Corporate finance, 6th ed – ross, westerfield, and jaffe (1)

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  • 1. Finance Corporate Fiance Volume 1 David Whitehurst UMIST abc McGraw-Hill/IrwinMcGraw−Hill PrimisISBN: 0−390−32000−5Text:Corporate Finance, Sixth EditionRoss−Westerfield−Jaffe
  • 2. This book was printed on recycled paper.Finance ©2003 by The McGraw−Hill Companies, Inc. All rightsreserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except aspermitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no partof this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any formor by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system,without prior written permission of the publisher.This McGraw−Hill Primis text may include materials submitted toMcGraw−Hill for publication by the instructor of this course. Theinstructor is solely responsible for the editorial content of suchmaterials.111 FINA ISBN: 0−390−32000−5
  • 3. FinanceVolume 1Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe • Corporate Finance, Sixth Edition Front Matter 1 Preface 1 I. Overview 8 Introduction 8 1. Introduction to Corporate Finance 9 2. Accounting Statements and Cash Flow 29 II. Value and Capital Budgeting 51 Introduction 51 3. Financial Markets and Net Present Value: First Principles of Finance (Adv.) 52 4. Net Present Value 72 5. How to Value Bonds and Stocks 108 6. Some Alternative Investment Rules 146 7. Net Present Value and Capital Budgeting 175 8. Strategy and Analysis in Using Net Present Value 206 III. Risk 225 Introduction 225 9. Capital Market Theory: An Overview 226 10. Return and Risk: The Capital−Asset−Pricing Model 248 11. An Alternative View of Risk and Return: The Arbitrage Pricing Theory 291 12. Risk, Cost of Capital, and Capital Budgeting 313 IV. Capital Structure and Dividend Policy 343 Introduction 343 13. Corporate−Financing Decisions and Efficient Capital Markets 345 14. Long−Term Financing: An Introduction 377 15. Capital Structure: Basic Concepts 396 16. Capital Structure: Limits to the Use of Debt 428 17. Valuation and Capital Budgeting for the Levered Firm 474 18. Dividend Policy: Why Does It Matter? 501 V. Long−Term Financing 539 Introduction 539 19. Issuing Securities to the Public 540 iii
  • 4. 20. Long−Term Debt 56921. Leasing 592VI. Options, Futures, and Corporate Finance 617Introduction 61722. Options and Corporate Finance: Basic Concepts 61823. Options and Corporate Finance: Extensions and Applications 65624. Warrants and Convertibles 68025. Derivatives and Hedging Risk 701VII. Financial Planning and Short−Term Finance 736Introduction 73626. Corporate Financial Models and Long−Term Planning 73727. Short−Term Finance and Planning 75128. Cash Management 77629. Credit Management 803VIII. Special Topics 820Introduction 82030. Mergers and Acquisitions 82131. Financial Distress 85932. International Corporate Finance 877 iv
  • 5. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: Front Matter Preface © The McGraw−Hill 1Corporate Finance, Sixth Companies, 2002Edition Preface The teaching and the practicing of corporate finance are more challenging and exciting than ever before. The last decade has seen fundamental changes in financial markets and financial instruments. In the early years of the 21st century, we still see announcements in the financial press about such matters as takeovers, junk bonds, financial restructuring, ini- tial public offerings, bankruptcy, and derivatives. In addition, there is the new recognition of “real” options (Chapters 21 and 22), private equity and venture capital (Chapter 19), and the disappearing dividend (Chapter 18). The world’s financial markets are more integrated than ever before. Both the theory and practice of corporate finance have been moving ahead with uncommon speed, and our teaching must keep pace. These developments place new burdens on the teaching of corporate finance. On one hand, the changing world of finance makes it more difficult to keep materials up to date. On the other hand, the teacher must distinguish the permanent from the temporary and avoid the temptation to follow fads. Our solution to this problem is to emphasize the mod- ern fundamentals of the theory of finance and make the theory come to life with contem- porary examples. Increasingly, many of these examples are outside the United States. All too often, the beginning student views corporate finance as a collection of unrelated topics that are unified largely because they are bound together between the covers of one book. As in the previous editions, our aim is to present corporate finance as the working of a small number of integrated and powerful institutions.THE INTENDED AUDIENCE OF THIS BOOK This book has been written for the introductory courses in corporate finance at the MBA level, and for the intermediate courses in many undergraduate programs. Some instructors will find our text appropriate for the introductory course at the undergraduate level as well. We assume that most students either will have taken, or will be concurrently enrolled in, courses in accounting, statistics, and economics. This exposure will help students understand some of the more difficult material. However, the book is self-contained, and a prior knowl- edge of these areas is not essential. The only mathematics prerequisite is basic algebra.NEW TO THE SIXTH EDITION Following are the key revisions and updates to this edition: • A complete update of all cost of capital discussions to emphasize its usefulness in capital budgeting, primarily in Chapters 12 and 17.
  • 6. 2 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: Front Matter Preface © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Companies, 2002 Edition Preface vii • A new appendix on performance evaluation and EVA in Chapter 12. • A new section on liquidity and the cost of capital in Chapter 12. • New evidence on efficient markets and CAPM in Chapter 13. • New treatment on why firms choose different capital structures and dividend poli- cies: the case of Qualcomm in Chapters 16 and 18. • A redesign and rewrite of options and derivatives chapters into a new Part VI. • Extension of options theory to mergers and acquisitions in Chapter 22. • An expanded discussion of real options and their importance to capital budgeting in Chapter 23. • New material on carveouts, spinoffs, and tracking stocks in Chapter 30. • Many new end-of-chapter problems throughout all chapters. ATTENTION TO PEDAGOGY Executive Summary Each chapter begins with a “roadmap” that describes the objectives of the chapter and how it connects with concepts already learned in previous chapters. Real company examples that will be discussed are highlighted in this section. Case Study There are 10 case studies that are highlighted in the Sixth Edition that present situations with real companies and how they rationalized the decisions they made to solve various problems. They provide extended examples of the material covered in the chapter. The cases are highlighted in the detailed Table of Contents. In Their Own Words Boxes Located throughout the Sixth Edition, this unique series consists of articles written by dis- tinguished scholars or practitioners on key topics in the text. Concept Questions Included after each major section in a chapter, Concept Questions point to essential mater- ial and allow students to test their recall and comprehension before moving forward. Key Terms Students will note that important words are highlighted in boldface type the first time they appear. They are also listed at the end of the chapter, along with the page number on which they first appear, as well as in the glossary at the end of the book. Demonstration Problems We have provided worked-out examples throughout the text to give students a clear under- standing of the logic and structure of the solution process. These examples are clearly called out in the text. Highlighted Concepts Throughout the text, important ideas are pulled out and presented in a copper box—signal- ing to students that this material is particularly relevant and critical for their understanding. Numbered Equations Key equations are numbered and listed on the back end sheets for easy reference. The end of-chapter material reflects and builds on the concepts learned from the chap- ter and study features:
  • 7. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: Front Matter Preface © The McGraw−Hill 3 Corporate Finance, Sixth Companies, 2002 Editionviii Preface Summary and Conclusions The numbered summary provides a quick review of key concepts in the chapter. List of Key Terms A list of the boldfaced key terms with page numbers is included for easy reference. Suggested Readings Each chapter is followed by a short, annotated list of books and articles to which interest- ed students can refer for additional information. Questions and Problems Because solving problems is so critical to a student’s learning, they have been revised, thor- oughly reviewed, and accuracy-checked. The problem sets are graded for difficulty, moving from easier problems intended to build confidence and skill to more difficult problems designed to challenge the enthusiastic student. Problems have been grouped according to the concepts they test on. Additionally, we have tried to make the problems in the critical “con- cept” chapters, such as those on value, risk, and capital structure, especially challenging and interesting. We provide answers to selected problems in Appendix B at the end of the book. Minicase This end-of-chapter feature, located in Chapters 12 and 30, parallels the Case Study feature found in various chapters. These Minicases apply what is learned in a number of chapters to a real-world type of scenario. After presenting the facts, the student is given guidance in rationalizing a sound business decision.SUPPLEMENTS PACKAGE As with the text, developing supplements of extraordinary quality and utility was the pri- mary objective. Each component in the supplement package underwent extensive review and revision.FOR THE INSTRUCTOR Instructor’s Manual (0-07-233882-2) Prepared by John Stansfield, University of Missouri, Columbia, this instructor’s tool has been thoroughly revised and updated. Each chapter includes a list of transparencies/ PowerPoint slides, a brief chapter outline, an introduction, and an annotated outline. The annotated outline contains references to the transparencies/PowerPoint slides, additional explanations and examples, and teaching tips. PowerPoint Presentation System (0-07-233883-0) This presentation system was developed in conjunction with the Instructor’s Manual by the same author, allowing for a complete and integrated teaching package. These slides contain useful outlines, summaries, and exhibits from the text. If you have PowerPoint installed on your PC, you have the ability to edit, print, or rearrange the complete transparency presen- tation to meet your specific needs. Test Bank (0-07-233885-7) The Test Bank, prepared by David Burnie, Western Michigan University, includes an aver- age of 35 multiple-choice questions and problems per chapter, and 5 essay questions per
  • 8. 4 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: Front Matter Preface © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Companies, 2002 Edition Preface ix chapter. Each question is labeled with the level of difficulty. About 30–40 percent of these problems are new or revised. Computerized Testing Software (0-07-233881-4) This software includes an easy-to-use menu system which allows quick access to all the powerful features available. The Keyword Search option lets you browse through the ques- tion bank for problems containing a specific word or phrase. Password protection is avail- able for saved tests or for the entire database. Questions can be added, modified, or deleted. Available in Windows version. Solutions Manual (0-07-233884-9) The Solutions Manual, prepared by John A. Helmuth, University of Michigan, contains worked-out solutions for all of the problems, and has been thoroughly reviewed for accu- racy. The Solutions Manual is also available to be purchased for your students. Instructor CD-ROM (0-07-246238-8) You can receive all of the supplements in an electronic format! The Instructor’s Manual, PowerPoint, Test Bank, and Solutions Manual are all together on one convenient CD. The interface provides the instructor with a self-contained program that allows him or her to arrange the visual resources into his or her own presentation and add additional files as well. Videos (0-07-250741-1) These finance videos are 10-minute case studies on topics such as Financial Markets, Careers, Rightsizing, Capital Budgeting, EVA (Economic Value Added), Mergers and Acquisitions, and International Finance. Questions to accompany these videos can be found on the book’s Online Learning Center. FOR THE STUDENTS Standard & Poor’s Educational Version of Market Insight. If you purchased a new book, you will have received a free passcode card that will give you access to the same company and industry data that industry experts use. See for details on this exclusive partnership! PowerWeb If you purchased a new book, free access to PowerWeb—a dynamic supplement specific to your corporate finance course—is also available. Included are three levels of resource materials: articles from journals and magazines from the past year, weekly updates on cur- rent issues, and links to current news of the day. Also available is a series of study aids, such as quizzes, web links, and interactive exercises. See for more details and access to this valuable resource. Student Problem Manual (0-07-233880-6) Written by Robert Hanson, Eastern Michigan University, the Student Problem Manual is a direct companion to the text. It is uniquely designed to involve the student in the learning process. Each chapter contains a Mission Statement, an average of 20 fill-in-the-blank Concept Test questions and answers, and an average of 15 problems and worked-out solu- tions. This product can be purchased separately or packaged with the text. Online Learning Center Visit the full web resource now available with the Sixth Edition at The Information Center includes information on this new edition, and links for special offers.
  • 9. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: Front Matter Preface © The McGraw−Hill 5 Corporate Finance, Sixth Companies, 2002 Editionx Preface The Instructor Center includes all of the teaching resources for the book, and the Student Center includes free online study materials—such as quizzes, study outlines, and spread- sheets—developed specifically for this edition. A feedback form is also available for your questions and comments.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The plan for developing this edition began with a number of our colleagues who had an inter- est in the book and regularly teach the MBA introductory course. We integrated their com- ments and recommendations throughout the Sixth Edition. Contributors to this edition include: R. Aggarwal, John Carroll University Richard Miller, Wesleyan University Christopher Anderson, University of Naval Modani, University of Central Florida Missouri–Columbia Robert Nachtmann, University of Pittsburgh James J. Angel, Georgetown University Edward Nelling, Georgia Tech Kevin Bahr, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee Gregory Niehaus, University of South Carolina Michael Barry, Boston College Ingmar Nyman, Hunter College William O. Brown, Claremont McKenna College Venky Panchapagesan, Washington Bill Callahan, Southern Methodist University University–St. Louis Steven Carvell, Cornell University Bulent Parker, University of Wisconsin–Madison Indudeep S. Chhachhi, Western Kentucky Christo Pirinsky, Ohio State University University Jeffrey Pontiff, University of Washington Jeffrey L. Coles, Arizona State University N. Prabhala, Yale University Raymond Cox, Central Michigan University Mao Qiu, University of Utah–Salt Lake City John Crockett, George Mason University Latha Ramchand, University of Houston Robert Duvic, The University of Texas at Austin Gabriel Ramirez, Virginia Commonwealth Steven Ferraro, Pepperdine University University Adlai Fisher, New York University Stuart Rosenstein, University of Colorado at Yee-Tien Fu, Stanford University Denver Bruno Gerard, University of Southern California Bruce Rubin, Old Dominion University Frank Ghannadian, Mercer University–Atlanta Jaime Sabal, New York University John A. Helmuth, University of Andy Saporoschenko, University of Akron Michigan–Dearborn William Sartoris, Indiana University Edith Hotchkiss, Boston College Faruk Selcuk, University of Bridgeport Charles Hu, Claremont McKenna College Sudhir Singh, Frostburg State University Raymond Jackson, University of John S. Strong, College of William and Mary Massachusetts–Dartmouth Michael Sullivan, University of Nevada–Las Vegas Narayanan Jayaraman, Georgia Institute of Andrew C. Thompson, Virginia Polytechnic Technology Institute Dolly King, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee Karin Thorburn, Dartmouth College Ronald Kudla, The University of Akron Satish Thosar, University of Dilip Kumar Patro, Rutgers University Massachusetts–Dorchester Youngsik Kwak, Delaware State University Oscar Varela, University of New Orleans Youngho Lee, Howard University Steven Venti, Dartmouth College Yulong Ma, Cal State—Long Beach Susan White, University of Texas–Austin Over the years, many others have contributed their time and expertise to the development and writing of this text. We extend our thanks once again for their assistance and countless insights:
  • 10. 6 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: Front Matter Preface © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Companies, 2002 Edition Preface xi James J. Angel, Georgetown University Hugh Hunter, Eastern Washington University Nasser Arshadi, University of Missouri–St. Louis James Jackson, Oklahoma State University Robert Balik, Western Michigan University Prem Jain, Tulane University John W. Ballantine, Babson College Brad Jordan, University of Kentucky Thomas Bankston, Angelo State University Jarl Kallberg, New York University Swati Bhatt, Rutgers University Jonathan Karpoff, University of Washington Roger Bolton, Williams College Paul Keat, American Graduate School of Gordon Bonner, University of Delaware International Management Brad Borber, University of California–Davis Brian Kluger, University of Cincinnati Oswald Bowlin, Texas Technical University Narayana Kocherlakota, University of Iowa Ronald Braswell, Florida State University Nelson Lacey, University of Massachusetts Kirt Butler, Michigan State University Gene Lai, University of Rhode Island Andreas Christofi, Pennsylvania State Josef Lakonishok, University of Illinois University–Harrisburg Dennis Lasser, SUNY–Binghamton James Cotter, University of Iowa Paul Laux, Case Western Reserve University Jay Coughenour, University of Bong-Su Lee, University of Minnesota Massachusetts–Boston James T. Lindley, University of Southern Arnold Cowan, Iowa State University Mississippi Mark Cross, Louisiana Technical University Dennis Logue, Dartmouth College Ron Crowe, Jacksonville University Michael Long, Rutgers University William Damon, Vanderbilt University Ileen Malitz, Fairleigh Dickinson University Sudip Datta, Bentley College Terry Maness, Baylor University Anand Desai, University of Florida Surendra Mansinghka, San Francisco State Miranda Lam Detzler, University of University Massachusetts–Boston Michael Mazzco, Michigan State University David Distad, University of California–Berkeley Robert I. McDonald, Northwestern University Dennis Draper, University of Southern California Hugh McLaughlin, Bentley College Jean-Francois Dreyfus, New York University Larry Merville, University of Texas–Richardson Gene Drzycimski, University of Joe Messina, San Francisco State University Wisconsin–Oshkosh Roger Mesznik, City College of New Robert Eldridge, Fairfield University York–Baruch College Gary Emery, University of Oklahoma Rick Meyer, University of South Florida Theodore Eytan, City University of New Richard Mull, New Mexico State University York–Baruch College Jim Musumeci, Southern Illinois Don Fehrs, University of Notre Dame University–Carbondale Andrew Fields, University of Delaware Peder Nielsen, Oregon State University Paige Fields, Texas A&M Dennis Officer, University of Kentucky Michael Fishman, Northwestern University Joseph Ogden, State University of New York Michael Goldstein, University of Colorado Ajay Patel, University of Missouri–Columbia Indra Guertler, Babson College Glenn N. Pettengill, Emporia State University James Haltiner, College of William and Mary Pegaret Pichler, University of Maryland Delvin Hawley, University of Mississippi Franklin Potts, Baylor University Hal Heaton, Brigham Young University Annette Poulsen, University of Georgia John Helmuth, Rochester Institute of Technology Latha Ramchand, University of Houston Michael Hemler, University of Notre Dame Narendar Rao, Northeastern Illinois University Stephen Heston, Washington University Steven Raymar, Indiana University Andrea Heuson, University of Miami Stuart Rosenstein, Southern Illinois University
  • 11. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: Front Matter Preface © The McGraw−Hill 7 Corporate Finance, Sixth Companies, 2002 Editionxii Preface Patricia Ryan, Drake University Alex Tang, Morgan State University Anthony Sanders, Ohio State University Richard Taylor, Arkansas State University James Schallheim, University of Utah Timothy Thompson, Northwestern University Mary Jean Scheuer, California State University Charles Trzcinka, State University of New at Northridge York–Buffalo Lemma Senbet, University of Maryland Haluk Unal, University of Maryland–College Park Kuldeep Shastri, University of Pittsburgh Avinash Verma, Washington University Scott Smart, Indiana University Lankford Walker, Eastern Illinois University Jackie So, Southern Illinois University Ralph Walkling, Ohio State University John Stansfield, Columbia College F. Katherine Warne, Southern Bell College A. Charlene Sullivan, Purdue University Robert Whitelaw, New York University Timothy Sullivan, Bentley College Berry Wilson, Georgetown University R. Bruce Swensen, Adelphi University Thomas Zorn, University of Nebraska–Lincoln Ernest Swift, Georgia State University Kent Zumwalt, Colorado State University For their help on the Sixth Edition, we would like to thank Linda De Angelo, Dennis Draper, Kim Dietrich, Alan Shapiro, Harry De Angelo, Aris Protopapadakis, Anath Madhevan, and Suh-Pyng Ku, all of the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California. We also owe a debt of gratitude to Edward I. Altman, of New York University; Robert S. Hansen, of Virginia Tech; and Jay Ritter, of the University of Florida, who have provided several thoughtful comments and immeasurable help. Over the past three years, readers have provided assistance by detecting and reporting errors. Our goal is to offer the best textbook available on the subject, so this information was invaluable as we prepared the Sixth Edition. We want to ensure that all future editions are error-free and therefore we will offer $10 per arithmetic error to the first individual reporting it. Any arithmetic error resulting in subsequent errors will be counted double. All errors should be reported using the Feedback Form on the Corporate Finance Online Learning Center at In addition, Sandra Robinson and Wendy Wat have given significant assistance in preparing the manuscript. Finally, we wish to thank our families and friends, Carol, Kate, Jon, Jan, Mark, and Lynne for their forbearance and help. Stephen A. Ross Randolph W. Westerfield Jeffrey F. Jaffe
  • 12. 8 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview Introduction © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Companies, 2002 Edition PART I Overview 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 2 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow 22 T O engage in business the financial managers of a firm must find answers to three kinds of important questions. First, what long-term investments should the firm take on? This is the capital budgeting decision. Second, how can cash be raised for the re- quired investments? We call this the financing decision. Third, how will the firm man- age its day-to-day cash and financial affairs? These decisions involve short-term finance and concern net working capital. In Chapter 1 we discuss these important questions, briefly introducing the basic ideas of this book and describing the nature of the modern corporation and why it has emerged as the leading form of the business firm. Using the set-of-contracts perspective, the chapter discusses the goals of the modern corporation. Though the goals of share- holders and managers may not always be the same, conflicts usually will be resolved in favor of the shareholders. Finally, the chapter reviews some of the salient features of modern financial markets. This preliminary material will be familiar to students who have some background in accounting, finance, and economics. Chapter 2 examines the basic accounting statements. It is review material for stu- dents with an accounting background. We describe the balance sheet and the income statement. The point of the chapter is to show the ways of converting data from ac- counting statements into cash flow. Understanding how to identify cash flow from ac- counting statements is especially important for later chapters on capital budgeting.
