Electrification of Mobility_Finland Lassila
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Electrification of Mobility_Finland Lassila

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El 20 de noviembre se celebró en EOI la jornada "Electrificación del transporte y red eléctrica / Electrification of mobility and the electrical network":...

El 20 de noviembre se celebró en EOI la jornada "Electrificación del transporte y red eléctrica / Electrification of mobility and the electrical network":

Esta es la ponencia de uno de los reconocidos expertos europeos que analizaron en esta jornada el impacto de la electrificación del transporte en la red eléctrica, tanto en sistemas de distribución centralizada como en los emergentes sistemas distribuidos e inteligentes.

www.eoi.es

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    Electrification of Mobility_Finland Lassila Electrification of Mobility_Finland Lassila Presentation Transcript

    • LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Electric Cars – Challenge or Opportunity for the Electricity Distribution Infrastructure? Jukka Lassila Tero Kaipia, Juha Haakana and Jarmo Partanen Lappeenranta University of Technology • Energy Technology ELECTRIFICATION OF MOBILITY • Electrical Engineering AND THE ELECTRICAL NETWORK • Environmental Engineering 1 Madrid, Spain November 20th, 2009
    • LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Target of the studies • Define method to analyse network effects of electric vehicles • Make network analysis using actual distribution network data and load flows (city area and rural area feeders) • Define best and worst scenarios and define needed network reinforcements • Define network effects to the distribution fees paid by the end-customers • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 2
    • LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Input Parameters on Electric Car Network Simulation National passenger transport survey National passenger transport survey Area-specific Area-specific -- Spatial and temporal variations in passenger trips additional additional Spatial and temporal variations in passenger trips Charging profile -- Length of daily trips energy energy Length of daily trips -- Annual length of driving (region dependent) Annual length of driving (region dependent) __ kWh/day __ kWh/day Power -- Length of daily trips according to housing type Length of daily trips according to housing type (working hours/ (working hours/ -- Length of daily trips according to residential area Length of daily trips according to residential area leisure time) leisure time) Hours -- Length of daily trips according to the month of year Length of daily trips according to the month of year -- Length of trips according to the time of day Length of trips according to the time of day -- Number of cars in households Number of cars in households Properties of electric cars Properties of electric cars Network simulations and analysis results Network simulations and analysis results -- Energy consumption, kWh/km Energy consumption, kWh/km -- Load flow and loss calculations Load flow and loss calculations -- Capacity of the batteries, kWh Capacity of the batteries, kWh -- Estimation of reinforcements required Estimation of reinforcements required -- Charging power, kW Charging power, kW -- Required charging time, h/day (battery properties) Required charging time, h/day (battery properties) Town planning statistics Town planning statistics -- Workplaces according to the area and time of day Workplaces according to the area and time of day -- Residential areas (detached houses, terraced houses, Residential areas (detached houses, terraced houses, apartment houses) apartment houses) Electricity distribution network Electricity distribution network MARTINKYLÄ -- Network topology and customer information Network topology and customer information Penetration of electric cars Penetration of electric cars -- Feeder and hourly-specific actual load curves MASSBY Feeder and hourly-specific actual load curves KALLBÄCK LANDBO -- Development of electric car markets Development of electric car markets -- Network volume Network volume 8 7 -- Replacement value Replacement value 6 5 Power [MW] Tariffs and supplier Tariffs and supplier -- Parameters: loss costs, load growth, lifetime, Parameters: loss costs, load growth, lifetime, 4 3 unit price of network components unit price of network components 2 -- Distribution fee Distribution fee 1 0 0:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 Thursday (hours) • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 3
