++ - ++ ++ Individual citizens +? + - + ++
  • 19. Uses of public data <Special thanks to Tim Davies, Practical Participation, &quot;How is Open Data Being Used in Practice?&quot;> Added value Difficulty Economic interest Public interest   Reveal facts (search / browse / extract) - - + + Produce information (representation / interpretation) + + + ++ Produce an interface (means to interactively access and explore one or more datasets) ++ ++ + ++ Improve or transform services ++ ++ + ++ Create new services ++ ++ ++ ++
  • 20. Expected outcomes Direct impact Indirect impact Economic interest Public interest   Transparency and accountability ++ + - ++ Efficiency and productivity of public agencies - ++ + ++ New knowledge and insights + ++ + ++ Improved public services - ++ + ++ New public services - ++ ++ ++ Democratic participation - ++ - ++ Co-design / co-production of public services - ++ + ++ Citizen empowerment in personal / community life + ++ + +
  • 21. Public-Service Information in France Daniel Kaplan, Fing September, 2010 [email_address]
  • 22. Open Data in France
  • 23. Local communities in the lead