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Electrification of Mobility_A.Jossen, J. Garche, W. Tillmetz, L. Jorissen

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El 20 de noviembre se celebró en EOI la jornada "Electrificación del transporte y red eléctrica / Electrification of mobility and the electrical network": …

El 20 de noviembre se celebró en EOI la jornada "Electrificación del transporte y red eléctrica / Electrification of mobility and the electrical network":

Esta es la ponencia de uno de los reconocidos expertos europeos que analizaron en esta jornada el impacto de la electrificación del transporte en la red eléctrica, tanto en sistemas de distribución centralizada como en los emergentes sistemas distribuidos e inteligentes.

www.eoi.es

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  • 1. Electrification of Mobility and the Electrical Network November 20th 2009, Madrid Storage Technologies for Smart Mobility A. Jossen, J. Garche, W. Tillmetz, L. Jörissen Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW) Baden-Württemberg
  • 2. Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung • Energy Research & Development in close contact with industry • Photovoltaics – Thin-Film- technologies, Solar Test Site • Renewable Fuels • System Analysis & Consulting • Fuel Cell: Technology, Systems test Center • Batteries & Super Capacitors – Solar Test Feld Materials, Systems, Test, Safety Widderstall Photovoltaics & Renewable Electrochemical Energy Fuels Stuttgart Technologies, Ulm -1-
  • 3. Overview Electricity generation and distribution Concepts of electrochemical energy storage systems What secondary batteries are available Summary -2-
  • 4. Electricity Generation and Distribution Today Tomorrow Centralized Distributed Generation Transmission Distribution Consumption -3- Source: EWE
  • 5. Use of Renewable, Distributed Electricity Generation Stand-Alone-Systems Solar powered water pumps Solar Home Systems Electricity supply for remote villages Storage Systems Hybrid systems required Electric vehicles ...... Grid Coupled Systems increasing amount of (distributed) decentralized electricity generation Consequences: New Grid structures Storage Use of decentralized energy storage systems Systems Use of energy management systems desired -4-
  • 6. Power Range of Electricity Storage Technologies -5- From: http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file15189.pdf
  • 7. Challenges in Smart Mobility Mobility is highly emotional Normally vehicles are too fast and too big for the actual demand The majority of all driving distances is below 20 km Less than 10% of the vehicle fleet is moving Opportunities New mobility concepts New services involving he “non moving fleet” Non polluting mobility Electro-mobility Electricity storage On board electricity generation (ICE, fuel cell) -6-
  • 8. Electro-Mobility more than 100 years ago Ferdinand Porsche developed an all electric vehicle (Lohner-Porsche Elektrowagen). - considered as a sensation during the 1900 EXPO in Paris A few years later: AEG started series manufacturing of electric vehicles in Berlin. Abundant supply of mineral oil combined with ist high energy density in combination with the establishment of highways brought an end to elcoro-mobility -7-
  • 9. Thomas Edinson – 1883 (a warning before we dig into the details) The storage battery is, in my opinion, a catchpenny, a sensation, a mechanism for swindling the public by stock companies. The storage battery is one of those peculiar things which appeals to the imagination, and no more perfect thing could be desired by stock swindlers than that very selfsame thing .... Just as soon as a man gets working on the secondary battery it brings out his latent capacity for lying .... Scientifically, storage is all right, but, commercially, as absolute a failure as one can imagine. -8-