    • Case Network LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Whole distribution company - 110/20 kV primary substations: 4 Winter Winter - 20 kV feeders: 22 - Habitants/end-customers: 19 470 / 11 000 - Workplaces: 5 333 - Houses: 7 932 (5992 detached houses, 525 terraced houses, 1287 apartment Summer houses, 128 others) Summer MARTINKYLÄ - 20/0.4 kV distribution substations: 470 - Peak load: 50 MW 1. - Annual energy: 200 GWh - 20 kV lines and cables: 433 km - 20 kV underground cabling rate: 16 % 2. 20 kV feeder 1. (densely populated area) 20 kV feeder 2. (rural area) - Peak load: 8 MW - Peak load: 2 MW - Annual energy: 36 GWh - Annual energy: 6 GWh - Residential 58 %, industry 22 %, - Residential 95 %, agriculture 2 %, public 13 % and service 7 % industry 3 % MASSBY - Habitants/end-customers: 4171 / 2278 - Habitants/end-customers: 1037 / 444 KALLBÄCK - Workplaces: 1 577 - Workplaces: 84 - Houses: 1 840 (659 detached houses, 266 - Houses: 372 (all detached houses) LANDBO terraced houses, 888 apartment houses) - 20/0.4 kV distribution substations: 27 - 20/0.4 kV distribution substations: 39 - 20 kV lines and cables: 31 km - 20 kV lines and cables: 21 km - 20 kV underground cabling rate: 6 % - 20 kV underground cabling rate: 33 % • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 4
    • Case Network - Load curve LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 5
    • Electric Vehicles - Properties LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY • Needed energy: 0.1 – 0.2 kWh/km • Capasity: 30 kWh/car • Charging power: 3.6 kW/car (Charging power max 3.6 kW = 230 V x 16 A) Photo presents car pre-heating pole used widely in Finland and Nordic countries. • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 6
    • Case area LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY • Habitants: 19 470 • Electricity end-customers: 11 000 • Workplaces: 5 333 • Houses: 7 932 – 5992 detached, 525 terraced, 1287 apartment, 128 others) MARTINKYLÄ • Personal cars: 11 000 • Travelling distances: 20 900 km/car,a = 57 km/car,day • Needed charging energy: 11.5 kWh/car,day 46 GWh/a (all cars) MASSBY KALLBÄCK LANDBO • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 7
    • Case Network – Electric car LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY charging profiles Direct night-time charging Split-level night-time charging 0:00 9:00 16:00 22:00 0:00 9:00 16:00 22:00 Working-hour and Optimised charging time-off charging 0:00 9:00 16:00 22:00 0:00 9:00 16:00 22:00 The same amount of Transmission capacity in the network? charging energy in Losses and loss costs? each profile! • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 8
    • Case Network - Losses LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 400 Losses in medium voltage network 350 Direct night-time charging Working-hour and 300 time-off charging Split-level Load losses [kW] 250 night-time charging 200 150 100 Optimised charging 50 Present losses 0 0:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 9
    • Case Network - Losses LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 200 180 160 Cost of losses [€/day] 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Present losses Direct night- Split-level night- Working-hour Optimised time charging time charging and time-off charging charging No remarkable differences in charging profiles from loss costs point of view in medium voltage network! • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 10
    • LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Case Network – Feeder 1 (city area) 10 10 9 9 Feeder load with 8 8 electric cars City area feeder: 7 7 - Peak load of the day: 6.6 MW 6 E E 6 - Minimum load of the day: 4.0 MW 5 5 4 4 3 Present load Peak power [MW] 3 - Number of electric cars: 2000 2 2 Direct night-time charging 1 Split-level night-time charging - Driving distance: 57 km/car,day 1 0 0 - Energy consumption: 0.2 kWh/km 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 - Charging energy: 11.5 kWh/car,day 22.9 MWh/day for all cars 10 10 9 9 8 8 - Charging power: 3.6 kW/car 7 7 - Additional power: 0 – 3.5 MW 6 6 5 5 (depending on charging method) 4 4 3 3 Working-hour and - Charging energy (E) is equal in each 2 2 time-off charging Optimised charging charging alternative 1 1 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 11
    • LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Case Network – Feeder 2 (rural area) 4.0 4.0 3.5 3.5 Rural area feeder: 3.0 3.0 - Peak load of the day: 1.25 MW Direct night-time charging Split-level night-time charging 2.5 2.5 - Minimum load of the day: 0.75 MW 2.0 2.0 Peak power [MW] 1.5 1.5 - Number of electric cars: 750 1.0 1.0 - Driving distance: 57 km/car,day 0.5 0.5 - Energy consumption: 0.2 kWh/km 0.0 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 - Charging energy: 11.5 kWh/car,day 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 8.6 MWh/day for all cars 4.0 4.0 3.5 3.5 Working-hour and - Charging power: 3.6 kW/car 3.0 3.0 time-off charging Optimised charging - Additional power: 0 – 1.75 MW 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 (depending on charging method) 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 Charging energy is equal in each 0.5 0.5 charging alternative 0.0 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 12
    • LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Case Network – Whole company 60 60 Direct night-time charging Split-level night-time charging 50 50 40 40 Whole company: - Peak load of the day: 36 MW 30 30 - Minimum load of the day: 25 MW 20 20 Peak power [MW] 10 10 - Number of electric cars: 11 000 0 0 - Driving distance: 57 km/car,day 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 - Energy consumption: 0.2 kWh/km 60 - Charging energy: 11.5 kWh/car,day 60 Working-hour and Optimised charging 126 MWh/day for all cars 50 50 time-off charging 40 40 - Charging power: 3.6 kW/car 30 30 - Additional power: 0 – 24 MW 20 20 (depending on charging method) 10 10 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Using intelligent charging system (Optimised charging) charging can be adjusted fully into low-load moments • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 13
    • LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Case Network – Reinforcement costs - Network value compared with the peak load in - low-voltage networks 320 €/kW - medium-voltage network 300 €/kW - primary substation level (110/20 kV) 100 €/kW An example of defining required reinforcement investments on the medium voltage feeder 20 kV feeder 1. (densely populated area) -Peak load of the day: 6.6 MW -Additional power: + 3.0 MW - Average marginal cost: 300 €/kW Estimated need for reinforcement: 300 €/kW x 3000 kW = 900 000 € Using intelligent charging system (Optimised charging) charging can be adjusted fully into low-load moments • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 14
    • LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Case Network – Reinforcement costs - Replacement value: 50 M€ ( 2.9 M€/a calculated by p = 5 % and t = 40 a) - Annual present delivered energy: 200 GWh/a Network value per delivered energy 1.46 cent/kWh - Estimated additional annual charging energy required by electric cars: + 46 GWh/a ( 11 000 cars, 20 900 km/car,a and 0.2 kWh/km,car) - Depending on charging method, estimation of the required investments in a new transformer and transmission capacity in the whole distribution network is 0 – 20 M€ (0 – 1 060 k€/a). New distribution fee: 1.18 – 1.66 cent/kWh after the network reinforcements • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 15
    • Conclusions (1/3) LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 1. Description of the overall methodology; what background information is required and how it is used to determine the need for electric car charging energy and power and to analyse the network effects. 2. Charging mode has a significant impact on the peak load level on the feeder. Without any intelligence included in the system, charging of electric cars may increase the peak power even three times higher compared with the present load level on the medium-voltage feeder. With an intelligent charging system, charging can be adjusted to a low-load moment, thereby avoiding overlapping of the existing peak load and the additional charging load. This may reduce the distribution fees of the electricity end- users, because more energy is delivered through the same system without a need for reinforcement investments. This is possible especially on feeders where the load varies considerably. • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 16
    • Conclusions (2/3) LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 3. It is possible to cut the transmission/distribution fees charged to electricity end-users during the large-scale adoption of electric cars, if the charging system is well-planned and enough intelligence is included in it. And opposite situation with charging system without intelligent control. 4. Load variations of medium-voltage feeders have to be taken into account in the analyses. The charging mode used on the city area feeder does not provide the desired end result on the rural area feeder. An intelligent charging system has to be able to take into account to which feeder each electric car is connected and where it is charged. • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 17
    • Conclusions (3/3) LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 5. Biggest challenges in low-voltage networks. In the worst case the triple extra capacity has to be invested (home, work, cottage). However in Finland we have a lot of experience of transposition of loads (sauna oven, electric space heating, water heaters, block heaters). Jukka Lassila Lappeenranta University of Technology jukka.lassila@lut.fi +358 50 537 3636 • Energy Technology • Electrical Engineering • Environmental Engineering 18