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Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
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Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK

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Intervención de Tim Green, Imperial College, en el marco de la jornada técnica Smartgrids - The making of en colaboración con IMDEA. …

Intervención de Tim Green, Imperial College, en el marco de la jornada técnica Smartgrids - The making of en colaboración con IMDEA.
3 de noviembre de 2010
http://www.eoi.es/portal/guest/eventos?EOI_id_evento=1296

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  • There are 10 offshore wind farms in operation in the UK - Total of 972MW installed capacity. Further 3.5GW being implemented in 2010/11. The majority of these wind farms are under 10 km to the nearest coast and in water depths of up to 20m.Successful bids for nine new offshore wind farm zone licences within UK waters have been announced early this year. Turbines in the nine zones could generate up to 32 gigawatts of power. The Dogger Bank zone is located off the east coast of Yorkshire between 125 and 195 kilometres offshore. It extends over approximately 8,660 km2. The water depth ranges from 18-63 metres.The Moray Firth Zone - Won by EDP Renovaveis and SeaEnergy Renewables. Potential yield: 1.3 gigawatts The Firth of Forth Zone - Won by SSE Renewables and Fluor. Potential yield: 3.5 gigawatts The Dogger Bank Zone - Won by SSE Renewables, RWE Npower Renewables, Statoil and Statkraft. Potential yield: 9 gigawatts The Hornsea Zone - Won by Mainstream Renewable Power and Siemens Project Ventures, and involving Hochtief Construction. Potential yield: 4 gigawatts The Norfolk Bank Zone - Won by Scottish Power Renewables and Vattenfall Vindkraft. Potential yield: 7.2 gigawatts The Hastings Zone - Won by E.On Climate and Renewables UK. Potential yield: 0.6 gigawatts The Isle of Wight Zone - Won by Eneco New Energy. Potential yield: 0.9 gigawatts The Bristol Channel Zone - Won by RWE Npower Renewables. Potential yield: 1.5 gigawatts The Irish Sea Zone - Won by Centrica Renewable Energy and involving RES Group. Potential yield: 4.2 gigawatts To date rule of thumb of €500m capex on offshore transmission for every 1000MW of offshore wind capacity (15-20% total capex)
  • The EWEA published ‘Oceans of Opportunity’ in September 2009. This sets out the EWEA’s target of 40GW of offshore wind in the EU by 2020 and 150GW by 2030.The key objectives of this report are to develop an offshore grid, which builds on the 11 offshore grids currently operating and 21 others being considered in the North and Baltic Seas. Some of the main issues to overcome include policy, supply chain and the development of HVDC VSC for multi-terminal operation.Link to document:http://ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/publications/reports/Offshore_Report_2009.pdf
  • 5000 cars/km2Another important point here is that local peaks may occur in the morning, so that a standard, location non-specific, ToU tariff that attempts to minimise evening peak will not be sufficient
  • Transcript

