Matthew Effect: The Power of Links

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In studies of the networks of citations between scientific papers, Derek de Solla Price showed in 1965 that the number of links to papers—i.e., the number of citations they receive—followed a Pareto …

In studies of the networks of citations between scientific papers, Derek de Solla Price showed in 1965 that the number of links to papers—i.e., the number of citations they receive—followed a Pareto distribution or power law. Recent interest in scale-free networks started in 1999 with work by Albert-László Barabási and colleagues who mapped the topology of a portion of the Web, finding that some nodes, which they called "hubs", had many more connections than others and that the network as a whole had a power-law distribution of the number of links connecting to a node...

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  • 1. TORSTEN HENNING HENSEL PARTNER // CREATIVE CONSULTANT NOUVÉ INTERPLAY WWW.NOUVE.EU WWW.NOUVE-INTERPLAY.COM WWW.TWITTER.COM/NOUVE_INTERPLAY WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/NOUVE.INTERPLAY NOUVENEXT.TUMBLR.COM NOUVENET.MIXXT.ORG THE MATTHEW EFFECT SOCIAL MEDIA AND THE POWER OF LINKS BERLIN // FEBRUARY 2010 WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/15181047@N08/3356144677
  • 2. WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/70319561@N00/506121620
  • 3. WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/70319561@N00/506121620 THE MOST INFLUENTIAL FORMULA OF OUR TIMES?
  • 4. 1-d PR(pj) PR(pi) = n + d ∑ p ∈ M(p ) j i L(pj) NO, IT‘S THIS ONE: GOOGLE‘S PAGERANK...
  • 5. GOOGLE SITES ACCOUNT FOR TWO-THIRDS OF 113 BILLION SEARCHES CONDUCTED WORLDWIDE EVERY MONTH. PAGERANK, GOOGLE‘S SEARCH ALGORITHM, BECOMES ESSENTIAL IN REALITY SHAPING. IT IS BASED ON A LINK ANALYSIS THAT ORDERS ITS RESULTS BY HOW OFTEN A SITE IS LINKED. THIS LEADS TO A MATTHEW EFFECT: A SOCIOLOGICAL PHENOMENON WHERE "THE RICH GET RICHER AND THE POOR GET POORER". THE TERM MATTHEW EFFECT (OR "ACCUMULATED ADVANTAGE") WAS FIRST COINED BY SOCIOLOGIST ROBERT K. MERTON IN 1968 TAKES ITS NAME FROM A LINE IN THE BIBLICAL GOSPEL OF MATTHEW. HTTP://WWW.COMSCORE.COM/PRESS_EVENTS/PRESS_RELEASES/2010/1/GLOBAL_SEARCH_MARKET_GROWS_46_PERCENT_IN_2009
  • 6. HTTP://WWW.IBIBLIO.ORG/WM/PAINT/AUTH/CARAVAGGIO/MATTHEW.JPG FOR TO ALL THOSE WHO HAVE, MORE WILL BE GIVEN, AND THEY WILL HAVE AN ABUNDANCE; BUT FROM THOSE WHO HAVE NOTHING, EVEN WHAT THEY HAVE WILL BE TAKEN AWAY. MATTHEW 25,29
  • 7. HTTP://WWW.CAIDA.ORG/FUNDING/CYBERSECURITY/A-ROOT-RTT-01.PNG THANKS TO THE MATTHEW EFFECT THE ALREADY FAMOUS BECOME MORE & MORE FAMOUS, THE OFTEN QUOTED GET MORE & MORE QUOTED... HONORS GO OVERPROPORTIONALLY TO THE ALREADY HONORED AND LEADERS STAY WHAT THEY ALREADY ARE: LEADERS.
  • 8. THIS MEANS THAT THOSE WHO ALREADY POSSESS ECONOMIC POWER AND SOCIAL CAPITAL WILL AUTOMATICALLY GAIN MORE POWER OR CAPITAL – JUST BY BEING LINKED AND LINKED AND LINKED...