  • 13. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill 9 Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition1 Introduction toCHAPTER Corporate Finance EXECUTIVE SUMMARY T he Video Product Company designs and manufactures very popular software for video game consoles. The company was started in 1999, and soon thereafter its game “Gadfly” appeared on the cover of Billboard magazine. Company sales in 2000 were over $20 million. Video Product’s initial financing of $2 million came from Seed Ltd., a venture-capital firm, in exchange for a 15-percent equity stake in the company. Now the fi- nancial management of Video Product realizes that its initial financing was too small. In the long run Video Product would like to expand its design activity to the education and busi- ness areas. It would also like to significantly enhance its website for future Internet sales. However, at present the company has a short-run cash flow problem and cannot even buy $200,000 of materials to fill its holiday orders. Video Product’s experience illustrates the basic concerns of corporate finance: 1. What long-term investment strategy should a company take on? 2. How can cash be raised for the required investments? 3. How much short-term cash flow does a company need to pay its bills? These are not the only questions of corporate finance. They are, however, among the most important questions and, taken in order, they provide a rough outline of our book. One way that companies raise cash to finance their investment activities is by selling or “issuing” securities. The securities, sometimes called financial instruments or claims, may be roughly classified as equity or debt, loosely called stocks or bonds. The difference between equity and debt is a basic distinction in the modern theory of finance. All securi- ties of a firm are claims that depend on or are contingent on the value of the firm.1 In Section 1.2 we show how debt and equity securities depend on the firm’s value, and we describe them as different contingent claims. In Section 1.3 we discuss different organizational forms and the pros and cons of the decision to become a corporation. In Section 1.4 we take a close look at the goals of the corporation and discuss why max- imizing shareholder wealth is likely to be the primary goal of the corporation. Throughout the rest of the book, we assume that the firm’s performance depends on the value it creates for its shareholders. Shareholders are better off when the value of their shares is increased by the firm’s decisions. A company raises cash by issuing securities to the financial markets. The market value of outstanding long-term corporate debt and equity securities traded in the U.S. financial markets is in excess of $25 trillion. In Section 1.5 we describe some of the basic features of the financial markets. Roughly speaking, there are two basic types of financial markets: the money markets and the capital markets. The last section of the chapter provides an outline of the rest of the book. 1 We tend to use the words firm, company, and business interchangeably. However, there is a difference between a firm and a corporation. We discuss this difference in Section 1.3.
  • 14. 10 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 3 1.1 WHAT IS CORPORATE FINANCE? Suppose you decide to start a firm to make tennis balls. To do this, you hire managers to buy raw materials, and you assemble a workforce that will produce and sell finished tennis balls. In the language of finance, you make an investment in assets such as inventory, ma- chinery, land, and labor. The amount of cash you invest in assets must be matched by an equal amount of cash raised by financing. When you begin to sell tennis balls, your firm will generate cash. This is the basis of value creation. The purpose of the firm is to create value for you, the owner. The firm must generate more cash flow than it uses. The value is reflected in the framework of the simple balance-sheet model of the firm. The Balance-Sheet Model of the Firm Suppose we take a financial snapshot of the firm and its activities at a single point in time. Figure 1.1 shows a graphic conceptualization of the balance sheet, and it will help intro- duce you to corporate finance. The assets of the firm are on the left-hand side of the balance sheet. These assets can be thought of as current and fixed. Fixed assets are those that will last a long time, such as buildings. Some fixed assets are tangible, such as machinery and equipment. Other fixed assets are intangible, such as patents, trademarks, and the quality of management. The other category of assets, current assets, comprises those that have short lives, such as inventory. The tennis balls that your firm has made but has not yet sold are part of its inventory. Unless you have overproduced, they will leave the firm shortly. Before a company can invest in an asset, it must obtain financing, which means that it must raise the money to pay for the investment. The forms of financing are represented on the right-hand side of the balance sheet. A firm will issue (sell) pieces of paper called debt I F I G U R E 1.1 The Balance-Sheet Model of the Firm Net Current liabilities working Current assets capital Long-term debt Fixed assets 1. Tangible fixed assets 2. Intangible fixed assets Shareholders’ equity Total value of assets Total value of the firm to investors Left side, total value of assets. Right side, total value of the firm to investors, which determines how the value is distributed.
  • 15. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill 11 Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition4 Part I Overview (loan agreements) or equity shares (stock certificates). Just as assets are classified as long- lived or short-lived, so too are liabilities. A short-term debt is called a current liability. Short-term debt represents loans and other obligations that must be repaid within one year. Long-term debt is debt that does not have to be repaid within one year. Shareholders’ eq- uity represents the difference between the value of the assets and the debt of the firm. In this sense it is a residual claim on the firm’s assets. From the balance-sheet model of the firm it is easy to see why finance can be thought of as the study of the following three questions: 1. In what long-lived assets should the firm invest? This question concerns the left- hand side of the balance sheet. Of course, the type and proportions of assets the firm needs tend to be set by the nature of the business. We use the terms capital budgeting and capi- tal expenditures to describe the process of making and managing expenditures on long- lived assets. 2. How can the firm raise cash for required capital expenditures? This question con- cerns the right-hand side of the balance sheet. The answer to this involves the firm’s capi- tal structure, which represents the proportions of the firm’s financing from current and long-term debt and equity. 3. How should short-term operating cash flows be managed? This question concerns the upper portion of the balance sheet. There is often a mismatch between the timing of cash inflows and cash outflows during operating activities. Furthermore, the amount and timing of operating cash flows are not known with certainty. The financial managers must attempt to manage the gaps in cash flow. From a balance-sheet perspective, short-term management of cash flow is associated with a firm’s net working capital. Net working capital is defined as current assets minus current liabilities. From a financial perspective, the short-term cash flow problem comes from the mismatching of cash inflows and outflows. It is the subject of short-term finance. Capital Structure Financing arrangements determine how the value of the firm is sliced up. The persons or institutions that buy debt from the firm are called creditors.2 The holders of equity shares are called shareholders. Sometimes it is useful to think of the firm as a pie. Initially, the size of the pie will depend on how well the firm has made its investment decisions. After a firm has made its investment decisions, it determines the value of its assets (e.g., its buildings, land, and inventories). The firm can then determine its capital structure. The firm might initially have raised the cash to invest in its assets by issuing more debt than equity; now it can consider chang- ing that mix by issuing more equity and using the proceeds to buy back some of its debt. Financing decisions like this can be made independently of the original investment deci- sions. The decisions to issue debt and equity affect how the pie is sliced. The pie we are thinking of is depicted in Figure 1.2. The size of the pie is the value of the firm in the financial markets. We can write the value of the firm, V, as V B S where B is the value of the debt and S is the value of the equity. The pie diagrams con- sider two ways of slicing the pie: 50 percent debt and 50 percent equity, and 25 percent 2 We tend to use the words creditors, debtholders, and bondholders interchangeably. In later chapters we examine the differences among the kinds of creditors. In algebraic notation, we will usually refer to the firm’s debt with the letter B (for bondholders).
  • 16. 12 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 5 I F I G U R E 1.2 Two Pie Models of the Firm 25% debt 50% debt 50% equity 75% equity Capital structure 1 Capital structure 2 debt and 75 percent equity. The way the pie is sliced could affect its value. If so, the goal of the financial manager will be to choose the ratio of debt to equity that makes the value of the pie—that is, the value of the firm, V—as large as it can be. The Financial Manager In large firms the finance activity is usually associated with a top officer of the firm, such as the vice president and chief financial officer, and some lesser officers. Figure 1.3 depicts a general organizational structure emphasizing the finance activity within the firm. Report- ing to the chief financial officer are the treasurer and the controller. The treasurer is re- sponsible for handling cash flows, managing capital-expenditures decisions, and making financial plans. The controller handles the accounting function, which includes taxes, cost and financial accounting, and information systems. We think that the most important job of a financial manager is to create value from the firm’s capital budgeting, financing, and liquidity activities. How do financial managers cre- ate value? 1. The firm should try to buy assets that generate more cash than they cost. 2. The firm should sell bonds and stocks and other financial instruments that raise more cash than they cost. Thus the firm must create more cash flow than it uses. The cash flows paid to bond- holders and stockholders of the firm should be higher than the cash flows put into the firm by the bondholders and stockholders. To see how this is done, we can trace the cash flows from the firm to the financial markets and back again. The interplay of the firm’s finance with the financial markets is illustrated in Figure 1.4. The arrows in Figure 1.4 trace cash flow from the firm to the financial markets and back again. Suppose we begin with the firm’s financing activities. To raise money the firm sells debt and equity shares to investors in the financial markets. This results in cash flows from the financial markets to the firm (A). This cash is invested in the investment activities of the firm (B) by the firm’s management. The cash generated by the firm (C) is paid to share- holders and bondholders (F). The shareholders receive cash in the form of dividends; the bondholders who lent funds to the firm receive interest and, when the initial loan is repaid, principal. Not all of the firm’s cash is paid out. Some is retained (E), and some is paid to the government as taxes (D). Over time, if the cash paid to shareholders and bondholders (F) is greater than the cash raised in the financial markets (A), value will be created. Identification of Cash Flows Unfortunately, it is not all that easy to observe cash flows directly. Much of the information we obtain is in the form of accounting statements, and
  • 17. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill 13 Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition6 Part I Overview I F I G U R E 1.3 Hypothetical Organization Chart Board of Directors Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) President and Chief Operations Officer (COO) Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (CFO) Treasurer Controller Cash Manager Credit Manager Tax Manager Cost Accounting Manager Financial Capital Financial Data Processing Accounting Expenditures Planning Manager Manager much of the work of financial analysis is to extract cash flow information from accounting statements. The following example illustrates how this is done. E XAMPLE The Midland Company refines and trades gold. At the end of the year it sold 2,500 ounces of gold for $1 million. The company had acquired the gold for $900,000 at the beginning of the year. The company paid cash for the gold when it was pur- chased. Unfortunately, it has yet to collect from the customer to whom the gold was sold. The following is a standard accounting of Midland’s financial circum- stances at year-end:
  • 18. 14 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 7 I N T HEIR O WN W ORDS Skills Needed for the Chief Financial Officers of Chief strategist: CFOs will need to use real-time fi- Chief communicator: Gaining the confidence of Wall nancial information to make crucial decisions fast. Street and the media will be essential. Chief dealmaker: CFOs must be adept at venture capi- tal, mergers and acquisitions, and strategic partnerships. Source: Business Week, August 28, 2000, p. 120. Chief risk officer: Limiting risk will be even more important as markets become more global and hedg- ing instruments become more complex. THE MIDLAND COMPANY Accounting View Income Statement Year Ended December 31 Sales $1,000,000 Costs ______ 900,000 __________ Profit $ 100,000 By generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), the sale is recorded even though the customer has yet to pay. It is assumed that the customer will pay soon. From the accounting perspective, Midland seems to be profitable. However, the perspective of corporate finance is different. It focuses on cash flows: THE MIDLAND COMPANY Corporate Finance View Income Statement Year Ended December 31 Cash inflow $ 0 Cash outflow 900,000 __________ $900,000 The perspective of corporate finance is interested in whether cash flows are being created by the gold-trading operations of Midland. Value creation depends on cash flows. For Midland, value creation depends on whether and when it actually re- ceives $1 million. Timing of Cash Flows The value of an investment made by the firm depends on the tim- ing of cash flows. One of the most important assumptions of finance is that individuals pre- fer to receive cash flows earlier rather than later. One dollar received today is worth more than one dollar received next year. This time preference plays a role in stock and bond prices. E XAMPLE The Midland Company is attempting to choose between two proposals for new products. Both proposals will provide additional cash flows over a four-year period and will initially cost $10,000. The cash flows from the proposals are as follows:
  • 19. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill 15 Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition8 Part I Overview I F I G U R E 1.4 Cash Flows between the Firm and the Financial Markets Firm issues securities (A) Firm invests Financial in assets markets (B) Retained cash flows (E) Short-term debt Current assets Long-term debt Fixed assets Dividends and Equity shares Cash flow from firm (C) debt payments (F) Taxes Government Total value of assets Total value of the firm (D) to investors in the financial markets (A) Firm issues securities to raise cash (the financing decision). (B) Firm invests in assets (capital budgeting). (C) Firm’s operations generate cash flow. (D) Cash is paid to government as taxes. (E) Retained cash flows are reinvested in firm. (F) Cash is paid out to investors in the form of interest and dividends. Year New Product A New Product B 1 $ 0 $ 4,000 2 0 4,000 3 0 4,000 4 20,000 _______ 4,000 _______ Total $20,000 $16,000 At first it appears that new product A would be best. However, the cash flows from proposal B come earlier than those of A. Without more information we cannot de- cide which set of cash flows would create the most value to the bondholders and shareholders. It depends on whether the value of getting cash from B up front out- weighs the extra total cash from A. Bond and stock prices reflect this preference for earlier cash, and we will see how to use them to decide between A and B. Risk of Cash Flows The firm must consider risk. The amount and timing of cash flows are not usually known with certainty. Most investors have an aversion to risk. E XAMPLE The Midland Company is considering expanding operations overseas. It is evalu- ating Europe and Japan as possible sites. Europe is considered to be relatively safe, whereas operating in Japan is seen as very risky. In both cases the company would close down operations after one year.
