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Smart Grids. More efficient and reliable grids
 

Smart Grids. More efficient and reliable grids

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Intervención de Inés Romero, ABB, en el marco de la jornada técnica Smartgrids - The making of, en colaboración con IMDEA

Intervención de Inés Romero, ABB, en el marco de la jornada técnica Smartgrids - The making of, en colaboración con IMDEA
3 de noviembre de 2010

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    Smart Grids. More efficient and reliable grids Smart Grids. More efficient and reliable grids Presentation Transcript

    • 3rd November 2010, Madrid. Inés Romero Smart grids More efficient and reliable grids © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 1
    • Agenda Drivers and challenges How future electric systems must perform Smart grids and applications Worldwide on-going projects Conclusions © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 2
    • Today’s energy challenge – growing demand Electricity demand rising twice as fast China Europe and 105% 195% North America 11% 31% India M. East and South Africa America 126% 282% 56% 81% 73% 131% Growth in primary Growth in electricity IEA forecast energy demand demand 2006-30 © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 3
    • Major challenge: improving reliability # disturbance events in US Source: FERC 2008 In U.S. the annual cost of system disturbances is an estimated $80 billion* Commercial ($57 billion), industrial ($20 billion) and residential ($3 billion) sectors affected Most cost ($52 billion) due to short momentary interruptions * Berkley National Laboratory 2005 Poor reliability is a huge economic disadvantage © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 4
    • Two major ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources 45 550* 450* Annual emission of CO2 in Gigatons policy policy scenario scenario 40 9% Nuclear 14% Carbon capture and sequestration 35 23% Renewables Energy efficiency 30 54% 25 * ppm concentration in the atmosphere 20 Source 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 IEA 2008 Reference scenario 550 policy scenario 450 policy scenario Energy efficiency and renewable power generation could provide almost 80 percent of the targeted reduction © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 5
    • Major challenge: environmental concerns 10 Electricity plants Annual emission of CO2 in Gigatons Source: IPCC “Mitigation 9 of Climate Change”, Cambridge University 8 Press, 2007 7 6 Industry (excl. cement) 5 Road transport 4 Residential and service sector Deforestation 3 Others 2 Refineries etc 1 International transport 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 CO2 is responsible for 80 percent of all greenhouse gas effects More than 40 percent of CO2 is generated by traditional power plants Electric power generation is the largest single source CO2 emissions © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 6
    • Agenda Drivers and challenges How future electric systems must perform Smart grids and applications Worldwide on-going projects Conclusions © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 7
    • Smart grid value proposition Four main areas of emphasis Capacity for increasing demand Providing the backbone of the future electrical system Reliability of electricity supply Upgrades and new installations to meet the future challenges Efficiency along the value chain Actions to mitigate climate change Sustainability by integrating renewable Regulatory influence and customer behavior are critical © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 8
    • Economic build up of capacity Capacity Capacity Reliability Investment in global grid infrastructure is estimated to total $6 trillion by Efficiency 20301 Sustainability Present grids can be refurbished to operate at full capacity without compromising safety New installations must provide maximum flow of energy to any location in the grid In 2020 the fleet of electric cars could reach 40 million world wide, around 2 percent of the cars on the road by then1 The infrastructure for charging the vehicles has to be built Fast charging options cannot be provided by the current grid infrastructure The future electrical system must be used at its full capacity and must be able to cope with new challenges 1 Source: IEA © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 9
    • Electrical energy all the time, everywhere Reliability in Transmission systems Capacity Reliability Safe operation with minimum reserves is Efficiency the most economic way of operating PS Sustainability Systems must be designed for utmost reliability and maximum power quality Impact of unavoidable faults must be limited to local areas Immediate restoration of full performance is essential The European grid covers the whole continent The future electrical system must provide a completely reliable energy supply without interruptions © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 10
