Nfemp

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Nfemp

  1. 1. Lead<br />Lead is a main-group element with the symbol Pb and atomic number 82. Lead is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and shots, weights, as part of solders, pewters, fusible alloys and as a radiation shield. Lead, at certain exposure levels, is a poisonous substance to animals. Lead poisoning has been documented from ancient Rome, ancient Greece, and ancient China.<br />Total annual production is about 8 million tonnes; about half is produced from recycled scrap. The top lead producing countries, as of 2008, are Australia, China, USA, Peru, Canada, Mexico, Sweden, Morocco, South Africa and North Korea. Australia, China and the United States account for more than half of primary production. <br />2008 mine production: 3,886,000 tonnes<br />2008 metal production: 8,725,000 tonnes<br />2008 metal consumption: 8,706,000 tonnes<br />At current use rates, the supply of lead is estimated to run out in 42 years<br /> China, India, Japan, US and European Union are the main consumers of lead in the world. Lead is traded mostly as soft lead, animated lead, lead alloys and copper-based lead scrap. <br />India imports nearly 50 percent of its lead requirement every year. Lead production in India is estimated to be around 82,000 ton, mostly from secondary sources. Lack of any major lead ore deposit is the main constraint for enhancing domestic lead production. <br />The primary lead industry in India is divided between the following main players: Binani Industries Limited and Sterlite Industries (India) Ltd. (Hndustan Zinc Ltd.). Due to increasing use of lead in domestic market both players are expanding their smelting capacities for lead. <br />Gravita India Ltd. is Leading Indian Company having state-of-the-art Lead Processing unit at Jaipur (Rajasthan), INDIA. They carry out smelting of Lead Ore / Lead Concentrate / Lead Battery Scrap to produce primary & secondary Lead Metal, which is further transformed into Pure Lead, Specific Lead Alloy, Lead Oxides (Lead Sub-Oxide, Red Lead, and Litharge) and Lead Products like Lead Sheets, Lead Pipes etc. with proven technology and processes<br />• Lead Metal       1. Pure Lead / Refined Lead Ingots        2. Lead Alloys (Lead-Antimony, Lead-Selenium, Lead-Calcium,          Lead-Copper, Lead-Tin Solder Alloys etc.)        3. Lead Powder<br />• Lead Chemicals and Lead Oxides in Powder and Granules forms       1. Lead Sub Oxide i.e. Grey Oxides       2. Red Lead i.e. Lead Tetra Oxide       3. Litharge i.e. Lead Mono Oxide / Lead Yellow Oxide       4. Lead Nitrate       5. Lead Mono Silicate <br />• Lead Products        1. Lead Sheets2. Lead Foils       3. Lead Wire4. Lead Glass / Shielding        5. Lead Anode6. Lead Pipe       7. Lead Bricks 8. Lead Sheath       9. Lead Coolant In Nuclear Power10. Artistic Lead Products        11. Lead Shots / Balls 12. Lead Blanket       13. Lead Wool 14. Lead Flange       15. Lead Cames16. Lead Bullets       17. Lead Weights   <br />Zinc<br />Zinc was first introduced commercially in the United States during the 1850s. The first known domestic zinc production was at the Washington, D.C., arsenal in 1835, by Belgian workers. . The most exploited zinc ore is sphalerite, a zinc sulfide. The largest exploitable deposits are found in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc production includes froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrowinning" o "Electrowinning"electrowinning).<br />Zinc makes up about 75 HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parts-per_notation" o "Parts-per notation"ppm (0.0075%) of the Earth's crust, making it the 24th most abundant element there. Soil contains 5–770 ppm of zinc with an average of 64 ppm. Seawater has only 30 ppb zinc and the atmosphere contains 0.1–4 µg/m3<br />Identified world zinc resources total about 1.9 billion tonnes. Large deposits are in Australia, Canada and the United States with the largest reserves in Iran. At the current rate of consumption, these reserves are estimated to be depleted sometime between 2027 and 2055. About 346 million tonnes have been extracted throughout history to 2002, and one estimate found that about 109 million tonnes of that remains in us.<br />Zinc is the fourth most common metal in use, with an annual production of about 12 million tonnes. The world's largest zinc producer is Nyrstar, a merger of the Australian OZ Minerals and the Belgian Umicore. About 70% of the world's zinc originates from mining, while the remaining 30% comes from recycling secondary zinc.<br />Applications<br />Major applications of zinc include (numbers are given for the US)<br />Galvanizing (55%)<br />Alloys (21%)<br />Brass and bronze (16%)<br />Miscellaneous (8%)<br />World ProductionRegion%Asia54Europe23America17Oceania4Africa2Total100<br />Hindustan Zinc Limited (HZL) is an integrated mining and resources producer of zinc, lead, silver and cadmium. It is a subsidiary of Vedanta Resources PLC. HZL is the world's second largest zinc producer<br />Operations<br /> Mining<br />HZL operates the world's third largest open-pit mine, and World's largest Zinc Mine in Rampura Agucha, Rajasthan. Other mines with HZL are located in Sindesar Khurd, Rajpura Dariba and Zawar, all in Rajasthan. <br />HZL is also the world's lowest cost zinc producer. <br />Smelting<br />HZL operates Zinc and Lead smelters and refineries at Chanderiya (Chittorgarh), Debari (Udaipur) & Dariba (Rajsamand) in Rajasthan, and at Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh.The total metal production is more than 1 Million Tonnes for year 2010-2011.<br />Lead Zinc Smelter<br />Commissioned in 1991Imperial Smelting Technology – UKGone through a series of debotlenecking105,000 tonnes per annum of Zinc 35,000 tonnes per annum of Lead120 tonnes per annum of Silver<br /> <br />Lead Smelter<br />Commissioned in 2006TSL Technology from Ausmelt-AustraliaCansolv Technology for Sulphur Recovery50,000 tonnes per annum of Lead<br /> <br />Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter I<br />Commissioned in 2005 Roast Leach Electrowinning Technology with Lead Silver Residue Recovery210,000 tonnes per annum of Zinc<br /> <br />Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter IICommissioned in 2007Roast Leach Electrowinning<br />

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