  • 20. 16 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 9 After doing a complete financial analysis, Midland has come up with the fol- lowing cash flows of the alternative plans for expansion under three equally likely scenarios—pessimistic, most likely, and optimistic: Pessimistic Most Likely Optimistic Europe $75,000 $100,000 $125,000 Japan 0 150,000 200,000 If we ignore the pessimistic scenario, perhaps Japan is the best alternative. When we take the pessimistic scenario into account, the choice is unclear. Japan appears to be riskier, but it also offers a higher expected level of cash flow. What is risk and how can it be defined? We must try to answer this important question. Corporate finance cannot avoid coping with risky alternatives, and much of our book is de- voted to developing methods for evaluating risky opportunities. QUESTIONS ? • What are three basic questions of corporate finance? CONCEPT • Describe capital structure. • How is value created? • List the three reasons why value creation is difficult. 1.2 CORPORATE SECURITIES AS CONTINGENT CLAIMS ON TOTAL FIRM VALUE What is the essential difference between debt and equity? The answer can be found by think- ing about what happens to the payoffs to debt and equity when the value of the firm changes. The basic feature of a debt is that it is a promise by the borrowing firm to repay a fixed dollar amount by a certain date. E XAMPLE The Officer Corporation promises to pay $100 to the Brigham Insurance Company at the end of one year. This is a debt of the Officer Corporation. Holders of the debt will receive $100 if the value of the Officer Corporation’s assets is equal to or more than $100 at the end of the year. Formally, the debtholders have been promised an amount F at the end of the year. If the value of the firm, X, is equal to or greater than F at year-end, debthold- ers will get F. Of course, if the firm does not have enough to pay off the promised amount, the firm will be “broke.” It may be forced to liquidate its assets for what- ever they are worth, and the bondholders will receive X. Mathematically this means that the debtholders have a claim to X or F, whichever is smaller. Figure 1.5 illustrates the general nature of the payoff structure to debtholders. Suppose at year-end the Officer Corporation’s value is equal to $100. The firm has promised to pay the Brigham Insurance Company $100, so the debtholders will get $100. Now suppose the Officer Corporation’s value is $200 at year-end and the debthold- ers are promised $100. How much will the debtholders receive? It should be clear that they will receive the same amount as when the Officer Corporation was worth $100. Suppose the firm’s value is $75 at year-end and debtholders are promised $100. How much will the debtholders receive? In this case the debtholders will get $75.
  • 21. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill 17 Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition10 Part I Overview I F I G U R E 1.5 Debt and Equity as Contingent Claims Payoff to Payoff to Payoffs to debtholders debtholders equity shareholders and equity shareholders Payoff to equity shareholders F F Payoff to Value Value debtholders Value of the of the of the F firm F firm F firm (X ) (X ) (X ) F is the promised payoff to debtholders. X F is the payoff to equity shareholders if X F 0. Otherwise the payoff is 0. The stockholders’ claim on firm value at the end of the period is the amount that re- mains after the debtholders are paid. Of course, stockholders get nothing if the firm’s value is equal to or less than the amount promised to the debtholders. E XAMPLE The Officer Corporation will sell its assets for $200 at year-end. The firm has promised to pay the Brigham Insurance Company $100 at that time. The stock- holders will get the residual value of $100. Algebraically, the stockholders’ claim is X F if X F and zero if X F. This is de- picted in Figure 1.5. The sum of the debtholders’ claim and the stockholders’ claim is al- ways the value of the firm at the end of the period. The debt and equity securities issued by a firm derive their value from the total value of the firm. In the words of finance theory, debt and equity securities are contingent claims on the total firm value. When the value of the firm exceeds the amount promised to the debtholders, the share- holders obtain the residual of the firm’s value over the amount promised the debtholders, and the debtholders obtain the amount promised. When the value of the firm is less than the amount promised the debtholders, the shareholders receive nothing and the debtholders get the value of the firm. QUESTIONS • What is a contingent claim? ? CONCEPT • Describe equity and debt as contingent claims. 1.3 THE CORPORATE FIRM The firm is a way of organizing the economic activity of many individuals, and there are many reasons why so much economic activity is carried out by firms and not by individuals. The theory of firms, however, does not tell us much about why most large firms are corpo- rations rather than any of the other legal forms that firms can assume.
  • 22. 18 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 11 A basic problem of the firm is how to raise cash. The corporate form of business, that is, organizing the firm as a corporation, is the standard method for solving problems en- countered in raising large amounts of cash. However, businesses can take other forms. In this section we consider the three basic legal forms of organizing firms, and we see how firms go about the task of raising large amounts of money under each form. The Sole Proprietorship A sole proprietorship is a business owned by one person. Suppose you decide to start a business to produce mousetraps. Going into business is simple: You announce to all who will listen, “Today I am going to build a better mousetrap.” Most large cities require that you obtain a business license. Afterward you can begin to hire as many people as you need and borrow whatever money you need. At year-end all the profits and the losses will be yours. Here are some factors that are important in considering a sole proprietorship: 1. The sole proprietorship is the cheapest business to form. No formal charter is required, and few government regulations must be satisfied for most industries. 2. A sole proprietorship pays no corporate income taxes. All profits of the business are taxed as individual income. 3. The sole proprietorship has unlimited liability for business debts and obligations. No distinction is made between personal and business assets. 4. The life of the sole proprietorship is limited by the life of the sole proprietor. 5. Because the only money invested in the firm is the proprietor’s, the equity money that can be raised by the sole proprietor is limited to the proprietor’s personal wealth. The Partnership Any two or more persons can get together and form a partnership. Partnerships fall into two categories: (1) general partnerships and (2) limited partnerships. In a general partnership all partners agree to provide some fraction of the work and cash and to share the profits and losses. Each partner is liable for the debts of the partner- ship. A partnership agreement specifies the nature of the arrangement. The partnership agreement may be an oral agreement or a formal document setting forth the understanding. Limited partnerships permit the liability of some of the partners to be limited to the amount of cash each has contributed to the partnership. Limited partnerships usually re- quire that (1) at least one partner be a general partner and (2) the limited partners do not participate in managing the business. Here are some things that are important when con- sidering a partnership: 1. Partnerships are usually inexpensive and easy to form. Written documents are required in complicated arrangements, including general and limited partnerships. Business li- censes and filing fees may be necessary. 2. General partners have unlimited liability for all debts. The liability of limited partners is usually limited to the contribution each has made to the partnership. If one general part- ner is unable to meet his or her commitment, the shortfall must be made up by the other general partners. 3. The general partnership is terminated when a general partner dies or withdraws (but this is not so for a limited partner). It is difficult for a partnership to transfer ownership with- out dissolving. Usually, all general partners must agree. However, limited partners may sell their interest in a business.
  • 23. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill 19 Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition12 Part I Overview 4. It is difficult for a partnership to raise large amounts of cash. Equity contributions are usually limited to a partner’s ability and desire to contribute to the partnership. Many companies, such as Apple Computer, start life as a proprietorship or partnership, but at some point they choose to convert to corporate form. 5. Income from a partnership is taxed as personal income to the partners. 6. Management control resides with the general partners. Usually a majority vote is re- quired on important matters, such as the amount of profit to be retained in the business. It is very difficult for large business organizations to exist as sole proprietorships or partnerships. The main advantage is the cost of getting started. Afterward, the disadvan- tages, which may become severe, are (1) unlimited liability, (2) limited life of the enter- prise, and (3) difficulty of transferring ownership. These three disadvantages lead to (4) the difficulty of raising cash. The Corporation Of the many forms of business enterprises, the corporation is by far the most important. It is a distinct legal entity. As such, a corporation can have a name and enjoy many of the le- gal powers of natural persons. For example, corporations can acquire and exchange prop- erty. Corporations can enter into contracts and may sue and be sued. For jurisdictional pur- poses, the corporation is a citizen of its state of incorporation. (It cannot vote, however.) Starting a corporation is more complicated than starting a proprietorship or partner- ship. The incorporators must prepare articles of incorporation and a set of bylaws. The ar- ticles of incorporation must include the following: 1. Name of the corporation. 2. Intended life of the corporation (it may be forever). 3. Business purpose. 4. Number of shares of stock that the corporation is authorized to issue, with a statement of limitations and rights of different classes of shares. 5. Nature of the rights granted to shareholders. 6. Number of members of the initial board of directors. The bylaws are the rules to be used by the corporation to regulate its own existence, and they concern its shareholders, directors, and officers. Bylaws range from the briefest possi- ble statement of rules for the corporation’s management to hundreds of pages of text. In its simplest form, the corporation comprises three sets of distinct interests: the share- holders (the owners), the directors, and the corporation officers (the top management). Traditionally, the shareholders control the corporation’s direction, policies, and activities. The shareholders elect a board of directors, who in turn selects top management. Members of top management serve as corporate officers and manage the operation of the corporation in the best interest of the shareholders. In closely held corporations with few shareholders there may be a large overlap among the shareholders, the directors, and the top manage- ment. However, in larger corporations the shareholders, directors, and the top management are likely to be distinct groups. The potential separation of ownership from management gives the corporation several advantages over proprietorships and partnerships: 1. Because ownership in a corporation is represented by shares of stock, ownership can be read- ily transferred to new owners. Because the corporation exists independently of those who own its shares, there is no limit to the transferability of shares as there is in partnerships.
  • 24. 20 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 13 2. The corporation has unlimited life. Because the corporation is separate from its owners, the death or withdrawal of an owner does not affect its legal existence. The corporation can continue on after the original owners have withdrawn. 3. The shareholders’ liability is limited to the amount invested in the ownership shares. For example, if a shareholder purchased $1,000 in shares of a corporation, the potential loss would be $1,000. In a partnership, a general partner with a $1,000 contribution could lose the $1,000 plus any other indebtedness of the partnership. Limited liability, ease of ownership transfer, and perpetual succession are the major ad- vantages of the corporation form of business organization. These give the corporation an enhanced ability to raise cash. There is, however, one great disadvantage to incorporation. The federal government taxes corporate income. This tax is in addition to the personal income tax that shareholders pay on dividend income they receive. This is double taxation for shareholders when com- pared to taxation on proprietorships and partnerships. CASE STUDY: Making the Decision to Become a Corporation: The Case of PLM International, Inc.3 I n 1972, several entrepreneurs agreed to start a company they called PLM (Professional Lease Man- agement, Inc.).Their idea was to sponsor, syndicate, and manage public and private limited part- nerships with the purpose of acquiring and leasing transportation equipment.They created an oper- ating subsidiary called FSI (Financial Services, Inc.) to be the general partner of each of the partnerships. PLM had limited success in its early years, but during the period 1981 to 1986 more than 27 public partnerships were formed. Each partnership was set up to acquire and lease trans- portation equipment, such as aircraft, tractors and trailers, cargo containers, and railcars, to trans- portation companies. Until the Tax Reform Act of 1986, PLM enjoyed considerable success with its partnerships. It became one of the largest equipment-leasing firms in the United States.The partnerships appealed to high-tax-bracket individuals because unlike corporations, partnerships are not taxed. The part- nerships were set up to be self-liquidating (i.e., all excess cash flow was to be distributed to the partners), and no reinvestment could take place. No ready market for the partnership units existed, and each partnership invested in a narrow class of transportation equipment. PLM’s success de- pended on creating tax-sheltered cash flow from accelerated depreciation and investment tax cred- its. However, the 1986 Tax Reform Act had a devastating impact on tax-sheltered limited partner- ships. The act substantially flattened personal tax rates, eliminated the investment tax credit, shortened depreciation schedules, and established an alternative minimum tax rate.The act caused PLM to think about different types of equipment-leasing organizational forms.What was needed was an organization form that could take advantage of potential growth and diversification opportuni- ties and that wasn’t based entirely upon tax sheltering. In 1987 PLM, with the advice and assistance of the now-bankrupt Drexel Burnham Lambert in- vestment banking firm, terminated its partnerships and converted consenting partnerships to a new umbrella corporation called PLM International.After much legal maneuvering, PLM International pub- licly announced that a majority of the partnerships had consented to the consolidation and incorpora- tion. (A majority vote was needed for voluntary termination and some partnerships decided not to in- corporate.) On February 2, 1988, PLM International’s common stock began trading on the American Stock Exchange (AMEX) at about $8 per share. However, PLM International did not perform well, de- spite its conversion to a corporation. In April 2000, its stock was trading at only $5 per share. 3 The S–4 Registration Statement, PLM International, Inc., filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, Washington, D.C., August 1987, gives further details.
  • 25. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill 21 Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition14 Part I Overview A COMPARISON OF PARTNERSHIP AND CORPORATIONS Corporation Partnership Liquidity and marketability Shares can be exchanged without Units are subject to substantial termination of the corporation. restrictions on transferability.There Common stock can be listed on is usually no established trading stock exchange. market for partnership units. Voting rights Usually each share of common stock Some voting rights by limited entitles the holder to one vote per partners. However, general partner share on matters requiring a vote has exclusive control and and on the election of the management of operations. directors. Directors determine top management. Taxation Corporations have double taxation: Partnerships are not taxable. Partners Corporate income is taxable, and pay taxes on distributed shares of dividends to shareholders are also partnership. taxable. Reinvestment and dividend payout Corporations have broad latitude on Partnerships are generally prohibited dividend payout decisions. from reinvesting partnership cash flow.All net cash flow is distributed to partners. Liability Shareholders are not personally liable Limited partners are not liable for for obligations of the corporation. obligations of partnerships. General partners may have unlimited liability. Continuity of existence Corporations have perpetual life. Partnerships have limited life. The decision to become a corporation is complicated, and there are several pros and cons. PLM International cited several basic reasons to support the consolidation and incorporation of its trans- portation-equipment–leasing activities. • Enhanced access to equity and debt capital for future growth. • The possibility of reinvestment for future profit opportunities. • Better liquidity for investors through common stock listing on AMEX. These are all good reasons for incorporating, and they provided potential benefits to the new shareholders of PLM International that may have outweighed the disadvantages of double taxation that came from incorporating. However, not all the PLM partnerships wanted to convert to the corpora- tion. Sometimes it is not easy to determine whether a partnership or a corporation is the best orga- nizational form. Corporate income is taxable at the personal and corporation levels. Because of this double taxation, firms having the most to gain from incorporation share the following characteristics: • Low taxable income. • Low marginal corporate tax rates. • Low marginal personal tax rates among potential shareholders. In addition, firms with high rates of reinvestment relative to current income are good candidates for the corporate form because corporations can more easily retain profits for reinvestment than partnerships.Also, it is easier for corporations to sell shares of stock on public stock markets to fi- nance possible investment opportunities.
  • 26. 22 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 15 QUESTIONS • Define a proprietorship, a partnership, and a corporation. ? CONCEPT • What are the advantages of the corporate form of business organization? 1.4 GOALS OF THE CORPORATE FIRM What is the primary goal of the corporation? The traditional answer is that managers in a corporation make decisions for the stockholders because the stockholders own and control the corporation. If so, the goal of the corporation is to add value for the stockholders. This goal is a little vague and so we will try to come up with a precise formulation. It is also im- possible to give a definitive answer to this important question because the corporation is an artificial being, not a natural person. It exists in the “contemplation of the law.”4 It is necessary to precisely identify who controls the corporation. We shall consider the set-of-contracts viewpoint. This viewpoint suggests the corporate firm will attempt to maximize the shareholders’ wealth by taking actions that increase the current value per share of existing stock of the firm. Agency Costs and the Set-of-Contracts Perspective The set-of-contracts theory of the firm states that the firm can be viewed as a set of con- tracts.5 One of the contract claims is a residual claim (equity) on the firm’s assets and cash flows. The equity contract can be defined as a principal-agent relationship. The members of the management team are the agents, and the equity investors (shareholders) are the prin- cipals. It is assumed that the managers and the shareholders, if left alone, will each attempt to act in his or her own self-interest. The shareholders, however, can discourage the managers from diverging from the share- holders’ interests by devising appropriate incentives for managers and then monitoring their behavior. Doing so, unfortunately, is complicated and costly. The cost of resolving the con- flicts of interest between managers and shareholders are special types of costs called agency costs. These costs are defined as the sum of (1) the monitoring costs of the shareholders and (2) the costs of implementing control devices. It can be expected that contracts will be devised that will provide the managers with appropriate incentives to maximize the shareholders’ wealth. Thus, the set-of-contracts theory suggests that managers in the corporate firm will usually act in the best interest of shareholders. However, agency problems can never be per- fectly solved and, as a consequence, shareholders may experience residual losses. Residual losses are the lost wealth of the shareholders due to divergent behavior of the managers. Managerial Goals Managerial goals may be different from those of shareholders. What goals will managers maximize if they are left to pursue their own rather than shareholders’ goals? Williamson proposes the notion of expense preference.6 He argues that managers ob- tain value from certain kinds of expenses. In particular, company cars, office furniture, of- fice location, and funds for discretionary investment have value to managers beyond that which comes from their productivity. 4 These are the words of Chief Justice John Marshall from The Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 4, Wheaton 636 (1819). 5 M. C. Jensen and W. Meckling, “Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure,” Journal of Financial Economics 3 (1976). 6 O. Williamson, “Managerial Discretion and Business Behavior,” American Economic Review 53 (1963).