  • 10. The Most Important Properties of Secondary Batteries For more than 100 years, batteries of different chemistries are a high volume commercial product used in a plentitude of applications. For some applications, secondary batteries need to be highly specialized and optimized: Consumer applications low cost ( < 5ct/Wh => primary batteries + lead-acid) Automotive high power (up to 2.000W/kg) Portable (mobile phone ...) high spec. Energy (up to 200 Wh/kg) high energy density (up to 450 Wh/l) Emergency power high lifetime ( > 15 years) full power available instantaneously All applications No / little balance of plant (except Redox-Flow) low / no noise, no emission operation little heat release during operation high round trip efficiency (70 – 95%) electrically rechargeable (existing infrastructure) -9-
  • 11. Electro-Mobility in the future (back of the envelope calculation) Let‘s assume: Hydrogen Small and efficient vehicles using Mass including tank, excluding FC- 8 kWh traction energy / 100 km System (maximum). Just compressed fuel volume This generates the following storage demand considered, tank volume an FC- Battery 10 kWh/100 km System volume are neglected Hydrogen 20 kWh/100 km Gasoline Gasoline 40 kWh/100 km Just mass of fuel considered Corresponding to weight demand Just volume of fuel considered Battery (120 Wh/kg) 83 kg/100 km Hydrogen (10 wt %) 6,0 kg/100 km Hydrogen (5 wt%) 12 kg/100 km Gasoline 3,3 kg/100 km Volume demand Battery (300 Wh/l) 33 l Hydrogen (700 bar) 10.5 l Gasoline 4.5 l ~ 95 g CO2/km - 10 -
  • 12. Electro-mobility and Renewable Energies Land use for renewable fuels necessary to operate a vehicle for 12.000 km per year 5000 m2 for Biodiesel with ICE 1000 m2 for Hydrogen from biomass coupled with fuel cell drive train 500 m2 for hydrogen from wind energy coupled with fuel cell drive train. (Land can still be used for agricultural purposes.) 20 m2 for PV-electricity coupled with battery electric vehicle - 11 -
  • 13. Fuel for Electric Mobility (Hydrogen) Technical Potential for the Generation of renewable electricity within the EU 20000 PV2) Solar thermal Power Plants 18000 Ocean energy [PJ/yr] Inland shipping Geothermal 2) 16000 Rail Aviation Road traffic Wind onshore 2) 14000 Wind offshore 2) 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 Quelle: LBST 0 Use of fuels min max min max 1) From: IEA-Statistik 2001-2002 (transportation 2002) 1) Hydropower 2) CGH2 LH2 2) Still available within EU - 12 -
  • 14. Electrochemical Energy Storage Concepts Electrical energy Chemical energy Electrical energy EE EE CE Converter: electrical Converter: electrical into chemical energy Chemical into chemical energy storage unit Battery charge Battery discharge Accumulator, secondary battery Primary battery Electrolyzer Fuel cell - 13 -
  • 15. Elektrochemical Energy Storage Options Internal Chemical Energy Storage Classical secondary batteries Lead-Acid Nickel Metal Hydride, (NiCd, NiZn) High temperature secondary batteries Sodium-sulfur Sodium-Nickel chloride (ZEBRA) Li-batteries Super Capacitors External Chemical Energy Storage Redox Flow Systems Fuel Cell Systems - 14 -
  • 16. Gravimetric specific energy / Wh/kg Fuel Energy Density Liquid Fuel Gaseous Fuel Batteries Volumetric Energy Density / Wh/l Quelle: Toyota - 15 -
  • 17. Theoretical Specific Energy of Theoretical specific Energy / Wh/kg Different Systems of Practical Interest H2/O (33 kWh/kg) bei Verwendung des Luftsauerstoffs 10000 th. spezifische Energiein Wh/kg H2/O (3660 Wh/kg) bei Speicherung von Wasserstoff und Sauerstoff Li/S (2500 Wh/kg) Zn/O (1350 Wh/kg) Li/MnO2 (100Wh/kg) 1000 Ni/H (434 Wh/kg) NiZn (372 Wh/kg) Li-Ion (400-500 Wh/kg) NiMH (240 Wh/kg) Pb/PbO2 (161 Wh/kg) NiCd (211 Wh/kg) 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 Cell Voltage V V Zellspannung in / - 16 -