    • 1. Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
      Professor Tim Green
    • 2. UK Energy Future
      2020: 35% of energy demand to be supplied by renewable generation
      2030: Decarbonisation of electricity system ....
      .... while incorporating heat and transport sectors into electricity system
      A major change to generation mix and demand growth.
      Cessation of (non-abated) coal and gas and existing nuclear
      30% Wind; 30% New Nuclear; 30% New Carbon Capture Coal/Gas
      Demand growth and wind integration is technically feasible with a traditional network.
      The problem would be the cost of a “dumb” approach.
      So, what do we need to be “smart” about?
    • 3. Providing for the New Generation Patterns
      Energy v. Capacity
      Wind farms provide low carbon energy and displace fuel-burn from conventional coal and gas
      Most coal and gas stations are not closed because their capacity is needed occasionally to cover peak demand which coincides with times of no wind
      Utilisation of generation assets falls
      Transmission Constraints
      Wind is in the north, demand in the south
      Constraining-off wind (in north) and constraining-on coal (in south) is very expensive
      But, how is new transmission capacity best provided
    • 4. Can we afford “predict and provide”?
      Asset
      Utilisation
      Smart Grid= paradigm shift in providing flexibility: from redundancy in assets to more intelligent operation through incorporation of demand side and advanced network technologies in support of real time grid management
      55%
      Smart
      35%
      BaU
      25%
      2030
      2020
      2010
    • 5. Transmission System Issues
    • 6. Distribution System Issues
    • 7. Offshore Wind Farm Expansion in the UK
      1.25 GW capacity installed
      3.2 GW being added in 2010/11
      New offshore wind farm zones recently announce total about 32 GW
      Some new wind farms are 200 km from shore
      EHV AC cable connection has a difficult/expensive reactive power problem
      Connection will have to be DC
      Voltage source DC required to run wind turbines
    • 8. Smarter Transmission Infrastructure
      • Build more lines to N-1 security standard
      • 9. Improve damping and raise stability limit closer to thermal limit
      • 10. Build offshore HVDC
    • Use of Transmission Capacity
      Wind Farm
      1 GW
      Wind Farm
      1 GW
      Scotland
      Export 4 GW
      Transmission Capacity?
      • Full thermal capacity is 6.8 GW
      • 11. Capacity at N-1 is 5.1 GW
      • 12. Capacity at N-2 is 3.4 GW
      • 13. Stability Limit is 2.2 GW
      Four
      1.7 GW
      lines
      England
      Smart releases capacity and avoids reinforcement
      Import 4 GW
      Managed Load 1GW
      Load
      40 GW
      Reserve Gen 1 GW
    • 14. European Super Grid
      ‘Roadmap 2050’, published 2010, ECF
      Expanded network across Europe would have a variety of advantages:
      • Increased diversity of wind energy resource leading to regional balancing of energy generation
      • 15. Increased load diversity (lower peak to average ratio)
      • 16. Greater energy trading opportunities
      • 17. Increased security of supply
      • 18. Reduced dependency on fuel imports
      • 19. But this is a DC network on an unprecedented scale and complexity
      Nordic
      5GW
      3GW
      Benelux & Germany
      Poland & Baltic
      10GW
      UK & Ireland
      4GW
      2GW
      4GW
      19GW
      21GW
      France
      Central Europe
      10GW
      4GW
      South East Europe
      41GW
      3GW
      10GW
      Italy & Malta
      Iberia
    • 20. Increased Electric Demand in a Low-Carbon Future
      Traditional electrical demand may well (perhaps must) reduce but ..
      Two further demand sectors need to be met: heating and vehicles
      How does this demand affect
      Peak demand : average demand ratio
      Generation asset utilisation
      Loading on final LV distribution
    • 21. Electric Vehicles in Commercial District
      BaU
      SMART
      Significant correlation in arrivals to work i.e. significant peak load imposed by EV charging
      Significant opportunity to optimise charging as EVs will remain stationary for several hours (e.g. 8h)
    • 22. Generation asset utilisation with
      Smart demand management
      Value of demand response: almost 40GW less installed generation capacity required
    • 23. But is a flat demand profile the best answer?
      Annual Wind Power Variation
      Demand will need to respond to generation patterns through price or other signals
      Demand will also have to respond to local network constraints
      This may need to be resolved regionally
    • 24. Responding to frequency excursions
      Frequency (Hz)
      ?
      +
      =
      10s
      10 mins
      50. 0
      Frequency control
      49.2
    • 25. Anything to worry about?
      ...but the beer is getting warm!
      fridges are supporting the system
    • 26. Thoughts on Demand-Action Research
      • Utilising demand-side action is key to cost-effective integration of variable low-carbon generation and vehicle & heating demands
      • 27. Smart-Metering must be seen in this context
      • 28. Operational tools need to be developed
      • 29. Decentralised control structures and supporting communications needs to be developed
      • 30. Distribution management takes on new tasks
      • 31. Public need to believe this is necessary and in their interest; public acceptance is likely to be the key issue.
    • Active Network Management
      • Distributed generation actively managed
      • 32. Tap-changers optimised for local conditions
      • 33. Post-fault restoration reacts in real-time
      • 34. Energy storage used to mange congestion
      • 35. Control is devolved to substation regions
      • 36. Regional controllers report to control centre
      • 37. Some “peer-to-peer” functions might be needed
    • From Active to Smart Distribution
      • “Active” distribution system discussion has been over integrating distributed generation
      • 38. “Smart” distribution system discussion is around integrating active consumers.
      • 39. “Smart” distribution may introduce a more complex hierarchy in system control
      • 40. System balancing (of demand and supply) becomes local so that very large number of consumers can be reached and so that local congestion can be managed
    • Transmission System Issues
    • 41. Distribution System Issues
    • 42. Conclusion
      • We seem to be at the beginning of a fascinating phase of power system evolution

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