  • 27. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill 23 Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition16 Part I Overview Donaldson conducted a series of interviews with the chief executives of several large companies.7 He concluded that managers are influenced by two basic motivations: 1. Survival. Organizational survival means that management will always try to command sufficient resources to avoid the firm’s going out of business. 2. Independence and self-sufficiency. This is the freedom to make decisions without en- countering external parties or depending on outside financial markets. The Donaldson interviews suggested that managers do not like to issue new shares of stock. Instead, they like to be able to rely on internally generated cash flow. These motivations lead to what Donaldson concludes is the basic financial objective of managers: the maximization of corporate wealth. Corporate wealth is that wealth over which management has effective control; it is closely associated with corporate growth and corporate size. Corporate wealth is not necessarily shareholder wealth. Corporate wealth tends to lead to increased growth by providing funds for growth and limiting the extent to which new equity is raised. Increased growth and size are not necessarily the same thing as increased shareholder wealth. Separation of Ownership and Control Some people argue that shareholders do not completely control the corporation. They ar- gue that shareholder ownership is too diffuse and fragmented for effective control of man- agement.8 A striking feature of the modern large corporation is the diffusion of ownership among thousands of investors. For example, Table 1.1 shows that 3,700,000 persons and in- stitutions own shares of AT&T stock. One of the most important advantages of the corporate form of business organization is that it allows ownership of shares to be transferred. The resulting diffuse ownership, however, I TA B L E 1.1 Some of the World’s Largest Industrial Corporations, 2000 Market Value* Shares Outstanding Number of Company (in $ billions) (in millions) Shareholders Microsoft $525.7 5209 92,130 General Electric 434.0 3714 534,000 Intel 400.1 3555 203,000 IBM 188.8 1875 616,000 AT&T 173.2 3194 3,700,000 Merck 138.7 2968 269,600 Pfizer 134.6 4138 105,000 Toyota 119.2 1875 100,000 Coca Cola 112.5 3464 366,000 Sources: Value Line, Business Week, and Standard & Poor’s Security Owners Stock Guide. *Market price multiplied by shares outstanding. 7 G. Donaldson, Managing Corporate Wealth: The Operations of a Comprehensive Financial Goals System (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1984). 8 Recent work by Gerald T. Garvey and Peter L. Swan, “The Economics of Corporate Governance: Beyond the Marshallian Firm,” Journal of Corporate Finance 1 (1994), surveys literature on the stated assumption of shareholder maximization.
  • 28. 24 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 17 brings with it the separation of ownership and control of the large corporation. The possible separation of ownership and control raises an important question: Who controls the firm? Do Shareholders Control Managerial Behavior? The claim that managers can ignore the interests of shareholders is deduced from the fact that ownership in large corporations is widely dispersed. As a consequence, it is often claimed that individual shareholders cannot control management. There is some merit in this argument, but it is too simplistic. When a conflict of interest exists between management and shareholders, who wins? Does management or the shareholders control the firm? There is no doubt that ownership in large corporations is diffuse when compared to the closely held corporation. However, several control devices used by shareholders bond management to the self-interest of shareholders: 1. Shareholders determine the membership of the board of directors by voting. Thus, share- holders control the directors, who in turn select the management team. 2. Contracts with management and arrangements for compensation, such as stock option plans, can be made so that management has an incentive to pursue the goal of the shareholders. An- other device is called performance shares. These are shares of stock given to managers on the basis of performance as measured by earnings per share and similar criteria. 3. If the price of a firm’s stock drops too low because of poor management, the firm may be acquired by another group of shareholders, by another firm, or by an individual. This is called a takeover. In a takeover, the top management of the acquired firm may find themselves out of a job. This puts pressure on the management to make decisions in the stockholders’ interests. Fear of a takeover gives managers an incentive to take actions that will maximize stock prices. 4. Competition in the managerial labor market may force managers to perform in the best interest of stockholders. Otherwise they will be replaced. Firms willing to pay the most will lure good managers. These are likely to be firms that compensate managers based on the value they create. The available evidence and theory are consistent with the ideas of shareholder control and shareholder value maximization. However, there can be no doubt that at times corpo- rations pursue managerial goals at the expense of shareholders. There is also evidence that the diverse claims of customers, vendors, and employees must frequently be considered in the goals of the corporation. QUESTIONS • What are the two types of agency costs? ? CONCEPT • How are managers bonded to shareholders? • Can you recall some managerial goals? • What is the set-of-contracts perspective? 1.5 FINANCIAL MARKETS As indicated in Section 1.1, firms offer two basic types of securities to investors. Debt se- curities are contractual obligations to repay corporate borrowing. Equity securities are shares of common stock and preferred stock that represent noncontractual claims to the
  • 29. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill 25 Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition18 Part I Overview residual cash flow of the firm. Issues of debt and stock that are publicly sold by the firm are then traded on the financial markets. The financial markets are composed of the money markets and the capital markets. Money markets are the markets for debt securities that will pay off in the short term (usu- ally less than one year). Capital markets are the markets for long-term debt (with a matu- rity at over one year) and for equity shares. The term money market applies to a group of loosely connected markets. They are dealer markets. Dealers are firms that make continuous quotations of prices for which they stand ready to buy and sell money-market instruments for their own inventory and at their own risk. Thus, the dealer is a principal in most transactions. This is different from a stock- broker acting as an agent for a customer in buying or selling common stock on most stock exchanges; an agent does not actually acquire the securities. At the core of the money markets are the money-market banks (these are large banks in New York), more than 30 government securities dealers (some of which are the large banks), a dozen or so commercial-paper dealers, and a large number of money brokers. Money bro- kers specialize in finding short-term money for borrowers and placing money for lenders. The financial markets can be classified further as the primary market and the secondary markets. The Primary Market: New Issues The primary market is used when governments and corporations initially sell securities. Corporations engage in two types of primary-market sales of debt and equity: public offer- ings and private placements. Most publicly offered corporate debt and equity come to the market underwritten by a syn- dicate of investment banking firms. The underwriting syndicate buys the new securities from the firm for the syndicate’s own account and resells them at a higher price. Publicly issued debt and equity must be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Registration requires the corporation to disclose all of the material information in a registration statement. The legal, accounting, and other costs of preparing the registration statement are not neg- ligible. In part to avoid these costs, privately placed debt and equity are sold on the basis of private negotiations to large financial institutions, such as insurance companies and mutual funds. Private placements are not registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Secondary Markets After debt and equity securities are originally sold, they are traded in the secondary markets. There are two kinds of secondary markets: the auction markets and the dealer markets. The equity securities of most large U.S. firms trade in organized auction markets, such as the New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange, and regional exchanges, such as the Midwest Stock Exchange. The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is the most important auction exchange. It usually accounts for more than 85 percent of all shares traded in U.S. auction exchanges. Bond trading on auction exchanges is inconsequential. Most debt securities are traded in dealer markets. The many bond dealers communi- cate with one another by telecommunications equipment—wires, computers, and tele- phones. Investors get in touch with dealers when they want to buy or sell, and can negoti- ate a deal. Some stocks are traded in the dealer markets. When they are, it is referred to as the over-the-counter (OTC) market. In February 1971, the National Association of Securities Dealers made available to dealers and brokers in the OTC market an automated quotation system called the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (NASDAQ) system. The market value of shares of OTC stocks in the NASDAQ system at the end of 1998 was about 25 per- cent of the market value of the shares on the NYSE.
  • 30. 26 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 19 Exchange Trading of Listed Stocks Auction markets are different from dealer markets in two ways: First, trading in a given auc- tion exchange takes place at a single site on the floor of the exchange. Second, transaction prices of shares traded on auction exchanges are communicated almost immediately to the public by computer and other devices. The NYSE is one of the preeminent securities exchanges in the world. All transactions in stocks listed on the NYSE occur at a particular place on the floor of the exchange called a post. At the heart of the market is the specialist. Specialists are members of the NYSE who make a market in designated stocks. Specialists have an obligation to offer to buy and sell shares of their assigned NYSE stocks. It is believed that this makes the market liquid because the specialist assumes the role of a buyer for investors if they wish to sell and a seller if they wish to buy. Listing Firms that want their equity shares to be traded on the NYSE must apply for listing. To be listed initially on the NYSE a company is expected to satisfy certain minimum require- ments. Some of these for U.S. companies are as follows: 1. Demonstrated earning power of either $2.5 million before taxes for the most recent year and $2 million before taxes for each of the preceding two years, or an aggregate for the last three years of $6.5 million together with a minimum in the most recent year of $4.5 million (all years must be profitable). 2. Net tangible assets equal to at least $40 million. 3. A market value for publicly held shares of $40 million. 4. A total of a least 1.1 million publicly held shares. 5. A total of at least 2,000 holders of 100 shares of stock or more. The listing requirements for non–U.S. companies are somewhat more stringent. Table 1.2 gives the market value of NYSE-listed stocks and bonds. I TA B L E 1.2 Market Value of NYSE-Listed Securities End-of- Number of Market Value Year Companies ($ millions) NYSE-listed stocks* 1999 3025 12,296,057 1998 3114 10,864,472 1997 3047 9,413,109 1996 2907 7,300,351 NYSE-listed bonds† 1999 416 2,401,605 1998 474 2,554,122 1997 533 2,625,357 1996 563 2,862,382 *Includes preferred stock and common stock. † Includes government issues. Source: Data from the New York Stock Exchange Fact Book 1999, published by the New York Stock Exchange. In the case of bonds, in some instances we report the face value.
  • 31. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill 27 Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition20 Part I Overview QUESTIONS • Distinguish between money markets and capital markets. ? CONCEPT • What is listing? • What is the difference between a primary market and a secondary market? 1.6 OUTLINE OF THE TEXT Now that we’ve taken the quick tour through all of corporate finance, we can take a closer look at this book. The book is divided into eight parts. The long-term investment decision is covered first. Financing decisions and working capital are covered next. Finally a series of special topics are covered. Here are the eight parts: Part I Overview Part II Value and Capital Budgeting Part III Risk Part IV Capital Structure and Dividend Policy Part V Long-Term Financing Part VI Options, Futures, and Corporate Finance Part VII Financial Planning and Short-Term Finance Part VIII Special Topics Part II describes how investment opportunities are valued in financial markets. This part contains basic theory. Because finance is a subject that builds understanding from the ground up, the material is very important. The most important concept in Part II is net present value. We develop the net present value rule into a tool for valuing investment al- ternatives. We discuss general formulas and apply them to a variety of different financial instruments. Part III introduces basic measures of risk. The capital-asset pricing model (CAPM) and the arbitrage pricing theory (APT) are used to devise methods for incorporating risk in val- uation. As part of this discussion, we describe the famous beta coefficient. Finally, we use the above pricing models to handle capital budgeting under risk. Part IV examines two interrelated topics: capital structure and dividend policy. Capital structure is the extent to which the firm relies on debt. It cannot be separated from the amount of cash dividends the firm decides to pay out to its equity shareholders. Part V concerns long-term financing. We describe the securities that corporations issue to raise cash, as well as the mechanics of offering securities for a public sale. Here we dis- cuss call provisions, warrants, convertibles, and leasing. Part VI discusses special contractual arrangements called Options. Part VII is devoted to financial planning and short-term finance. The first chapter de- scribes financial planning. Next we focus on managing the firm’s current assets and current liabilities. We describe aspects of the firm’s short-term financial management. Separate chapters on cash management and on credit management are included. Part VIII covers two important special topics: mergers and international corporate finance.
  • 32. 28 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 1. Introduction to Corporate © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Finance Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 21 KEY TERMS Capital budgeting 4 Money markets 18 Capital markets 18 Net working capital 4 Capital structure 4 Partnership 11 Contingent claims 10 Set-of-contracts viewpoint 15 Corporation 12 Sole proprietorship 11 SUGGESTED READINGS Evidence is provided on the tax factor in choosing to incorporate in: Mackie-Mason, J. K., and R. H. Gordon. “How Much Do Taxes Discourage Incorporation?” Journal of Finance (June 1997). Do American managers pay too little attention to shareholders? This is the question posed in: M. Miller. “Is American Corporate Governance Fatally Flawed?” Journal of Applied Corporate Finance (Winter 1994). What are the patterns of corporate ownership around the world? This is the question posed by: La Porta, R., F. Lopez-De-Silanes, and A. Shleiter. “Corporate Ownership Around the World.” Journal of Finance 54 (1999).
  • 33. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill 29 Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition2 Accounting StatementsCHAPTER and Cash Flow EXECUTIVE SUMMARY C hapter 2 describes the basic accounting statements used for reporting corporate ac- tivity. The focus of the chapter is the practical details of cash flow. It will become obvious to you in the next several chapters that knowing how to determine cash flow helps the financial manager make better decisions. Students who have had accounting courses will not find the material new and can think of it as a review with an emphasis on finance. We will discuss cash flow further in later chapters. 2.1 THE BALANCE SHEET The balance sheet is an accountant’s snapshot of the firm’s accounting value on a particu- lar date, as though the firm stood momentarily still. The balance sheet has two sides: on the left are the assets and on the right are the liabilities and stockholders’ equity. The balance sheet states what the firm owns and how it is financed. The accounting definition that un- derlies the balance sheet and describes the balance is Assets Liabilities Stockholders’ equity We have put a three-line equality in the balance equation to indicate that it must always hold, by definition. In fact, the stockholders’ equity is defined to be the difference between the assets and the liabilities of the firm. In principle, equity is what the stockholders would have remaining after the firm discharged its obligations. Table 2.1 gives the 20X2 and 20X1 balance sheet for the fictitious U.S. Composite Corporation. The assets in the balance sheet are listed in order by the length of time it nor- mally would take an ongoing firm to convert them to cash. The asset side depends on the nature of the business and how management chooses to conduct it. Management must make decisions about cash versus marketable securities, credit versus cash sales, whether to make or buy commodities, whether to lease or purchase items, the types of business in which to engage, and so on. The liabilities and the stockholders’ equity are listed in the order in which they must be paid. The liabilities and stockholders’ equity side reflects the types and proportions of fi- nancing, which depend on management’s choice of capital structure, as between debt and equity and between current debt and long-term debt. When analyzing a balance sheet, the financial manager should be aware of three con- cerns: accounting liquidity, debt versus equity, and value versus cost. Accounting Liquidity Accounting liquidity refers to the ease and quickness with which assets can be converted to cash. Current assets are the most liquid and include cash and those assets that will be turned into cash within a year from the date of the balance sheet. Accounts receivable are
  • 34. 30 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow 23 I TA B L E 2.1 The Balance Sheet of the U.S. Composite Corporation U.S. COMPOSITE CORPORATION Balance Sheet 20X2 and 20X1 (in $ millions) Liabilities (Debt) Assets 20X2 20X1 and Stockholders’ Equity 20X2 20X1 Current assets: Current liabilities: Cash and equivalents $ 140 $ 107 Accounts payable $ 213 $ 197 Accounts receivable 294 270 Notes payable 50 53 Inventories 269 280 Accrued expenses 223 ______ 205 ______ Other 58 ______ 50 ______ Total current liabilities $ 486 $ 455 Total current assets $ 761 $ 707 Long-term liabilities: Fixed assets: Deferred taxes $ 117 $ 104 Property, plant, and equipment $1,423 $1,274 Long-term debt1 471 ______ 458 ______ Less accumulated depreciation (550) ______ ______ (460) Total long-term liabilities $ 588 $ 562 Net property, plant, and equipment 873 814 Stockholders’ equity: Intangible assets and others 245 221 ______ ______ Preferred stock $ 39 $ 39 Total fixed assets $1,118 $1,035 ______ ______ Common stock ($1 par value) 55 32 Capital surplus 347 327 Accumulated retained earnings 390 347 Less treasury stock2 (26) ______ (20) ______ Total equity $ 805 ______ $ 725 ______ Total assets $1,879 ______ $1,742 ______ Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity3 $1,879 ______ $1,742 ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ Notes: 1 Long-term debt rose by $471 million–$458 million $13 million. This is the difference between $86 million new debt and $73 million in retirement of old debt. 2 Treasury stock rose by $6 million. This reflects the repurchase of $6 million of U.S. Composite’s company stock. 3 U.S. Composite reports $43 million in new equity. The company issued 23 million shares at a price of $1.87. The par value of common stock increased by $23 million, and capital surplus increased by $20 million. amounts not yet collected from customers for goods or services sold to them (after ad- justment for potential bad debts). Inventory is composed of raw materials to be used in pro- duction, work in process, and finished goods. Fixed assets are the least liquid kind of as- sets. Tangible fixed assets include property, plant, and equipment. These assets do not convert to cash from normal business activity, and they are not usually used to pay ex- penses, such as payroll. Some fixed assets are not tangible. Intangible assets have no physical existence but can be very valuable. Examples of intangible assets are the value of a trademark or the value of a patent. The more liquid a firm’s assets, the less likely the firm is to experience problems meeting short-term obligations. Thus, the probability that a firm will avoid financial dis- tress can be linked to the firm’s liquidity. Unfortunately, liquid assets frequently have lower rates of return than fixed assets; for example, cash generates no investment income. To the extent a firm invests in liquid assets, it sacrifices an opportunity to invest in more profitable investment vehicles.