  • 18. Requirements for Battery Storage Systems Safety Power Battery Lifetime Energy Cost New materials and new concepts desired - 17 -
  • 19. The Three Most Important Secondary Battery Technologies (electrically rechargeable) Lead Acid + Price + Safety - spec. Energy Alkaline Systeme: Lithium Systems: NiCd, NiMH Li-Ion, Li-Metal .. o Price + spec. Energy o Safety - Price, Safety o spec. Energy - 18 -
  • 20. Ragone Diagramm for electrochemical Storage Systems discharge time: 10h 1h 6 min 1000 High temp. batteries Li-Ion 0.6 min Fe-air 100 specific energy Wh/kg Redox-flow 10 Ni-MeH Lead-acid DLC 1 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 specific power / W/kg - 19 -
  • 21. Lead-Acid Batteries Quelle: Hoppecke - 20 -
  • 22. Lead-Acid Batteries Spirally wound cells for Applications requiring high current Typical Battery for stationary Applications Stopper Quelle: Exide Connectors (Poles) Electrolyte Separator Neg. Plate Rholab Zelle (pasted grid) Pos. Plate (tubular plate) Space for Debris - 21 -
  • 23. Advances in Lead Acid Batteries Monopolar Configuration - + - + Recent development of bipolar batteries - e - e Cell separator (non conducting) Pathway of electrond in monopolar Batteries Bipolar Configuration - + From: Effpower + - e- e- Cell separator (bipolar plate) (electronically conducting) Pathway of electrons in bipolar Batteries - 22 -
  • 24. Lead-Acid-Batteries „The Workhorse“ also for stationary Use - 23 -
  • 25. Summary Lead Acid Batteries Most important battery technology at the present time Total market share approximately 50% Main applications: Automotive (SLI), Stationary, Industrial Manufacturing capacity available worldwide Advantages Inexpensive, safe, longtime experience Disadvantages Lifetime, limited potential, environment, specific energy Current development goals Bipolar systems, carbon additives to enhance stability at partial charge There are efforts to use lead acid batteries in hybrid vehicles (e.g. Rholab project) - 24 -
  • 26. Alkaline Batteries Quelle: Saft - 25 -
  • 27. Alkaline Batteries Several Combinations are possible Negative Elektrode Negative Electrode Positive Elektrode Positive Electrode UN,- UN,+ -1,25 Zn MnO2 +0,26 -1,03 Fe O2 (Luft) +0,40 -0,83 MH, H2 NiOOH +0,48 -0,81 Cd Ag2O2 +0,61 Most important systems today: NiMH, NiCd possibly NiZn increasing interest in metal-Air (Zn-Air) - 26 -
  • 28. NiMH-Battery: Standard for HEV Module Development (PEVE) New Prismatic 1 Prismatic 2 Cylindrical 3 Voltage 7.2 V 7.2 V 7.2 V Capacity 6.5 Ah 6.5 Ah 6.5 Ah Weight 1040 g 1050 g 1090 g Specific Power 1250 W / kg 880 W / kg 550 W / kg 285mm(L) 275mm(L) 35mm(f ) 35mm(f Dimension 19.6mm(W) 19.6mm(W) 384mm(L) 114mm(H) 106mm(H) 1 New Prius Current Prius- battery Battery 2 3 - 27 -
  • 29. Large Scale Ni-Cd-Battery Largest stationary Ni-Cd battery system Golden Valley Electric‘s Battery Energy Storage System (Alaska) 27 MW for 15 Minutes 13760 Ni-Cd Cells (Saft) Cost 35 Mio $ Operational since Aug. 2003 - 28 -
  • 30. Vehicles today use NiMH - HEV – EV – SLI - HEV: Toyota Prius II Battery 1. Gen. Technology: NiMH (Panasonic) Energy: ca, 1.6 kWh Power: > 20 kW Warranty: 160 Tkm / 8 years Battery 2. Gen. - 29 -
  • 31. Cost Problem Nickel Ni-MH battery electrode composition: 5 - 10 kg/kWh Ni requirement depending on the application. Current cost approx. 10 $/kg, Peak cost (2007) approx. 50 $/kg Critical for high energy storage facilities in the long run - 30 -