    • Electrical energy all the time, everywhere Reliability in Distribution systems Capacity Distribution grids are pending from a large Reliability Efficiency scale implementation of technologies to support Sustainability remote monitoring and control automated switching fast fault location Resulting in reduced outage time increased power quality improved maintenance Reliability of power distribution is of prime importance in future electrical systems © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 11
    • Power generation and grid coupling Efficiency Capacity Conversion efficiency of primary energy to Reliability Conversion efficiency electricity is steadily increasing Efficiency Sustainability Advanced process control adds to the overall traditional efficiency power plants Equipment and systems to couple generation to the grid are becoming more efficient Transformers An improvement of only 1% in efficiency can save AC-DC 100 million tons of CO2 (emission of 50 M cars1) solar plants converters Estimates allocate a double digit energy saving Substations potential in power generation2 wind farms 1 at 200g/km of CO2 emission and 10,000 km/year Process improvement 2 Graus: Energy policy 2007; Gielen: IEA 2007 distributed generation In future electric systems highly efficient power generation is mandatory © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 12
    • Saving potential in transmission and distribution Efficiency Capacity Losses of electrical energy in the grid can reach 6-10 % Reliability Efficiency Aging equipment with lower efficiency and thermal losses in conductors are Sustainability the main reasons Inefficient distribution transformers account for about 30 percent of losses Network losses in EU are an estimated 50 TWh, the annual consumption of 13 million households1 1Source: European Commission In future electrical systems losses must be reduced significantly © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 13
    • Integrating renewable power Bridging long distances (Sustainability) Capacity Reliability Large hydropower plants Efficiency offer the biggest contribution Sustainability to renewable energy over the next 20 years Several gigawatts of power must be transported over thousands of kilometers to the centers of consumption Technologies for economic and reliable transport are required The future electrical system must provide viable solutions © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 18
    • Integrating renewable power Intermittent power generation (Sustainability) Capacity Electricity from wind and solar Reliability Efficiency plants is intermittent Sustainability Spinning reserves between 5 and 18 percent of installed wind energy are required1 Plant interconnections and a wide range of storage technologies could reduce the need for reserves 1 Wind impact on power system, Bremen 2009 The future electrical system must be able to cope with these challenges © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 19
    • Agenda Drivers and challenges How future electric systems must perform Smart grids and applications Worldwide on-going projects Conclusions © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 22
    • Smart electricity – efficient power for a sustainable world A smart grid is the evolved system that manages the electricity demand in a sustainable, reliable and economic manner built on advanced infrastructure and tuned to facilitate the integration of behavior of all involved © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 23
    • The visionary smart grid Summing up the major requirements Capacity Upgrade/install capacity economically Provide additional infrastructure (e-cars) Reliability Stabilize the system and avoid outages Provide high quality power all the time Improve efficiency of power generation Efficiency Reduce losses in transport and consumption Connect renewable energy to the grid Sustainability Manage intermittent generation © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 24
    • Smart grids Focus of activities Focus area Activities Distribution grid automation • Network Management for distribution grids • Intelligent equipment • Distribution communication e-Mobility • EV charging infrastructure • Grid intelligence • On board and manufacturing segment • Storage services Demand response – • Home / building automation • Demand response applications Commercial and Domestic • Connectivity to grid Distributed generation • Residential / community renewables • Networked CHP and other generation integration • Micro and Personal grids • MV / LV DC grids Distributed storage • Building / community level storage. (<1MW) • Micro and Personal grids • V2G Bulk storage • Integration of large scale battery storage (>1MW) • Mitigation of renewable intermittency © ABB Group © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 25
    • Smart Cities Integration into the Smart Grid Storage of peak supply power in car batteries (future) Local distribution grid extensions Charging Battery switch stations: scheduling for •Storage residential areas •Power quality services Used car batteries Ultra-fast charging stations: as central storage •Storage capacity •Power quality services © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 27