  • 35. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill 31 Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition24 Part I Overview Debt versus Equity Liabilities are obligations of the firm that require a payout of cash within a stipulated time period. Many liabilities involve contractual obligations to repay a stated amount and inter- est over a period. Thus, liabilities are debts and are frequently associated with nominally fixed cash burdens, called debt service, that put the firm in default of a contract if they are not paid. Stockholders’ equity is a claim against the firm’s assets that is residual and not fixed. In general terms, when the firm borrows, it gives the bondholders first claim on the firm’s cash flow.1 Bondholders can sue the firm if the firm defaults on its bond contracts. This may lead the firm to declare itself bankrupt. Stockholders’ equity is the residual dif- ference between assets and liabilities: Assets Liabilities Stockholders’ equity This is the stockholders’ share in the firm stated in accounting terms. The accounting value of stockholders’ equity increases when retained earnings are added. This occurs when the firm retains part of its earnings instead of paying them out as dividends. Value versus Cost The accounting value of a firm’s assets is frequently referred to as the carrying value or the book value of the assets.2 Under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), au- dited financial statements of firms in the United States carry the assets at cost.3 Thus the terms carrying value and book value are unfortunate. They specifically say “value,” when in fact the accounting numbers are based on cost. This misleads many readers of financial statements to think that the firm’s assets are recorded at true market values. Market value is the price at which willing buyers and sellers trade the assets. It would be only a coincidence if accounting value and market value were the same. In fact, management’s job is to create a value for the firm that is higher than its cost. Many people use the balance sheet although the information each may wish to ex- tract is not the same. A banker may look at a balance sheet for evidence of accounting liquidity and working capital. A supplier may also note the size of accounts payable and therefore the general promptness of payments. Many users of financial statements, in- cluding managers and investors, want to know the value of the firm, not its cost. This is not found on the balance sheet. In fact, many of the true resources of the firm do not ap- pear on the balance sheet: good management, proprietary assets, favorable economic con- ditions, and so on. QUESTIONS • What is the balance-sheet equation? ? CONCEPT • What three things should be kept in mind when looking at a balance sheet? 1 Bondholders are investors in the firm’s debt. They are creditors of the firm. In this discussion, the term bondholder means the same thing as creditor. 2 Confusion often arises because many financial accounting terms have the same meaning. This presents a problem with jargon for the reader of financial statements. For example, the following terms usually refer to the same thing: assets minus liabilities, net worth, stockholders’ equity, owner’s equity, and equity capitalization. 3 Formally, GAAP requires assets to be carried at the lower of cost or market value. In most instances cost is lower than market value.
  • 36. 32 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow 25 2.2 THE INCOME STATEMENT The income statement measures performance over a specific period of time, say, a year. The accounting definition of income is Revenue Expenses Income If the balance sheet is like a snapshot, the income statement is like a video recording of what the people did between two snapshots. Table 2.2 gives the income statement for the U.S. Composite Corporation for 20X2. The income statement usually includes several sections. The operations section reports the firm’s revenues and expenses from principal operations. One number of particular im- portance is earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT), which summarizes earnings before taxes and financing costs. Among other things, the nonoperating section of the income statement includes all financing costs, such as interest expense. Usually a second section I TA B L E 2.2 The Income Statement of the U.S. Composite Corporation U.S. COMPOSITE CORPORATION Income Statement 20X2 (in $ millions) Total operating revenues $2,262 Cost of goods sold (1,655) Selling, general, and administrative expenses (327) Depreciation (90) ______ Operating income $ 190 Other income 29 ______ Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) $ 219 Interest expense (49) ______ Pretax income $ 170 Taxes (84) Current: $ 71 Deferred: $ 13 ______ Net income $ 86 ______ ______ Retained earnings: $ 43 Dividends: $ 43 Notes: 1. There are 29 million shares outstanding. Earnings per share and dividends per share can be calculated as follows: Net income Earnings per share Total shares outstanding $86 29 $2.97 per share Dividends Dividends per share Total shares outstanding $43 29 $1.48 per share
  • 37. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill 33 Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition26 Part I Overview reports as a separate item the amount of taxes levied on income. The last item on the in- come statement is the bottom line, or net income. Net income is frequently expressed per share of common stock, that is, earnings per share. When analyzing an income statement, the financial manager should keep in mind GAAP, noncash items, time, and costs. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles Revenue is recognized on an income statement when the earnings process is virtually com- pleted and an exchange of goods or services has occurred. Therefore, the unrealized appre- ciation in owning property will not be recognized as income. This provides a device for smoothing income by selling appreciated property at convenient times. For example, if the firm owns a tree farm that has doubled in value, then, in a year when its earnings from other businesses are down, it can raise overall earnings by selling some trees. The matching prin- ciple of GAAP dictates that revenues be matched with expenses. Thus, income is reported when it is earned, or accrued, even though no cash flow has necessarily occurred (for ex- ample, when goods are sold for credit, sales and profits are reported). Noncash Items The economic value of assets is intimately connected to their future incremental cash flows. However, cash flow does not appear on an income statement. There are several noncash items that are expenses against revenues, but that do not affect cash flow. The most impor- tant of these is depreciation. Depreciation reflects the accountant’s estimate of the cost of equipment used up in the production process. For example, suppose an asset with a five- year life and no resale value is purchased for $1,000. According to accountants, the $1,000 cost must be expensed over the useful life of the asset. If straight-line depreciation is used, there will be five equal installments and $200 of depreciation expense will be incurred each year. From a finance perspective, the cost of the asset is the actual negative cash flow in- curred when the asset is acquired (that is, $1,000, not the accountant’s smoothed $200-per- year depreciation expense). Another noncash expense is deferred taxes. Deferred taxes result from differences be- tween accounting income and true taxable income.4 Notice that the accounting tax shown on the income statement for the U.S. Composite Corporation is $84 million. It can be bro- ken down as current taxes and deferred taxes. The current tax portion is actually sent to the tax authorities (for example, the Internal Revenue Service). The deferred tax portion is not. However, the theory is that if taxable income is less than accounting income in the current year, it will be more than accounting income later on. Consequently, the taxes that are not paid today will have to be paid in the future, and they represent a liability of the firm. This shows up on the balance sheet as deferred tax liability. From the cash flow perspective, though, deferred tax is not a cash outflow. Time and Costs It is often useful to think of all of future time as having two distinct parts, the short run and the long run. The short run is that period of time in which certain equipment, resources, and commitments of the firm are fixed; but the time is long enough for the firm to vary its out- put by using more labor and raw materials. The short run is not a precise period of time that will be the same for all industries. However, all firms making decisions in the short run have 4 One situation in which taxable income may be lower than accounting income is when the firm uses accelerated depreciation expense procedures for the IRS but uses straight-line procedures allowed by GAAP for reporting purposes.
  • 38. 34 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow 27 some fixed costs, that is, costs that will not change because of fixed commitments. In real business activity, examples of fixed costs are bond interest, overhead, and property taxes. Costs that are not fixed are variable. Variable costs change as the output of the firm changes; some examples are raw materials and wages for laborers on the production line. In the long run, all costs are variable.5 Financial accountants do not distinguish be- tween variable costs and fixed costs. Instead, accounting costs usually fit into a classifica- tion that distinguishes product costs from period costs. Product costs are the total produc- tion costs incurred during a period—raw materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead—and are reported on the income statement as cost of goods sold. Both variable and fixed costs are included in product costs. Period costs are costs that are allocated to a time period; they are called selling, general, and administrative expenses. One period cost would be the company president’s salary. QUESTIONS • What is the income statement equation? ? CONCEPT • What are three things to keep in mind when looking at an income statement? • What are noncash expenses? 2.3 NET WORKING CAPITAL Net working capital is current assets minus current liabilities. Net working capital is posi- tive when current assets are greater than current liabilities. This means the cash that will be- come available over the next 12 months will be greater than the cash that must be paid out. The net working capital of the U.S. Composite Corporation is $275 million in 20X2 and $252 million in 20X1: Current assets Current liabilities Net working capital ($ millions) ($ millions) ($ millions) 20X2 $761 $486 $275 20X1 707 455 252 In addition to investing in fixed assets (i.e., capital spending), a firm can invest in net work- ing capital. This is called the change in net working capital. The change in net working capital in 20X2 is the difference between the net working capital in 20X2 and 20X1; that is, $275 million $252 million $23 million. The change in net working capital is usu- ally positive in a growing firm. QUESTIONS • What is net working capital? ? CONCEPT • What is the change in net working capital? 2.4 FINANCIAL CASH FLOW Perhaps the most important item that can be extracted from financial statements is the ac- tual cash flow of the firm. There is an official accounting statement called the statement of cash flows. This statement helps to explain the change in accounting cash and equivalents, 5 When one famous economist was asked about the difference between the long run and the short run, he said, “In the long run we are all dead.”
  • 39. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill 35 Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition28 Part I Overview which for U.S. Composite is $33 million in 20X2. (See Appendix 2B.) Notice in Table 2.1 that Cash and equivalents increases from $107 million in 20X1 to $140 million in 20X2. However, we will look at cash flow from a different perspective, the perspective of finance. In finance the value of the firm is its ability to generate financial cash flow. (We will talk more about financial cash flow in Chapter 7.) The first point we should mention is that cash flow is not the same as net working cap- ital. For example, increasing inventory requires using cash. Because both inventories and cash are current assets, this does not affect net working capital. In this case, an increase in a particular net working capital account, such as inventory, is associated with decreasing cash flow. Just as we established that the value of a firm’s assets is always equal to the value of the liabilities and the value of the equity, the cash flows received from the firm’s assets (that is, its operating activities), CF(A), must equal the cash flows to the firm’s creditors, CF(B), and equity investors, CF(S): CF(A) CF(B) CF(S) The first step in determining cash flows of the firm is to figure out the cash flow from op- erations. As can be seen in Table 2.3, operating cash flow is the cash flow generated by busi- ness activities, including sales of goods and services. Operating cash flow reflects tax pay- ments, but not financing, capital spending, or changes in net working capital. In $ Millions Earnings before interest and taxes $219 Depreciation 90 ____ Current taxes (71) Operating cash flow $238 Another important component of cash flow involves changes in fixed assets. For ex- ample, when U.S. Composite sold its power systems subsidiary in 20X2 it generated $25 in cash flow. The net change in fixed assets equals sales of fixed assets minus the acquisi- tion of fixed assets. The result is the cash flow used for capital spending: Acquisition of fixed assets $198 Sales of fixed assets (25) ____ Capital spending $173 ( $149 $24 increase ____ ____ in property, plant, and equipment increase in intangible assets) Cash flows are also used for making investments in net working capital. In the U.S. Com- posite Corporation in 20X2, additions to net working capital are Additions to net working capital $23 Total cash flows generated by the firm’s assets are the sum of Operating cash flow $238 Capital spending (173) Additions to net working capital (23) ____ Total cash flow of the firm $42 ____ ____
  • 40. 36 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow 29 I TA B L E 2.3 Financial Cash Flow of the U.S. Composite Corporation U.S. COMPOSITE CORPORATION Financial Cash Flow 20X2 (in $ millions) Cash Flow of the Firm Operating cash flow $238 (Earnings before interest and taxes plus depreciation minus taxes) Capital spending (173) (Acquisitions of fixed assets minus sales of fixed assets) Additions to net working capital (23) ____ Total $ 42 ____ ____ Cash Flow to Investors in the Firm Debt $ 36 (Interest plus retirement of debt minus long-term debt financing) Equity 6 (Dividends plus repurchase of equity minus new equity financing) ____ Total $ 42 ____ ____ The total outgoing cash flow of the firm can be separated into cash flow paid to credi- tors and cash flow paid to stockholders. The cash flow paid to creditors represents a re- grouping of the data in Table 2.3 and an explicit recording of interest expense. Creditors are paid an amount generally referred to as debt service. Debt service is interest payments plus repayments of principal (that is, retirement of debt). An important source of cash flow is from selling new debt. U.S. Composite’s long-term debt increased by $13 million (the difference between $86 million in new debt and $73 mil- lion in retirement of old debt.6) Thus, an increase in long-term debt is the net effect of new borrowing and repayment of maturing obligations plus interest expense. Cash Flow Paid to Creditors (in $ millions) Interest $49 Retirement of debt 73 ____ Debt service 122 Proceeds from long-term debt sales (86) ____ Total $36 ____ ____ 6 New debt and the retirement of old debt are usually found in the “notes” to the balance sheet.
  • 41. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill 37 Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition30 Part I Overview Cash flow of the firm also is paid to the stockholders. It is the net effect of paying div- idends plus repurchasing outstanding shares of stock and issuing new shares of stock. Cash Flow to Stockholders (in $ millions) Dividends $43 Repurchase of stock 6 ____ Cash to stockholders 49 Proceeds from new stock issue (43) ____ Total $ 6 ____ ____ Some important observations can be drawn from our discussion of cash flow: 1. Several types of cash flow are relevant to understanding the financial situation of the firm. Operating cash flow, defined as earnings before interest and depreciation minus taxes, measures the cash generated from operations not counting capital spending or working cap- ital requirements. It should usually be positive; a firm is in trouble if operating cash flow is negative for a long time because the firm is not generating enough cash to pay operating costs. Total cash flow of the firm includes adjustments for capital spending and additions to net working capital. It will frequently be negative. When a firm is growing at a rapid rate, the spending on inventory and fixed assets can be higher than cash flow from sales.7 2. Net income is not cash flow. The net income of the U.S. Composite Corporation in 20X2 was $86 million, whereas cash flow was $42 million. The two numbers are not usu- ally the same. In determining the economic and financial condition of a firm, cash flow is more revealing. QUESTIONS • How is cash flow different from changes in net working capital? ? CONCEPT • What is the difference between operating cash flow and total cash flow of the firm? 2.5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Besides introducing you to corporate accounting, the purpose of this chapter has been to teach you how to determine cash flow from the accounting statements of a typical company. 1. Cash flow is generated by the firm and paid to creditors and shareholders. It can be classified as: a. Cash flow from operations. b. Cash flow from changes in fixed assets. c. Cash flow from changes in working capital. 7 Sometimes financial analysts refer to a firm’s free cash flow. Free cash flow is the cash flow in excess of that required to fund profitable capital projects. We call free cash flow the total cash flow of the firm.
  • 42. 38 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow 31 2. Calculations of cash flow are not difficult, but they require care and particular attention to detail in properly accounting for noncash expenses such as depreciation and deferred taxes. It is especially important that you do not confuse cash flow with changes in net working capital and net income. KEY TERMS Balance sheet 22 Income statement 25 Cash flow 27 Noncash items 26 Change in net working capital 27 Operating cash flow 30 Free cash flow 30 Total cash flow of the firm 30 Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) 24 SUGGESTED READING There are many excellent textbooks on accounting. The one that we have found helpful is: Kieso, D. E., and J. J. Weygandt. Intermediate Accounting, 7th ed. New York: John Wiley. 1992. QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS The Balance Sheet 2.1 Prepare a December 31 balance sheet using the following data: Cash $ 4,000 Patents 82,000 Accounts payable 6,000 Accounts receivable 8,000 Taxes payable 2,000 Machinery 34,000 Bonds payable 7,000 Accumulated retained earnings 6,000 Capital surplus 19,000 The par value of the firm’s common stock is $100. 2.2 The following table presents the long-term liabilities and stockholders’ equity of Information Control Corp. of one year ago. Long-term debt $50,000,000 Preferred stock 30,000,000 Common stock 100,000,000 Retained earnings 20,000,000 During the past year, Information Control issued $10 million of new common stock. The firm generated $5 million of net income and paid $3 million of dividends. Construct today’s balance sheet reflecting the changes that occurred at Information Control Corp. during the year. The Income Statement 2.3 Prepare an income statement using the following data. Sales $500,000 Cost of goods sold 200,000 Administrative expenses 100,000 Interest expense 50,000 The firm’s tax rate is 34 percent.