  • 9. NO MATTER HOW GREAT NO MATTER HOW SEA Y OUR CONTENT IS, RCH ENGINE OPTIMISE PAGE IS, IF YOU DON’T H AVE INBOUND LINKS, YOD YOUR NEXT TO NOWHERE IN TH U’RE USUALLY BECAUSE A COMPETIT E GOOGLE SERPS – PRO OR HAS GOT IN THERE BABLY GENERATED SOME CO NTENT AND LINKS BEF FIRST AND SHAUN ANDERSON (HOB O) ORE YOU. WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/COOKIECROOK/2979038436 HTTP://WWW.HOBO-WEB.CO.UK/SEO-BLOG/INDEX.PHP/THE-PERFECT-LINK-STRATEGY-IN-SEO-MIX-IT-UP/
  • 10. HTTP://CHRISTOPHERBAKER.NET/PROJECTS/MYMAP/ KNOWING THIS, THE AIM OF A MODERN MARKETER SHOULD BE: GETTING LINKED (THE MORE THE BETTER). GETTING LINKED IS THE VERY SIMPLE CONCEPT OF HAVING OTHER WEB SITES LINK TO YOURS.
  • 11. BUT WHAT EXACTLY IS A LINK? IN COMPUTING, A HYPERLINK (OR LINK) IS A REFERENCE TO A DOCUMENT THAT THE READER CAN DIRECTLY FOLLOW, OR THAT IS FOLLOWED AUTOMATICALLY. A LINK HAS TWO ENDS, CALLED ANCHORS, AND A DIRECTION. THE LINK STARTS AT THE SOURCE ANCHOR AND POINTS TO THE DESTINATION ANCHOR. A LINK FROM ONE DOMAIN TO ANOTHER IS SAID TO BE OUTBOUND FROM ITS SOURCE ANCHOR AND INBOUND TO ITS TARGET. THE MOST COMMON DESTINATION ANCHOR IS A URL USED IN THE WORLD WIDE WEB. THIS CAN REFER TO A DOCUMENT, E.G. A WEBPAGE, OR OTHER RESOURCE, OR TO A POSITION IN A WEBPAGE. TIM BERNERS-LEE SAW THE POSSIBILITY OF USING HYPERLINKS TO LINK ANY UNIT OF INFORMATION TO ANY OTHER UNIT OF INFORMATION OVER THE INTERNET. HYPERLINKS WERE THEREFORE INTEGRAL TO THE CREATION OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB. FROM WIKIPEDIA, THE FREE ENCYCLOPEDIA WALLPAPER-S.ORG/12__SUPERMASSIVE_BLACK_HOLE.HTM
  • 12. GOOGLE INTERPRETS A LINK FROM PAGE A TO PAGE B AS A VOTE, BY PAGE A, FOR PAGE B. BUT, GOOGLE LOOKS AT MORE THAN THE SHEER VOLUME OF VOTES, OR LINKS A PAGE RECEIVES; IT ALSO ANALYZES THE PAGE THAT CASTS THE VOTE. VOTES CAST BY PAGES THAT ARE THEMSELVES "IMPORTANT" WEIGH MORE HEAVILY AND HELP TO MAKE OTHER PAGES "IMPORTANT". HTTP://WWW.GOOGLE.COM/CORPORATE/TECH.HTML
  • 13. LINKS ARE THE NEW CURRENCY. WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/PFALA/2402698820
  • 14. HTTP://WWW.NICKBILTON.COM/98/
  • 15. CH AR G SE ND HIN A A E R UG ANK AV GP LA R H S E E , U D AR AG NK YO EA U P RA . IF SPR ) YO OW GE NK LY 10 M L PA RA IVE (7- O LE N K? GE CT NK S FR OG R A PA FFE RA K GO H E E LIN E GE G HI HAT PAG OF SIT PA ITH E T H OT WN SE W R HIG L O ES CTURY LY A UR O) R EA AG RU VE AL YO OB P T I NC M S A QU SE N (H RO ION OM K. EREA RSO OU F T R N E KS IGA K F BA INC ND Y LIN AV LIN HE TO N A DO ET LY N T A T LP AU H OW ( !) GND GE Y TO HE . SH Y IE O A ILL LLY PL FR E T W W A M SI INE AG THE ES NTU Y OUENG AN LL PAG EVE M A WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/WDWBARBER/3055731457 HTTP://WWW.HOBO-WEB.CO.UK/SEO-BLOG/INDEX.PHP/THE-PERFECT-LINK-STRATEGY-IN-SEO-MIX-IT-UP/