  • 32. Summary Alkaline Batteries Currently Ni-MH is the standard technology for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) Large systems of alkaline batteries (Ni-Cd; Ni-MH) have been built Main applications: HEV, industrial traction, aircraft, railways Only a few manufacturers are available: (Saft, Hawker, Hoppecke, Panasonic …) Advantages: High cycle life, high specific power (Ni-Cd; Ni-MH) Disadvantages: Cost, limited development potential Current development goals Bipolar systems, improved metal hydrides Alkaline systems are more and more replaced by Li-ion systems. - 31 -
  • 33. Lithium Batteries - 32 -
  • 34. Lithium Eigenschaften Li-Battery Systems relat. Atommasse: 6,941 Ordnungszahl: 3 Schmelzpunkt: 180,54 °C Siedepunkt: 1342 °C Oxidationszahl: Dichte: 1 0,534 g/cm³ Li-Systems Härte (Mohs): 0,6 Systems with Systems without Distinction metallic Lithium: metallic Lithium: Anode material Li-Metal Lithium-Ion Liquid Polymer Liquid Polymer Distinction Electrolyte: Electrolyte: Electrolyte: Electrolyte: Electrolyte Li-Metal- Li-Metal- Li-Ion- Li-Ion- liquid Polymer liquid Polymer button cells Little activity only Kanada: AVESTOR Cells for electronic devices + Power Tools available Fr: Bollore EV and HEV available as prototypes JP: ... - 33 -
  • 35. Varieties of Li-Ion Battery Systems Many options: 5 5 LiCoO2 Few systems on the 4 4 4-V Systems market, Voltage vs. Lithium metal / V LiMn2O4 high potential, LiNiO2 Positive high risk, LiFePO4 3 3 3-V Systems continuing development MnO2 2 2 LixV3O8 Li4Ti5O12 1 Amorphous 1 carbon Li-metal Negative 0 0 Graphite LiSi - 34 -
  • 36. Large Development Efforts Worldwide for Cathode Materials Potential vs. Li/Li+ 5V 5V LiM n 1.5 (C o,Fe, C r) 0,5 O 4 Potential cathode materials LiC oP O 4 Li2 M nO 3 /1-xM O 2 LiN i 1/2 M n 1 /2 O 2 for Li-Ion Batteries LiM n 1.5 N i 0.5 O 4 LiC o 1/3 N i 1/3 M n 1 /3 O 2 LiM nP O 4 4V LiM n 2 O 4 LiC oO Li(N i,C o)O 2 2 LiFeP O 4 D oped M nO 2 3V M nO 2 – V 2 O 5 150 200 250 300 Capacity [Ah/kg] The cathode material is domination cost, safety, and specific energy. Other components such as anode material, separator, and electrolytes also are requiring further attention as well as R&D capacity - 35 -
  • 37. Different Cell Concepts Prismatic ZCells Cylindrical Cells Pouch-Cells (Coffee-Bag) Different design principles are preferred by different manufacturers. No final agreement on the most promising design has been found so far. - 36 -
  • 38. GAIA (LTC) – LiFePO4 – HEV Batteries Tomorrows Electric Vehicle? HP 35Ah cells for plug-in HEV 200V, 35Ah battery (7kWh) for a plug-in HEV was demonstrated (electric range of about 50 km) Possibility for grid coupling(charge and discharge) - 37 -
  • 39. System Concepts Altairnano Battery of the Daimler S400 Blue Hybrid 50 Ah Battery module From: Daimler AG 2 MW / 0.5 MWh Battery system Indianapolis Power & Light - 38 -
  • 40. Battery Safety IS an Issue - 39 -
  • 41. Summary Lithium Batteries Lithium Batteries are showing large values of specific energy on a cell level up to 200 Wh/kg. Li-Ion Cells are produced for the electronics market in large quantities The market currently is dominated by Japanese, Chinese, and Korean suppliers, Europeans are gradually catching up. Lithium batteries have a large potential for further improvement. 90% of current battery research is done in the field of Li-batteries. Upscaling to large stationary or vehicle traction systems is difficult. Further R&D- work is required! Cost reduction (new materials, manufacturing technologies) Improvement of product safety Improvement of lifetime (including calendar life) Current R&D-programs are essential for fast capacity building in R&D and subsequently production. - 40 -