  • 43. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill 39 Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition32 Part I Overview 2.4 The Flying Lion Corporation reported the following data on the income statement of one of its divisions. Flying Lion Corporation has other profitable divisions. 20X2 20X1 Net sales $800,000 $500,000 Cost of goods sold 560,000 320,000 Operating expenses 75,000 56,000 Depreciation 300,000 200,000 Tax rate (%) 30 30 a. Prepare an income statement for each year. b. Determine the operating cash flow during each year. Financial Cash Flow 2.5 What are the differences between accounting profit and cash flow? 2.6 During 1998, the Senbet Discount Tire Company had gross sales of $1 million. The firm’s cost of goods sold and selling expenses were $300,000 and $200,000, respectively. These figures do not include depreciation. Senbet also had notes payable of $1 million. These notes carried an interest rate of 10 percent. Depreciation was $100,000. Senbet’s tax rate in 1998 was 35 percent. a. What was Senbet’s net operating income? b. What were the firm’s earnings before taxes? c. What was Senbet’s net income? d. What was Senbet’s operating cash flow? 2.7 The Stancil Corporation provided the following current information. Proceeds from short-term borrowing $ 6,000 Proceeds from long-term borrowing 20,000 Proceeds from the sale of common stock 1,000 Purchases of fixed assets 1,000 Purchases of inventories 4,000 Payment of dividends 22,000 Determine the cash flow for the Stancil Corporation. 2.8 Ritter Corporation’s accountants prepared the following financial statements for year-end 20X2. RITTER CORPORATION Income Statement 20X2 Revenue $400 Expenses 250 Depreciation 50 ____ Net income $100 Dividends $ 50 RITTER CORPORATION Balance Sheets December 31 20X2 20X1 Assets Current assets $150 $100 Net fixed assets 200 ____ 100 ____ Total assets $350 $200 Liabilities and Equity Current liabilities $ 75 $ 50 Long-term debt 75 0 Stockholders’ equity 200 ____ 150 ____ Total liabilities and equity $350 $200
  • 44. 40 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow 33 a. Determine the change in net working capital in 20X2. b. Determine the cash flow during the year 20X2. Appendix 2A FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS The objective of this appendix is to show how to rearrange information from financial state- ments into financial ratios that provide information about five areas of financial performance: 1. Short-term solvency—the ability of the firm to meet its short-run obligations. 2. Activity—the ability of the firm to control its investment in assets. 3. Financial leverage—the extent to which a firm relies on debt financing. 4. Profitability—the extent to which a firm is profitable. 5. Value—the value of the firm. Financial statements cannot provide the answers to the preceding five measures of per- formance. However, management must constantly evaluate how well the firm is doing, and financial statements provide useful information. The financial statements of the U.S. Composite Corporation, which appear in Tables 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3, provide the information for the examples that follow. (Monetary values are given in $ millions.) Short-Term Solvency Ratios of short-term solvency measure the ability of the firm to meet recurring financial ob- ligations (that is, to pay its bills). To the extent a firm has sufficient cash flow, it will be able to avoid defaulting on its financial obligations and, thus, avoid experiencing financial dis- tress. Accounting liquidity measures short-term solvency and is often associated with net working capital, the difference between current assets and current liabilities. Recall that current liabilities are debts that are due within one year from the date of the balance sheet. The basic source from which to pay these debts is current assets. The most widely used measures of accounting liquidity are the current ratio and the quick ratio. Current Ratio To find the current ratio, divide current assets by current liabilities. For the U.S. Composite Corporation, the figure for 20X2 is Total current assets 761 Current ratio 1.57 Total current liabilities 486 If a firm is having financial difficulty, it may not be able to pay its bills (accounts payable) on time or it may need to extend its bank credit (notes payable). As a consequence, current liabilities may rise faster than current assets and the current ratio may fall. This may be the first sign of financial trouble. Of course, a firm’s current ratio should be calculated over sev- eral years for historical perspective, and it should be compared to the current ratios of other firms with similar operating activities. Quick Ratio The quick ratio is computed by subtracting inventories from current assets and dividing the difference (called quick assets) by current liabilities: Quick assets 492 Quick ratio 1.01 Total current liabilities 486 Quick assets are those current assets that are quickly convertible into cash. Inventories are the least liquid current assets. Many financial analysts believe it is important to determine a firm’s ability to pay off current liabilities without relying on the sale of inventories.
  • 45. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill 41 Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition34 Part I Overview Activity Ratios of activity are constructed to measure how effectively the firm’s assets are being managed. The level of a firm’s investment in assets depends on many factors. For example, Toys ’R Us might have a large stock of toys at the peak of the Christmas season; yet that same inventory in January would be undesirable. How can the appropriate level of invest- ment in assets be measured? One logical starting point is to compare assets with sales for the year to arrive at turnover. The idea is to find out how effectively assets are used to gen- erate sales. Total Asset Turnover The total asset turnover ratio is determined by dividing total oper- ating revenues for the accounting period by the average of total assets. The total asset turnover ratio for the U.S. Composite Corporation for 20X2 is Total operating revenues 2,262 Total asset turnover8 1.25 Total assets average 1,810.5 1,879 1,742 Average total assets 1,810.5 2 This ratio is intended to indicate how effectively a firm is using all of its assets. If the asset turnover ratio is high, the firm is presumably using its assets effectively in generating sales. If the ratio is low, the firm is not using its assets to their capacity and must either increase sales or dispose of some of the assets. One problem in interpreting this ratio is that it is max- imized by using older assets because their accounting value is lower than newer assets. Also, firms with relatively small investments in fixed assets, such as retail and wholesale trade firms, tend to have high ratios of total asset turnover when compared with firms that require a large investment in fixed assets, such as manufacturing firms. Receivables Turnover The ratio of receivables turnover is calculated by dividing sales by average receivables during the accounting period. If the number of days in the year (365) is divided by the receivables turnover ratio, the average collection period can be determined. Net receivables are used for these calculations.9 The receivables turnover ratio and average collection period for the U.S. Composite Corporation are Total operating revenues 2,262 Receivables turnover 8.02 Receivables average 282 294 270 Average receivables 282 2 Days in period 365 Average collection period 45.5 days Receivables turnover 8.02 The receivables turnover ratio and the average collection period provide some information on the success of the firm in managing its investment in accounts receivable. The actual value of these ratios reflects the firm’s credit policy. If a firm has a liberal credit policy, the amount of its receivables will be higher than would otherwise be the case. One common rule of thumb that financial analysts use is that the average collection period of a firm should not exceed the time allowed for payment in the credit terms by more than 10 days. 8 Notice that we use an average of total assets in our calculation of total asset turnover. Many financial analysts use the end of period total asset amount for simplicity. 9 Net receivables are determined after an allowance for potential bad debts.
  • 46. 42 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow 35 Inventory Turnover The ratio of inventory turnover is calculated by dividing the cost of goods sold by average inventory. Because inventory is always stated in terms of historical cost, it must be divided by cost of goods sold instead of sales (sales include a margin for profit and are not commensurate with inventory). The number of days in the year divided by the ratio of inventory turnover yields the ratio of days in inventory. The ratio of days in inventory is the number of days it takes to get goods produced and sold; it is called shelf life for retail and wholesale trade firms. The inventory ratios for the U.S. Composite Corporation are Cost of goods sold 1,655 Inventory turnover 6.03 Inventory average 274.5 269 280 Average inventory 274.5 2 Days in period 365 Days in inventory 60.5 days Inventory turnover 6.03 The inventory ratios measure how quickly inventory is produced and sold. They are signif- icantly affected by the production technology of goods being manufactured. It takes longer to produce a gas turbine engine than a loaf of bread. The ratios also are affected by the per- ishability of the finished goods. A large increase in the ratio of days in inventory could sug- gest an ominously high inventory of unsold finished goods or a change in the firm’s prod- uct mix to goods with longer production periods. The method of inventory valuation can materially affect the computed inventory ratios. Thus, financial analysts should be aware of the different inventory valuation methods and how they might affect the ratios. Financial Leverage Financial leverage is related to the extent to which a firm relies on debt financing rather than equity. Measures of financial leverage are tools in determining the probability that the firm will default on its debt contracts. The more debt a firm has, the more likely it is that the firm will become unable to fulfill its contractual obligations. In other words, too much debt can lead to a higher probability of insolvency and financial distress. On the positive side, debt is an important form of financing, and provides a significant tax advantage because interest payments are tax deductible. If a firm uses debt, creditors and equity investors may have conflicts of interest. Creditors may want the firm to invest in less risky ventures than those the equity investors prefer. Debt Ratio The debt ratio is calculated by dividing total debt by total assets. We can also use several other ways to express the extent to which a firm uses debt, such as the debt-to- equity ratio and the equity multiplier (that is, total assets divided by equity). The debt ra- tios for the U.S. Composite Corporation for 20X2 are Total debt 1,074 Debt ratio 0.57 Total assets 1,879 Total debt 1,074 Debt-to-equity ratio 1.33 Total equity 805 Total assets 1,879 Equity multiplier 2.33 Total equity 805 Debt ratios provide information about protection of creditors from insolvency and the abil- ity of firms to obtain additional financing for potentially attractive investment opportunities. However, debt is carried on the balance sheet simply as the unpaid balance. Consequently,
  • 47. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill 43 Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition36 Part I Overview no adjustment is made for the current level of interest rates (which may be higher or lower than when the debt was originally issued) or risk. Thus, the accounting value of debt may differ substantially from its market value. Some forms of debt may not appear on the balance sheet at all, such as pension liabilities or lease obligations. Interest Coverage The ratio of interest coverage is calculated by dividing earnings (be- fore interest and taxes) by interest. This ratio emphasizes the ability of the firm to generate enough income to cover interest expense. This ratio for the U.S. Composite Corporation is Earnings before interest and taxes 219 Interest coverage 4.5 Interest expense 49 Interest expense is an obstacle that a firm must surmount if it is to avoid default. The ratio of interest coverage is directly connected to the ability of the firm to pay interest. However, it would probably make sense to add depreciation to income in computing this ratio and to include other financing expenses, such as payments of principal and lease payments. A large debt burden is a problem only if the firm’s cash flow is insufficient to make the required debt service payments. This is related to the uncertainty of future cash flows. Firms with predictable cash flows are frequently said to have more debt capacity than firms with high, uncertain cash flows. Therefore, it makes sense to compute the variability of the firm’s cash flows. One possible way to do this is to calculate the standard deviation of cash flows relative to the average cash flow. Profitability One of the most difficult attributes of a firm to conceptualize and to measure is profitabil- ity. In a general sense, accounting profits are the difference between revenues and costs. Un- fortunately, there is no completely unambiguous way to know when a firm is profitable. At best, a financial analyst can measure current or past accounting profitability. Many business opportunities, however, involve sacrificing current profits for future profits. For example, all new products require large start-up costs and, as a consequence, produce low initial prof- its. Thus, current profits can be a poor reflection of true future profitability. Another prob- lem with accounting-based measures of profitability is that they ignore risk. It would be false to conclude that two firms with identical current profits were equally profitable if the risk of one was greater than the other. The most important conceptual problem with accounting measures of profitability is they do not give us a benchmark for making comparisons. In general, a firm is profitable in the economic sense only if its profitability is greater than investors can achieve on their own in the capital markets. Profit Margin Profit margins are computed by dividing profits by total operating revenue and thus they express profits as a percentage of total operating revenue. The most impor- tant margin is the net profit margin. The net profit margin for the U.S. Composite Corpora- tion is Net income 86 Net profit margin 0.038 3.8% Total operating revenue 2,262 Earnings before interest and taxes 219 Gross profit margin 0.097 9.7% Total operating revenues 2,262 In general, profit margins reflect the firm’s ability to produce a product or service at a low cost or a high price. Profit margins are not direct measures of profitability because they are based on total operating revenue, not on the investment made in assets by the firm or the equity in- vestors. Trade firms tend to have low margins and service firms tend to have high margins.
  • 48. 44 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow 37 Return on Assets One common measure of managerial performance is the ratio of income to average total assets, both before tax and after tax. These ratios for the U.S. Composite Corporation for 20X2 are Net income 86 Net return on assets 0.0475 4.75% Average total assets 1,810.5 Earnings before interest and taxes 219 Gross return on assets 0.121 12.1% Average total assets 1,810.5 One of the most interesting aspects of return on assets (ROA) is how some financial ratios can be linked together to compute ROA. One implication of this is usually referred to as the DuPont system of financial control. This system highlights the fact that ROA can be ex- pressed in terms of the profit margin and asset turnover. The basic components of the sys- tem are as follows: ROA Profit margin Asset turnover Net income Total operating revenue ROA (net) Total operating revenue Average total assets 0.0475 0.038 1.25 Earnings before interest and taxes Total operating revenue ROA (gross) Total operating revenue Average total assets 0.121 0.097 1.25 Firms can increase ROA by increasing profit margins or asset turnover. Of course, compe- tition limits their ability to do so simultaneously. Thus, firms tend to face a trade-off be- tween turnover and margin. In retail trade, for example, mail-order outfits such as L. L. Bean have low margins and high turnover, whereas high-quality jewelry stores such as Tiffany’s have high margins and low turnover. It is often useful to describe financial strategies in terms of margins and turnover. Suppose a firm selling pneumatic equipment is thinking about providing customers with more liberal credit terms. This will probably decrease asset turnover (because receivables would increase more than sales). Thus, the margins will have to go up to keep ROA from falling. Return on Equity This ratio (ROE) is defined as net income (after interest and taxes) di- vided by average common stockholders’ equity, which for the U.S. Composite Corporation is Net income 86 ROE 0.112 11.27% Average stockholders equity 765 805 725 Average stockholders equity 765 2 The most important difference between ROA and ROE is due to financial leverage. To see this, consider the following breakdown of ROE: ROE Profit margin Asset turnover Equity multiplier Total operating Average Net income revenue total assets Total operating Average total Average stockholders revenue assets equity 0.112 0.038 1.25 2.36 From the preceding numbers, it would appear that financial leverage always magnifies ROE. Actually, this occurs only when ROA (gross) is greater than the interest rate on debt.
  • 49. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill 45 Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition38 Part I Overview Payout Ratio The payout ratio is the proportion of net income paid out in cash dividends. For the U.S. Composite Corporation Cash dividends 43 Payout ratio 0.5 Net income 86 The retention ratio for the U.S. Composite Corporation is Retained earnings 43 Retention ratio 0.5 Net income 86 Retained earnings Net income Dividends The Sustainable Growth Rate One ratio that is very helpful in financial analysis is called the sustainable growth rate. It is the maximum rate of growth a firm can maintain without increasing its financial leverage and using internal equity only. The precise value of sustainable growth can be calculated as Sustainable growth rate ROE Retention ratio For the U.S. Composite Company, ROE is 11.2 percent. The retention ratio is 1/2, so we can calculate the sustainable growth rate as Sustainable growth rate 11.2 (1/2) 5.6% The U.S. Composite Corporation can expand at a maximum rate of 5.6 percent per year with no external equity financing or without increasing financial leverage. (We discuss sus- tainable growth in Chapters 5 and 26.) Market Value Ratios We can learn many things from a close examination of balance sheets and income state- ments. However, one very important characteristic of a firm that cannot be found on an ac- counting statement is its market value. Market Price The market price of a share of common stock is the price that buyers and sellers establish when they trade the stock. The market value of the common equity of a firm is the market price of a share of common stock multiplied by the number of shares outstanding. Sometimes the words “fair market value” are used to describe market prices. Fair mar- ket value is the amount at which common stock would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, both having knowledge of the relevant facts. Thus, market prices give guesses about the true worth of the assets of a firm. In an efficient stock market, mar- ket prices reflect all relevant facts about firms, and thus market prices reveal the true value of the firm’s underlying assets. The market value of IBM is many times greater than that of Apple Computer. This may suggest nothing more than the fact that IBM is a bigger firm than Apple (hardly a surpris- ing revelation). Financial analysts construct ratios to extract information that is independ- ent of a firm’s size. Price-to-Earnings (P/E) Ratio One way to calculate the P/E ratio is to divide the current market price by the earnings per share of common stock for the latest year. The P/E ratios of some of the largest firms in the United States and Japan are as follows:
  • 50. 46 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow 39 P/E Ratios 2000 United States Japan AT&T 24 Nippon Telegraph & Telephone 53 General Motors 8 Toyota Motor 44 Hewlett Packard 43 Sony 72 As can be seen, some firms have high P/E ratios (Sony, for example) and some firms have low ones (General Motors). Dividend Yield The dividend yield is calculated by annualizing the last observed dividend payment of a firm and dividing by the current market price: Dividend per share Dividend yield Market price per share The dividend yields for several large firms in the United States and Japan are: Dividend Yield (%) 2000 United States Japan AT&T 0.9 Nippon Telegraph & Telephone 0.4 General Motors 2.0 Toyota Motor 0.5 Hewlett Packard 0.6 Sony 0.3 Dividend yields are related to the market’s perception of future growth prospects for firms. Firms with high growth prospects will generally have lower dividend yields. Market-to-Book (M/B) Value and the Q ratio The market-to-book value ratio is calcu- lated by dividing the market price per share by the book value per share. The market-to-book ratios of several of the largest firms in the United States and Japan are: Market-to-Book Ratios 2000 United States Japan AT&T 1 Nippon Telegraph & Telephone 3.4 General Motors 2.4 Toyota Motor 2.8 Hewlett Packard 8 Sony 3.5 There is another ratio, called Tobin’s Q, that is very much like the M/B ratio.10 Tobin’s Q ratio divides the market value of all of the firm’s debt plus equity by the replacement value of the firm’s assets. The Q ratios for several firms are: Q Ratio11 High Qs Coca-Cola 4.2 IBM 4.2 Low Qs National Steel 0.53 U.S. Steel 0.61 10 Kee H. Chung and Stephen W. Pruitt, “A Simple Approximation of Tobin’s Q,” Financial Management Vol 23, No. 3 (Autumn 1994). 11 E. B. Lindberg and S. Ross, “Tobin’s Q and Industrial Organization,” Journal of Business 54 (January 1981).
  • 51. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill 47 Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition40 Part I Overview The Q ratio differs from the M/B ratio in that the Q ratio uses market value of the debt plus equity. It also uses the replacement value of all assets and not the historical cost value. It should be obvious that if a firm has a Q ratio above 1 it has an incentive to in- vest that is probably greater than a firm with a Q ratio below 1. Firms with high Q ra- tios tend to be those firms with attractive investment opportunities or a significant com- petitive advantage. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Much research indicates that accounting statements provide important information about the value of the firm. Financial analysts and managers learn how to rearrange financial statements to squeeze out the maximum amount of information. In particular, analysts and managers use financial ratios to summarize the firm’s liquidity, activity, financial leverage, and profitability. When possible, they also use market values. This appendix describes the most popular financial ratios. You should keep in mind the following points when trying to interpret financial statements: 1. Measures of profitability such as return on equity suffer from several potential deficien- cies as indicators of performance. They do not take into account the risk or timing of cash flows. 2. Financial ratios are linked to one another. For example, return on equity is determined from the profit margins, the asset turnover ratio, and the financial leverage.Appendix 2B STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS There is an official accounting statement called the statement of cash flows. This statement helps explain the change in accounting cash, which for U.S. Composite is $33 million in 20X2. It is very useful in understanding financial cash flow. Notice in Table 2.1 that cash increases from $107 million in 20X1 to $140 million in 20X2. The first step in determining the change in cash is to figure out cash flow from operat- ing activities. This is the cash flow that results from the firm’s normal activities producing and selling goods and services. The second step is to make an adjustment for cash flow from investing activities. The final step is to make an adjustment for cash flow from financing ac- tivities. Financing activities are the net payments to creditors and owners (excluding inter- est expense) made during the year. The three components of the statement of cash flows are determined below. Cash Flow from Operating Activities To calculate cash flow from operating activities we start with net income. Net income can be found on the income statement and is equal to 86. We now need to add back noncash ex- penses and adjust for changes in current assets and liabilities (other than cash). The result is cash flow from operating activities.