  • 16. ALSO OUTBOUND LINKS ARE IMPORTANT AS PEOPLE CAN START TO SEE YOU AS A VALUABLE SOURCE OF INFORMATION. TWITTER, FACEBOOK, DIGG ETC. ARE ALL BASED ON PRESENTING LINKS TO LIKEMINDED PAGES. WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/30235101@N06/3745817628
  • 17. USING HYPERLINKS PROPERLY IS CRUCIAL, IF YOU WANT YOUR WEBSITE OR BLOG TO BE CONSIDERED IMPORTANT. THE CREATIVE USE OF HYPERLINKS CAN TURN YOUR WEBSITE OR BLOG FROM A FLAT, “JUST THE FACTS, MA’AM” BROCHURE-TYPE SITE, INTO A RICH, VIBRANT INFORMATIONAL PORT: A SITE THAT PEOPLE WILL WANT TO VISIT AGAIN AND AGAIN; A PLACE THEY WILL VISIT WHENEVER THEY WANT TO LEARN ABOUT THE LATEST, OR THE “LAST WORD,” IN YOUR AREA OF EXPERTISE. AND ONCE THEY CONSIDER YOUR WEBSITE A “GO-TO PLACE,” THEY’LL CONSIDER YOU TO BE “THE EXPERT.” JULIA SCHOPICK WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/LA_PETITE
  • 18. WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/SPAVAAI/2664627151 WHY IS THIS SO IMPORTANT? BECAUSE THE WEB BECOMES MORE AND MORE SOCIAL: A PLACE WHERE PEOPLE SPREAD AND SHARE INFORMATION. AND THE WAY THEY ARE DOING IT IS BY EXCHANGING LINKS.
  • 19. SOCIAL MEDIA IS A LINKING MACHINE. MARKETERS SHOULD HURRY UP UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL MEDIA AS THE FUTURE OF THEIR COMPANIES AND BRANDS. BECAUSE THEIR FUTURE IS DEPENDING ON BEING LINKED. TIM BERNERS LEE ON LINKED DATA AT TED: WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/PHOTONQUANTIQUE/3272712288
  • 20. IN THE NEAR FUTURE, LINKS BECOME PHYSICAL AND/OR EVEN MENTAL. SOCIAL MEDIA IS JUST AN EVOLUTION STEP OF THE INTERNET. THE FUTURE WEB WILL BE MIXED REALITY. SOURCE: WWW.TRENDONE.DE
  • 21. PICTURE: SCREENSHOT FROM MICROSOFT‘S VISION 2019 TVC A REALITY THAT WILL BE BUILT OF UNIMAGINABLE AMOUNTS OF DATA. DATA THAT IS LINKED AND INTERLINKED. AND THE MORE DATA IS LINKED TO A COMPANY OR BRAND, THE MORE SUCCESSFUL THIS COMPANY AND BRAND WILL BE.
  • 22. COMPANIES SHOULD NOT MISS TO PARTICIPATE AND SUCCEED IN THIS EVOLUTION STEP AS IT LAYS THE DATA BASIS FOR THE COMING WEBS SOURCE: WWW.TRENDONE.DE
  • 23. IT‘S A SIMPLE EQUATION: THE LINKS OF TODAY = THE SUCCESS OF TOMORROW
  • 24. BIGHUGELABS.COM/ONBLACK.PHP?ID=398032677 ATTRACTING LINKS WWW.AUGENSOUND.DE/DATA/PREVIEW/2/ANGLERFISCH_BIG.JPG
  • 25. ENTER & UNDERSTAND THE WEB 2.0 COMMUNICATION ECOSYSTEM! HTTP://WEBTREATS.MYSITEMYWAY.COM/BLACK-INK-GRUNGE-STAMP-TEXTURE-SOCIAL-MEDIA-ICONS/
  • 26. WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/15271532@N00/2551785843 EXPLORE INITIAL PLATFORMS THAT ARE RELEVANT FOR YOUR BUSINESS CONTEXT.