    • Distribution Automation Integration of Power and Information Distribution Control Center Network management SCADA/DMS OMS with AMR/AMI connection Models sub-transmission and distribution (including medium- and low voltage) networks Workforce management Primary Substation Automation Protection Monitoring and control Automatic functions Information refinement MV/LV Network Automation (FA) Protection Monitoring and control Automatic functions Information refinement Home/Building Automation Smart metering (AMR/AMI) Smart home integration (demand response) © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | © ABB Group Slide 28 November 10, 2010 | Slide 28
    • Demand Response Addressing the temporary change in electricity consumption © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 29
    • Demand Response Peak Load reduction Use more efficient production Generally utilities run 10-20% of units their capacity less than 1-3% of Use less costly production units the time Use units with less emission Improved utilization of the grid capacity Spinning reserve within seconds addressed by emergency dispatch of demand response Balance power within 1-24 hours addressed by active consumers © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 30
    • Grid applications for energy storage SVC Light with Storage Grid connection of renewable generation Backup power Continuous reactive power support Eventual reactive power support Intermittent loads of a railway Emergency and short-time power Integration of electric vehicles Peak-load shaving Ancillary services © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 31
    • PV and Energy Storage interaction Residential application in a building 40-50 apartment As a vital part of an active building, energy storage primary has the following tasks: To provide load support during a few hours per 24 h. DC 25 EV’s To store excess energy produced AC locally (PV) when the grid or the local consumers for whatever reason can slow charging not use. appliances control automation To control and dynamically stabilize the voltage. Filter AC DC Battery To mitigate harmonics, unbalances Control and voltage dips and thereby provide a high power quality. LV © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 32
    • ABB understands the system behind the charging % " ' & "# ( % " ' % & ' ! ) # "# "# ' "# " # $ $ ! " % & $ $ ! ! % ! "# ' ! "# ( # ) © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 34
    • Agenda Drivers and challenges How future electric systems must perform Smart grids and applications Worldwide on-going projects Conclusions © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 37
    • Progress Update – CEU Smart Grid in Malta. First Smart Grid Island Partner: IBM, Enemalta Corporation, Water Services Corporation Malta Target: Building a Smarter Energy and Water Systems to deliver affordable and secure energy Challenges: Integrate Utilities Business systems conduct remote monitoring, meter reading and real-time management of the network based on IT Results: Active demand: Real-time monitoring and smart meters can deliver pricing based on time of day, enabling the utility to better manage energy consumption and customers to cut their electrical bills. Malta residents will also be able to track their energy use online and see how to curb consumption habits. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 38
    • Progress Update – NEU Stockholm City (Stockholm Royal Seaport) Customers – Stockholm Municipality and the utility FORTUM Showcase Urban Smart Grid will be part of and supporting a larger showcase for a Sustainable City concept Demonstrate climate positive strategies, setting a compelling environmental and economic example for cities to follow. Selected as one of 18 global projects supported by Clinton Climate Initiative Program for sustainable urban growth Scope and ABB deliverables Integration of Electrical Vehicles, Demand Response, Active House, integration of Local Decentralized Renewable Production, Energy Storage, Substation Automation ,Ship to Shore and an Innovation Center. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 39
    • Agenda Drivers and challenges How future electric systems must perform Smart grids and applications Worldwide on-going projects Conclusions © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 47
    • Smart grids will contribute significantly to mitigating climate change Today With smart grids <13% variable renewables >30% variable renewables penetration penetration 5% demand response systems 15% demand response >1% consumer generation systems used on the grid 10% consumer generation used 47% generation asset on the grid utilization 90% generation asset utilization 50% transmission asset 80% transmission asset utilization utilization 30% distribution asset 80% distribution asset utilization utilization Source: DOE and NETL © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 48
    • We all have a part to play Everyone must reconsider their own individual energy consumption Politicians must set up incentives to save energy and commit to global CO2 reductions Energy markets and all stakeholders must actively participate in efforts to reduce consumption and optimize efficiency © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 49
    • © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 50