  • 52. 48 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow 41 U.S. COMPOSITE CORPORATION Cash Flow from Operating Activities 20X2 (in $ millions) Net income 86 Depreciation 90 Deferred taxes 13 Change in assets and liabilities Accounts receivable (24) Inventories 11 Accounts payable 16 Accrued expense 18 Notes payable (3) Other (8) ___ Cash flow from operating activities 199 ___ ___ Cash Flow from Investing Activities Cash flow from investing activities involves changes in capital assets: acquisition of fixed assets and sales of fixed assets (i.e., net capital expenditures). The result for U.S. Compos- ite is below. U.S. COMPOSITE CORPORATION Cash Flow from Investing Activities 20X2 (in $ millions) Acquisition of fixed assets (198) Sales of fixed assets 25 ____ Cash flow from investing activities (173) ____ ____ Cash Flow from Financing Activities Cash flows to and from creditors and owners include changes in equity and debt. U.S. COMPOSITE CORPORATION Cash Flow from Financing Activities 20X2 (in $ millions) Retirement of debt (includes notes) $(73) Proceeds from long-term debt sales 86 Dividends (43) Repurchase of stock (6) Proceeds from new stock issue 43 ____ Cash flow from financing activities $ 7 ____ ____ The statement of cash flows is the addition of cash flows from operations, cash flows from investing activities, and cash flows from financing activities, and is produced in Table 2.4. There is a close relationship between the official accounting statement called the state- ment of cash flows and the total cash flow of the firm used in finance. The difference be- tween cash flow from financing activities and total cash flow of the firm (see Table 2.3) is interest expense.
  • 53. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill 49 Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition42 Part I Overview I TA B L E 2A.4 Statement of Consolidated Cash Flows of the U.S. Composite Corporation U.S. COMPOSITE CORPORATION Statement of Cash Flows 20X2 (in $ millions) Operations Net income $ 86 Depreciation 90 Deferred taxes 13 Changes in assets and liabilities Accounts receivable (24) Inventories 11 Accounts payable 16 Accrued expenses 18 Notes payable (3) Other (8) _____ Total cash flow from operations $ 199 _____ _____ Investing activities Acquisition of fixed assets $(198) Sales of fixed assets 25 _____ Total cash flow from investing activities $(173) _____ _____ Financing activities Retirement of debt (including notes) $ (73) Proceeds of long-term debt 86 Dividends (43) Repurchase of stock (6) Proceeds from new stock issues 43 _____ Total cash flow from financing activities $ 7 _____ _____ Change in cash (on the balance sheet) $ 33 _____ _____Appendix 2C U.S. FEDERAL TAX RATES As of the printing date of this text, the following United States federal tax rules apply. 1. The top marginal rate for corporations is 39 percent (see Table 2.5). The highest mar- ginal rate for individuals is 39.6 percent (see Table 2.6). 2. Short-term realized capital gains and ordinary income are taxed at the corporation’s or individual’s marginal rate. 3. For individuals, long-term capital gains (in excess of long-term and short-term capital losses) are taxed at a preferential rate. Generally, the top rate for long-term capital gains is 20 percent for capital assets held more than 18 months and 28 percent for capital as- sets held between one year and 18 months. For taxpayers in the 15 percent bracket, the rate is 15 percent for capital assets held between 12 and 18 months and 10 percent for assets held longer than 18 months.
  • 54. 50 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: I. Overview 2. Accounting Statements © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth and Cash Flow Companies, 2002 Edition Chapter 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow 43 I TA B L E 2A.5 Corporation Income Tax Rates for 2000 Corporations Taxable Income Over Not Over Tax Rate $ 0 $ 50,000 15% 50,000 75,000 25 75,000 100,000 34 100,000 335,000 39 335,000 10,000,000 34 10,000,000 15,000,000 35 15,000,000 18,333,333 38 18,333,333 — 35 I TA B L E 2A.6 Tax Rates for Married Individuals Filing Jointly and Surviving Spouses—2000 Taxable Income Of the But Not Percent on Amount Over Over Pay Excess Over $ 0 $ 41,200 $ 0 15% $ 0 41,200 99,600 6,180.00 28 41,200 99,600 151,750 22,532.00 31 99,600 151,750 271,050 38,698.50 36 151,750 271,050 — 81,646.50 39.6 271,050 4. Dividends received by a U.S. corporation are 100 percent exempt from taxation if the dividend-paying corporation is fully owned by the other corporation. The exemption is 80 percent if the receiving corporation owns between 20 and 80 percent of the paying corporation. In all other cases, the exemption is 70 percent. Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) Corporations and individuals must pay either their regularly calculated tax or an alternative minimum tax, whichever is higher. The alternative minimum tax is calculated with lower rates (either 26 or 28 percent for individuals or 20 percent for corporations) applied to a broader base of income. The broader base is determined by taking taxable income and adding back certain tax preference items, e.g., accelerated depreciation, which reduce reg- ular taxable income. A corporation which had average gross receipts of less than $5 million for calendar years 1998 through 2000 is exempt from the alternative minimum tax as long as average gross receipts do not exceed $7.5 million. Tax Operating Loss Carrybacks and Carryforwards The federal tax law permits corporations to carry back net operating losses two years and to carry forward net operating losses for 20 years.
  • 55. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: II. Value and Capital Introduction © The McGraw−Hill 51Corporate Finance, Sixth Budgeting Companies, 2002Edition PART II Value and Capital Budgeting 3 Financial Markets and Net Present Value: First Principles of Finance (Advanced) 46 4 Net Present Value 66 5 How to Value Bonds and Stocks 102 6 Some Alternative Investment Rules 140 7 Net Present Value and Capital Budgeting 169 8 Strategy and Analysis in Using Net Present Value 200 F IRMS and individuals invest in a large variety of assets. Some are real assets such as machinery and land, and some are financial assets such as stocks and bonds. The ob- ject of an investment is to maximize the value of the investment. In the simplest terms, this means to find assets that have more value to the firm than they cost. To do this we need a theory of value. We develop a theory of value in Part II. Finance is the study of markets and instruments that deal with cash flows over time. In Chapter 3 we describe how financial markets allow us to determine the value of fi- nancial instruments. We study some stylized examples of money over time and show why financial markets and financial instruments are created. We introduce the basic prin- ciples of rational decision making. We apply these principles to a two-period investment. Here we introduce one of the most important ideas in finance: net present value (NPV). We show why net present value is useful and the conditions that make it applicable. In Chapter 4 we extend the concept of net present value to more than one time period. The mathematics of compounding and discounting are presented. In Chapter 5 we apply net present value to bonds and stocks. This is a very important chapter because net present value can be used to determine the value of a wide variety of financial instruments. Although we have made a strong case for using the NPV rule in Chapters 3 and 4, Chapter 6 presents four other rules: the payback rule, the accounting-rate-of-return rule, the internal rate of return (IRR), and the profitability index. Each of these alternatives has some redeeming features, but these qualities aren’t sufficient to let any of the alter- natives replace the NPV rule. In Chapter 7 we analyze how to estimate the cash flows required for capital budg- eting. We start the chapter with a discussion of the concept of incremental cash flows— the difference between the cash flows for the firm with and without the project. Chapter 8 focuses on assessing the reliability and reasonableness of estimates of NPV. The chap- ter introduces techniques for dealing with uncertain incremental cash flows in capital budgeting, including break-even analysis, decision trees, and sensitivity analysis.
  • 56. 52 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: II. Value and Capital 3. Financial Markets and © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Budgeting Net Present Value: First Companies, 2002 Edition Principles of Finance (Adv.)3 Financial Markets andCHAPTER Net Present Value: First Principles of Finance (Advanced) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY F inance refers to the process by which special markets deal with cash flows over time. These markets are called financial markets. Making investment and financing deci- sions requires an understanding of the basic economic principles of financial markets. This introductory chapter describes a financial market as one that makes it possible for indi- viduals and corporations to borrow and lend. As a consequence, financial markets can be used by individuals to adjust their patterns of consumption over time and by corporations to adjust their patterns of investment spending over time. The main point of this chapter is that individuals and corporations can use the financial markets to help them make investment de- cisions. We introduce one of the most important ideas in finance: net present value. 3.1 THE FINANCIAL MARKET ECONOMY Financial markets develop to facilitate borrowing and lending between individuals. Here we talk about how this happens. Suppose we describe the economic circumstances of two peo- ple, Tom and Leslie. Both Tom and Leslie have current income of $100,000. Tom is a very patient person, and some people call him a miser. He wants to consume only $50,000 of current income and save the rest. Leslie is a very impatient person, and some people call her extravagant. She wants to consume $150,000 this year. Tom and Leslie have different intertemporal consumption preferences. Such preferences are personal matters and have more to do with psychology than with finance. However, it seems that Tom and Leslie could strike a deal: Tom could give up some of his income this year in exchange for future income that Leslie can promise to give him. Tom can lend $50,000 to Leslie, and Leslie can borrow $50,000 from Tom. Suppose that they do strike this deal, with Tom giving up $50,000 this year in exchange for $55,000 next year. This is illustrated in Figure 3.1 with the basic cash flow time chart, a representation of the timing and amount of the cash flows. The cash flows that are received are represented by an arrow pointing up from the point on the time line at which the cash flow occurs. The cash flows paid out are represented by an arrow pointing down. In other words, for each dollar Tom trades away or lends, he gets a commitment to get it back as well as to receive 10 percent more. In the language of finance, 10 percent is the annual rate of interest on the loan. When a dollar is lent out, the repayment of $1.10 can be thought of as being made up of two parts. First, the lender gets the dollar back; that is the principal repayment. Second, the lender re- ceives an interest payment, which is $0.10 in this example.
  • 57. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: II. Value and Capital 3. Financial Markets and © The McGraw−Hill 53Corporate Finance, Sixth Budgeting Net Present Value: First Companies, 2002Edition Principles of Finance (Adv.) Chapter 3 Financial Markets and Net Present Value: First Principles of Finance (Advanced) 47 I F I G U R E 3.1 Tom’s and Leslie’s Cash Flow Tom’s cash flows Cash inflows $55,000 Time 0 1 Cash outflows – $50,000 Leslie’s cash flows Cash inflows $50,000 Time 0 1 Cash outflows – $55,000 Now, not only have Tom and Leslie struck a deal, but as a by-product of their bargain they have created a financial instrument, the IOU. This piece of paper entitles whoever re- ceives it to present it to Leslie in the next year and redeem it for $55,000. Financial instru- ments that entitle whoever possesses them to receive payment are called bearer instruments because whoever bears them can use them. Presumably there could be more such IOUs in the economy written by many different lenders and borrowers like Tom and Leslie. The Anonymous Market If the borrower does not care whom he has to pay back, and if the lender does not care whose IOUs he is holding, we could just as well drop Tom’s and Leslie’s names from their contract. All we need is a record book, in which we could record the fact that Tom has lent $50,000 and Leslie has borrowed $50,000 and that the terms of the loan, the interest rate, are 10 percent. Perhaps another person could keep the records for borrowers and lenders, for a fee, of course. In fact, and this is one of the virtues of such an arrangement, Tom and Leslie wouldn’t even need to meet. Instead of needing to find and trade with each other, they could each trade with the record keeper. The record keeper could deal with thousands of such borrowers and lenders, none of whom would need to meet the other. Institutions that perform this sort of market function, matching borrowers and lenders or traders, are called financial intermediaries. Stockbrokers and banks are examples of fi- nancial intermediaries in our modern world. A bank’s depositors lend the bank money, and the bank makes loans from the funds it has on deposit. In essence, the bank is an interme- diary between the depositors and the ultimate borrowers. To make the market work, we must be certain that the market clears. By market clearing we mean that the total amount that people like Tom wish to lend to the market should equal the total amount that people like Leslie wish to borrow. Market Clearing If the lenders wish to lend more than the borrowers want to borrow, then presumably the in- terest rate is too high. Because there would not be enough borrowing for all of the lenders at, say, 15 percent, there are really only two ways that the market could be made to clear. One is to ration the lenders. For example, if the lenders wish to lend $20 million when interest
  • 58. 54 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: II. Value and Capital 3. Financial Markets and © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Budgeting Net Present Value: First Companies, 2002 Edition Principles of Finance (Adv.) 48 Part II Value and Capital Budgeting rates are at 15 percent and the borrowers wish to borrow only $8 million, the market could take, say, 8/20 of each dollar, or $0.40, from each of the lenders and distribute it to the bor- rowers. This is one possible scheme for making the market clear, but it is not one that would be sustainable in a free and competitive marketplace. Why not? To answer this important question, let’s go back to our lender, Tom. Tom sees that in- terest rates are 15 percent and, not surprisingly, rather than simply lending the $50,000 that he was willing to lend when rates were 10 percent, Tom decides that at the higher rates he would like to lend more, say $80,000. But since the lenders want to lend more money than the borrowers want to borrow, the record keepers tell Tom that they won’t be able to take all of his $80,000; rather, they will take only 40 percent of it, or $32,000. With the interest rate at 15 percent, people are not willing to borrow enough to match up with all of the loans that are available at that rate. Tom is not very pleased with that state of affairs, but he can do something to improve his situation. Suppose that he knows that Leslie is borrowing $20,000 in the market at the 15 percent interest rate. That means that Leslie must repay $20,000 on her loan next year plus the interest of 15 percent of $20,000 or 0.15 $20,000 $3,000. Suppose that Tom goes to Leslie and offers to lend her the $20,000 for 14 percent. Leslie is happy because she will save 1 percent on the deal and will need to pay back only $2,800 in interest next year. This is $200 less than if she had borrowed from the record keepers. Tom is happy too, because he has found a way to lend some of the money that the record keepers would not take. The net result of this transaction is that the record keepers have lost Leslie as a customer. Why should she borrow from them when Tom will lend her the money at a lower interest rate? Tom and Leslie are not the only ones cutting side deals in the marketplace, and it is clear that the record keepers will not be able to maintain the 15 percent rate. The interest rate must fall if they are to stay in business. Suppose, then, that the market clears at the rate of 10 percent. At this rate the amount of money that the lenders wish to lend is exactly equal to the amount that the borrowers de- sire. We refer to the interest rate that clears the market, 10 percent in our example, as the equilibrium rate of interest. In this section we have shown that in the market for loans, bonds or IOUs are traded. These are financial instruments. The interest rate on these loans is set so that the total de- mand for such loans by borrowers equals the total supply of loans by lenders. At a higher interest rate, lenders wish to supply more loans than are demanded, and if the interest rate is lower than this equilibrium level, borrowers demand more loans than lenders are willing to supply. QUESTIONS • What is an interest rate? ? CONCEPT • What are institutions that match borrowers and lenders called? • What do we mean when we say a market clears? What is an equilibrium rate of interest? 3.2 MAKING CONSUMPTION CHOICES OVER TIME Figure 3.2 illustrates the situation faced by a representative individual in the financial mar- ket. This person is assumed to have an income of $50,000 this year and an income of $60,000 next year. The market allows him not only to consume $50,000 worth of goods this year and $60,000 next year, but also to borrow and lend at the equilibrium interest rate. The line AB in Figure 3.2 shows all of the consumption possibilities open to the person through borrowing or lending, and the shaded area contains all of the feasible choices. Let’s look at this figure more closely to see exactly why points in the shaded area are available.