  • 27. CREATE TRUE VALUE ADD USEFUL CONTENT TO THESE PLATFORMS AND COMMUNITIES (OR LAUNCH YOUR OWN). PICTURE: SCREENSHOT FROM WEREALLFANS.COM
  • 28. IDENTIFY THE HUBS FOR YOUR COMMUNICATION CONTEXT. HTTP://DARMANO.TYPEPAD.COM/.A/6A00D8341BFA9853EF011570913ACD970C-500WI
  • 29. WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/KAICHANVONG/283209950 HTTP://WWW.KULISSENBLOG 6 TRY TO ATTRACT THE KEY-INFLUENCERS‘ AWARENESS FOR YOUR CONTENT
  • 30. IF YOUR CONTENT IS VALUABLE (AND WORTH THE EFFORT) THEY WILL SPREAD IT UNDER THEIR FOLLOWERS AND FANS. PICTURE: SCREENSHOT FROM TWITTERFOUNTAIN.COM
  • 31. ENJOY GETTING LINKED... WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/DEXTEROUSARTISAN/2776292807
  • 32. AND LINKED AND LINKED... WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/DEXTEROUSARTISAN/2802095056
  • 33. AND FINALLY, JOIN THE CONVERSATION THAT EVOLVES AROUND YOUR COMPANY OR BRAND WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/NICOATRIDGE/417979896
  • 34. "IDEAS AND PRODUCTS AND MESSAGES AND BEHAVIORS SPREAD LIKE VIRUSES DO." MALCOLM GLADWELL: THE TIPPING POINT LINKS FOLLOW THE SAME PRINCIPLE.
  • 35. THE THREE RULES OF EPIDEMICS ACCORDING TO MALCOLM GLADWELL THE STICKINESS FACTOR SAYS THAT MESSAGES MUST HAVE A CERTAIN CHARACTER WHICH CAUSES THEM TO REMAIN ACTIVE IN THE RECIPIENTS' MINDS. MOREOVER, THEY MUST BE DEEMED WORTHY OF BEING PASSED ON. THE POWER OF CONTEXT IS A RULE ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH A MESSAGE SPREADS. SMALL CHANGES IN THE CONTEXT OF A MESSAGE CAN DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT IT TIPS. THE LAW OF THE FEW DESCRIBES HOW MESSAGES ARE PASSED THROUGH WORD OF MOUTH. BASICALLY, THREE TYPES OF PEOPLE AFFECT THE RAPID SPREAD OF MESSAGES IN NETWORKS.
  • 36. THREE TYPES OF PEOPLE ARE NECESSARY TO START A LINKING EPIDEMIC. Connectors: Folks who know lots of people who occupy many niches and subcultures. Mavens: Collectors of information who want to be helpful, and use that information for others benefit Salesmen: People who are the great persuaders and push people off the ledge on ideas. SOURCE AND HELPFUL INTRODUCTION: WWW.LIVINGSTONBUZZ.COM/2009/03/23/INFLUENCERS-A-DISCUSSION-ABOUT-THE-LAW-OF-THE-FEW
  • 37. CREATE YOUR INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL MEDIA LINK-BUILDING STRATEGY SOURCE/CREDIT: ROSS DAWSON WWW.ROSSDAWSONBLOG.COM
  • 38. THANK YOU! Want to know more? Get in contact: torsten.hensel@nouve.de Copyright © nouvé All cognitions, documents and methods presented by nouvé in the foregoing concept will remain the agency‘s intellectual property. Utilisation of the presented ideas, texts, graphic designs, timetables, plannings, fotos, moving pictures and sound materials as well as other stored media associated with this concept is restricted to the realisation in conjunction with nouvé. All realisation and utilsation is only allowed on the basis of a contract and its fulfilling with the originators / rights owners. Rights of use will only be granted on the basis of this contract that will also regulate their extent regarding time, space, content, intention and manner of use. All realisation and utilisation (in whole or parts) deviant from this regulations as well as a propagation to third parties are a violation of copyright with all its legal consequences.