  • 59. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: II. Value and Capital 3. Financial Markets and © The McGraw−Hill 55Corporate Finance, Sixth Budgeting Net Present Value: First Companies, 2002Edition Principles of Finance (Adv.) Chapter 3 Financial Markets and Net Present Value: First Principles of Finance (Advanced) 49 I F I G U R E 3.2 Intertemporal Consumption Opportunities Consumption next year $115,000 A Slope = – (1 + r ) Lending $71,000 C $60,000 Y $49,000 D Borrowing B Consumption this year $40,000 $60,000 $104,545 $50,000 We will use the letter r to denote the interest rate—the equilibrium rate—in this mar- ket. The rate is risk-free because we assume that no default can take place. Look at point A on the vertical axis of Figure 3.2. Point A is a height of A $60,000 [$50,000 (1 r)] For example, if the rate of interest is 10 percent, then point A would be A $60,000 [$50,000 (1 0.1)] $60,000 $55,000 $115,000 Point A is the maximum amount of wealth that this person can spend in the second year. He gets to point A by lending the full income that is available this year, $50,000, and con- suming none of it. In the second year, then, he will have the second year’s income of $60,000 plus the proceeds from the loan that he made in the first year, $55,000, for a total of $115,000. Now let’s take a look at point B. Point B is a distance of B $50,000 [$60,000/(1 r)] along the horizontal axis. If the interest rate is 10 percent, point B will be B $50,000 [$60,000/(1 0.1)] $50,000 $54,545 $104,545 (We have rounded off to the nearest dollar.) Why do we divide next year’s income of $60,000 by (1 r), or 1.1 in the preceding computation? Point B represents the maximum amount available for this person to consume this year. To achieve that maximum he would borrow as much as possible and repay the loan from the income, $60,000, that he was going to receive next year. Because $60,000 will be available to repay the loan next year, we are asking how much he could borrow this year at an interest rate of r and still be able to repay the loan. The answer is $60,000/(1 r)
  • 60. 56 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: II. Value and Capital 3. Financial Markets and © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Budgeting Net Present Value: First Companies, 2002 Edition Principles of Finance (Adv.) 50 Part II Value and Capital Budgeting because if he borrows this amount, he must repay it next year with interest. Thus, next year he must repay [$60,000/(1 r)] (1 r) $60,000 no matter what the interest rate, r, is. In our example we found that he could borrow $54,545 and, sure enough, $54,545 1.1 $60,000 (after rounding off to the nearest dollar). Furthermore, by borrowing and lending different amounts the person can achieve any point on the line AB. For example, point C is a point where he has chosen to lend $10,000 of today’s income. This means that at point C he will have Consumption this year at point C $50,000 $10,000 $40,000 and Consumption next year at point C $60,000 [$10,000 (1 r)] $71,000 when the interest rate is 10 percent. Similarly, at point D, the individual has decided to borrow $10,000 and repay the loan next year. At point D, then, Consumption this year at point D $50,000 $10,000 $60,000 and Consumption next year at point D $60,000 [$10,000 (1 r)] $49,000 at an interest rate of 10 percent. In fact, this person can consume any point on the line AB. This line has a slope of (1 r), which means that for each dollar that is added to the x coordinate along the line, (1 r) dol- lars are subtracted from the y coordinate. Moving along the line from point A, the initial point of $50,000 this year and $60,000 next year, toward point B gives the person more consump- tion today and less next year. In other words, moving toward point B is borrowing. Similarly, moving up toward point A, he is consuming less today and more next year and is lending. The line is a straight line because the individual has no effect on the interest rate. This is one of the assumptions of perfectly competitive financial markets. Where will the person actually be? The answer to that question depends on the indi- vidual’s tastes and personal situation, just as it did before there was a market. If the person is impatient, he might wish to borrow money at a point such as D, and if he is patient, he might wish to lend some of this year’s income and enjoy more consumption next year at, for example, a point such as C. Notice that whether we think of someone as patient or impatient depends on the inter- est rate he or she faces in the market. Suppose that our individual was impatient and chose to borrow $10,000 and move to point D. Now suppose that we raise the interest rate to 20 percent or even 50 percent. Suddenly our impatient person may become very patient and might prefer to lend some of this year’s income to take advantage of the very high interest rate. The general result is depicted in Figure 3.3. We can see that lending at point C′ yields much greater future income and consumption possibilities than before.1 1 Those familiar with consumer theory might be aware of the surprising case where raising the interest rate actually makes people borrow more or lowering the rate makes them lend more. The latter case might occur, for example, if the decline in the interest rate made the lenders have so little consumption next year that they have no choice but to lend out even more than they were lending before just to subsist. Nothing we do depends on excluding such cases, but it is much easier to ignore them, and the resulting analysis fits the real markets more closely.
  • 61. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: II. Value and Capital 3. Financial Markets and © The McGraw−Hill 57Corporate Finance, Sixth Budgeting Net Present Value: First Companies, 2002Edition Principles of Finance (Adv.) Chapter 3 Financial Markets and Net Present Value: First Principles of Finance (Advanced) 51 I F I G U R E 3.3 The Effect of Different Interest Rates on Consumption Opportunities Consumption next year $135,000 A′ $115,000 A Slope = – 1.5 C′ $75,000 Lending $71,000 C $60,000 Y $49,000 D $45,000 Slope = – 1.1 D′ Borrowing B′ B Consumption this year 0 $40,000 $60,000 $90,000 $104,545 $50,000 QUESTIONS • How does an individual change his consumption across periods through borrowing and ? CONCEPT lending? • How do interest rate changes affect one’s degree of impatience? 3.3 THE COMPETITIVE MARKET In the previous analysis we assumed the individual moves freely along the line AB, and we ignored—and assumed that the individual ignored—any effect his borrowing or lending de- cisions might have on the equilibrium interest rate itself. What would happen, though, if the total amount of loans outstanding in the market when the person was doing no borrowing or lending was $10 million, and if our person then decided to lend, say, $5 million? His lending would be half as much as the rest of the market put together, and it would not be unreasonable to think that the equilibrium interest rate would fall to induce more borrow- ers into the market to take his additional loans. In such a situation the person would have some power in the market to influence the equilibrium rate significantly, and he would take this power into consideration in making his decisions. In the modern financial market, however, the total amount of borrowing and lending is not $10 million; rather, as we saw in Chapter 1, it is closer to $10 trillion. In such a huge market no one investor or even any single company can have a significant effect (although a government might). We assume, then, in all of our subsequent discussions and analyses that the financial market is competitive. By that we mean no individuals or firms think they have any effect whatsoever on the interest rates that they face no matter how much bor- rowing, lending, or investing they do. In the language of economics, individuals who re- spond to rates and prices by acting as though they have no influence on them are called price takers, and this assumption is sometimes called the price-taking assumption. It is the con- dition of perfectly competitive financial markets (or, more simply, perfect markets). The following conditions are likely to lead to this:
  • 62. 58 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: II. Value and Capital 3. Financial Markets and © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Budgeting Net Present Value: First Companies, 2002 Edition Principles of Finance (Adv.) 52 Part II Value and Capital Budgeting 1. Trading is costless. Access to the financial markets is free. 2. Information about borrowing and lending opportunities is available. 3. There are many traders, and no single trader can have a significant impact on market prices. How Many Interest Rates Are There in a Competitive Market? An important point about this one-year market where no defaults can take place is that only one interest rate can be quoted in the market at any one time. Suppose that some competing record keepers decide to set up a rival market. To attract customers, their business plan is to offer lower interest rates, say, 9 percent. Their business plan is based on the hope that they will be able to attract borrowers away from the first market and soon have all of the business. Their business plan will work, but it will do so beyond their wildest expectations. They will indeed attract the borrowers, all $11 million worth of them! But the matter doesn’t stop there. By offering to borrow and lend at 9 percent when another market is offering 10 per- cent, they have created the proverbial money machine. The world of finance is populated by sharp-eyed inhabitants who would not let this op- portunity slip by them. Any one of these, whether a borrower or a lender, would go to the new market and borrow everything he could at the 9-percent rate. At the same time he was borrowing in the new market, he would also be striking a deal to lend in the old market at the 10-percent rate. If he could borrow $100 million at 9 percent and lend it at 10 percent, he would be able to net 1 percent, or $1 million, next year. He would repay the $109 mil- lion he owed to the new market from the $110 million he receives when the 10-percent loans he made in the original market are repaid, pocketing $1 million profit. This process of striking a deal in one market and an offsetting deal in another market simultaneously and at more favorable terms is called arbitrage, and doing it is called arbi- traging. Of course, someone must be paying for all this free money, and it must be the record keepers because the borrowers and the lenders are all making money. Our intrepid entre- preneurs will lose their proverbial shirts and go out of business. The moral of this is clear: As soon as different interest rates are offered for essentially the same risk-free loans, arbi- trageurs will take advantage of the situation by borrowing at the low rate and lending at the high rate. The gap between the two rates will be closed quickly, and for all practical pur- poses there will be only one rate available in the market. QUESTIONS • What is the most important feature of a competitive financial market? ? CONCEPT • What conditions are likely to lead to this? 3.4 THE BASIC PRINCIPLE We have already shown how people use the financial markets to adjust their patterns of con- sumption over time to fit their particular preferences. By borrowing and lending, they can greatly expand their range of choices. They need only to have access to a market with an interest rate at which they can borrow and lend. In the previous section we saw how these savings and consumption decisions depend on the interest rate. The financial markets also provide a benchmark against which proposed investments can be compared, and the interest rate is the basis for a test that any proposed investment must pass. The financial markets give the individual, the corporation, or even the government a standard of comparison for economic decisions. This benchmark is criti- cal when investment decisions are being made.
  • 63. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: II. Value and Capital 3. Financial Markets and © The McGraw−Hill 59Corporate Finance, Sixth Budgeting Net Present Value: First Companies, 2002Edition Principles of Finance (Adv.) Chapter 3 Financial Markets and Net Present Value: First Principles of Finance (Advanced) 53 The way we use the financial markets to aid us in making investment decisions is a di- rect consequence of our basic assumption that individuals can never be made worse off by increasing the range of choices open to them. People always can make use of the financial markets to adjust their savings and consumption by borrowing or lending. An investment project is worth undertaking only if it increases the range of choices in the financial mar- kets. To do this the project must be at least as desirable as what is available in the financial markets.2 If it were not as desirable as what the financial markets have to offer, people could simply use the financial markets instead of undertaking the investment. This point will gov- ern us in all our investment decisions. It is the first principle of investment decision making, and it is the foundation on which all of our rules are built. QUESTION • Describe the basic financial principle of investment decision making. ? CONCEPT 3.5 PRACTICING THE PRINCIPLE Let us apply the basic principle of investment decision making to some concrete situations. A Lending Example Consider a person who is concerned only about this year and the next. She has an income of $100,000 this year and expects to make the same amount next year. The interest rate is 10 per- cent. This individual is thinking about investing in a piece of land that costs $70,000. She is certain that next year the land will be worth $75,000, a sure $5,000 gain. Should she under- take the investment? This situation is described in Figure 3.4 with the cash flow time chart. A moment’s thought should be all it takes to convince her that this is not an attractive business deal. By investing $70,000 in the land, she will have $75,000 available next year. Suppose, instead, that she puts the same $70,000 into a loan in the financial market. At the 10-percent rate of interest this $70,000 would grow to (1 0.1) $70,000 $77,000 next year. It would be foolish to buy the land when the same $70,000 investment in the financial market would beat it by $2,000 (that is, $77,000 from the loan minus $75,000 from the land investment). I F I G U R E 3.4 Cash Flows for Investment in Land Cash inflows $75,000 Time 0 1 Cash outflows – $70,000 2 You might wonder what to do if an investment is as desirable as an alternative in the financial markets. In principle, if there is a tie, it doesn’t matter whether or not we take on the investment. In practice, we’ve never seen an exact tie.
  • 64. 60 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: II. Value and Capital 3. Financial Markets and © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Budgeting Net Present Value: First Companies, 2002 Edition Principles of Finance (Adv.) 54 Part II Value and Capital Budgeting I F I G U R E 3.5 Consumption Opportunities with Borrowing and Lending Consumption next year $210,000 $177,000 Loan $175,000 Land $100,000 Y Consumption endowment Slope = – 1.10 Consumption this year $30,000 $100,000 $190,909.09 Figure 3.5 illustrates this situation. Notice that the $70,000 loan gives no less income today and $2,000 more next year. This example illustrates some amazing features of the fi- nancial markets. It is remarkable to consider all of the information that we did not use when arriving at the decision not to invest in the land. We did not need to know how much income the person has this year or next year. We also did not need to know whether the person pre- ferred more income this year or next. We did not need to know any of these other facts, and more important, the person mak- ing the decision did not need to know them either. She only needed to be able to compare the investment with a relevant alternative available in the financial market. When this in- vestment fell short of that standard—by $2,000 in the previous example—regardless of what the individual wanted to do, she knew that she should not buy the land. A Borrowing Example Let us sweeten the deal a bit. Suppose that instead of being worth $75,000 next year the land would be worth $80,000. What should our investor do now? This case is a bit more dif- ficult. After all, even if the land seems like a good deal, this person’s income this year is $100,000. Does she really want to make a $70,000 investment this year? Won’t that leave only $30,000 for consumption? The answers to these questions are yes, the individual should buy the land; yes, she does want to make a $70,000 investment this year; and, most surprising of all, even though her in- come is $100,000, making the $70,000 investment will not leave her with $30,000 to con- sume this year! Now let us see how finance lets us get around the basic laws of arithmetic. The financial markets are the key to solving our problem. First, the financial markets can be used as a standard of comparison against which any investment project must be measured. Second, they can be used as a tool to actually help the individual undertake investments. These twin features of the financial markets enable us to make the right investment decision. Suppose that the person borrows the $70,000 initial investment that is needed to pur- chase the land. Next year she must repay this loan. Because the interest rate is 10 percent, she will owe the financial market $77,000 next year. This is depicted in Figure 3.6. Because the land will be worth $80,000 next year, she can sell it, pay off her debt of $77,000, and have $3,000 extra cash.
  • 65. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: II. Value and Capital 3. Financial Markets and © The McGraw−Hill 61Corporate Finance, Sixth Budgeting Net Present Value: First Companies, 2002Edition Principles of Finance (Adv.) Chapter 3 Financial Markets and Net Present Value: First Principles of Finance (Advanced) 55 I F I G U R E 3.6 Cash Flows of Borrowing to Purchase the Land Cash flows of borrowing Cash inflows $70,000 1 Time 0 Cash outflows – $77,000 Cash flows of investing in land Cash inflows $80,000 Time 0 1 Cash outflows – $70,000 Cash flows of borrowing and investing in land Cash inflows $3,000 Time 0 1 I F I G U R E 3.7 Consumption Opportunities with Investment Opportunity and Borrowing and Lending Consumption next year $213,000 $210,000 $180,000 Land $177,000 Loan $100,000 Land plus borrowing Y Consumption this year $30,000 $100,000 $190,909.09 $102,727.27 $193,636.36 If she wishes, this person can now consume an extra $3,000 worth of goods and ser- vices next year. This possibility is illustrated in Figure 3.7. In fact, even if she wants to do all of her consuming this year, she is still better off taking the investment. All she must do is take out a loan this year and repay it from the proceeds of the land next year and profit by $3,000. Furthermore, instead of borrowing just the $70,000 that she needed to purchase the land, she could have borrowed $72,727.27. She could have used $70,000 to buy the land and consumed the remaining $2,727.27.
  • 66. 62 Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: II. Value and Capital 3. Financial Markets and © The McGraw−Hill Corporate Finance, Sixth Budgeting Net Present Value: First Companies, 2002 Edition Principles of Finance (Adv.) 56 Part II Value and Capital Budgeting We will call $2,727.27 the net present value of the transaction. Notice that it is equal to $3,000 1/1.1. How did we figure out that this was the exact amount that she could bor- row? It was easy: If $72,727.27 is the amount that she borrows, then, because the interest rate is 10 percent, she must repay $72,727.27 (1 0.1) $80,000 next year, and that is exactly what the land will be worth. The line through the investment position in Figure 3.7 illustrates this borrowing possibility. The amazing thing about both of these cases, one where the land is worth $75,000 next year and the other where it is worth $80,000 next year, is that we needed only to compare the investment with the financial markets to decide whether it was worth undertaking or not. This is one of the more important points in all of finance. It is true regardless of the con- sumption preferences of the individual. This is one of a number of separation theorems in finance. It states that the value of an investment to an individual is not dependent on con- sumption preferences. In our examples we showed that the person’s decision to invest in land was not affected by consumption preferences. However, these preferences dictated whether she borrowed or lent. QUESTIONS • Describe how the financial markets can be used to evaluate investment alternatives. ? CONCEPT • What is the separation theorem? Why is it important? 3.6 ILLUSTRATING THE INVESTMENT DECISION Figure 3.2 describes the possibilities open to a person who has an income of $50,000 this year and $60,000 next year and faces a financial market in which the interest rate is 10 per- cent. But, at that moment, the person has no investment possibilities beyond the 10-percent borrowing and lending that is available in the financial market. Suppose that we give this person the chance to undertake an investment project that will require a $30,000 outlay of cash this year and that will return $40,000 to the investor next year. Refer to Figure 3.2 and determine how you could include this new possibility in that figure and how you could use the figure to help you decide whether to undertake the investment. Now look at Figure 3.8. In Figure 3.8 we have labeled the original point with $50,000 this year and $60,000 next year as point A. We have also added a new point B, with $20,000 available for consumption this year and $100,000 next year. The difference between point A and point B is that at point A the person is just where we started him off, and at point B the person has also decided to undertake the investment project. As a result of this decision the person at point B has $50,000 $30,000 $20,000 left for consumption this year, and $60,000 $40,000 $100,000 available next year. These are the coordinates of point B. We must use our knowledge of the individual’s borrowing and lending opportunities in order to decide whether to accept or reject the investment. This is illustrated in Figure 3.9. Figure 3.9 is similar to Figure 3.8, but in it we have drawn a line through point A that shows
  • 67. Ross−Westerfield−Jaffe: II. Value and Capital 3. Financial Markets and © The McGraw−Hill 63Corporate Finance, Sixth Budgeting Net Present Value: First Companies, 2002Edition Principles of Finance (Adv.) Chapter 3 Financial Markets and Net Present Value: First Principles of Finance (Advanced) 57 I F I G U R E 3.8 Consumption Choices with Investment but No Financial Markets Consumption next year $100,000 B $60,000 A Consumption this year $20,000 $50,000 I F I G U R E 3.9 Consumption Choices with Investment Opportunities