  • 42. Li-Ion-Batteries: New Applications >> Significant Challenges Specific energy ? new Safety ? > 200 Wh/kg Consumer battery: < 90 Wh Materials Hybrid electric vehicle: 1-2 kWh & Plug-In HEV: 6 – 10 kWh Cost ? Battery electric vehicle: > 20 kWh < 500 €/kWh Concepts required Operating conditions ? - 30°C bis +50°C, Fast charge, Vibration, Shock, Crash Life time ? calendar >10 years Ressources ? > 300 000 Cycles Qualified Personnel, Budget, raw materials - 41 -
  • 43. High Temperature Batteries - 42 -
  • 44. High Temperature Batteries Two technologies are showing an advanced state of development Zebra Battery NaS Battery NGK (JP) Mes-Dea (CH) Focus: stationary Focus: Traction in City busses Systems - 43 -
  • 45. HT Battery systems are requiring significant auxiliary effort - 44 -
  • 46. Summary HT-Batteries Thermal losses upon low power cycling are a disadvantage Thermal cycling is critical and might cause rupturing of ceramic electrolyte Only two manufacturers worldwide, pursuing different technologies Na-S know-how completely in Japan (ABB backed out in 1995) Specific energy of 100 Wh/kg and energy density of 250 W/kg achieved on a system level Cycle life of more than 1000 cycles at a calendar life > 10 years is possible. Attractive cost in mass manufacturing. - 45 -
  • 47. Summary Battery Storage There is no „universal battery“ each technology has ist own strength and weaknesses The application is determining the favorite technology Hybrid vehicles Alkaline batteries, Li-ion batteries, (lead-acid batteries) Battery electric vehicles Alkaline batteries, Li-ion batteries, high temperature batteries, (lead acid batteries) Stationary systems All technologies presented, in addition: flow batteries R&D work is concentrating on Li-batteries Major development progress is expected within the next 5 years in Li-ion batteries - 46 -
  • 48. The Lossy Way of Electrons in a Hydrogen Economy 100 kWh 85 kWh 100 kWh 25 kWh But hydrogen is also available from different (chemical) sources - 47 -
  • 49. Fuel Cell Powered Electric Vehicles Efficient, emission free mobility • Several hundreds of vehicles in daily use • Gradual expansion of current demo fleets. • R&D to achieve cost reduction • Implementation of a supply chain - 48 -
  • 50. Challenges in Electro-Mobility Range of battery electric vehicles will be limited Fuel cell vehicles Hybridization with ICE (not a zero emission option) Rapid electric refueling Electric charging stations 2.7 kW from home socket (10 h to full charge) 10 kW from home fast charger (~2.5 h to full charge) High power Electric filling stations vs. battery charge acceptance New potential services Stationary batteries to assist fast charging Vehicle to grid applications Public battery charging infrastructure Business model Initially cheaper than hydrogen filling stations, but more expensive at full market penetration - 49 -
  • 51. Summary Development of batteries is driven by applications Consumer electronics => Li-Ion Hybrid Electric Vehicles => NiMH (today) and Li-Ion (in the future) Stationary storage systems are dominated by lead-acid Inexpensive, Comparatively safe, Well known Li-Ion is the choice for vehicle traction and can become a substitute in stationary High round trip efficiency, high cycle life, but Safety will be a prominent issue in large systems Redox-flow is a long term option Separation of power and energy Hydrogen fuel cells are hampered by insufficient round trip efficiency and high cost But they are interesting with respect to fuel storage, safety and environmental issues - 50 -
  • 52. Thank You Very Much for Your Kind Attention Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung www.zsw-bw.de Applied Reseach for Sustainable Energy Technologies Batteries – Fuel Cells – Photovoltaics – Renewable Fuels Materials – Modelling – Components – Systems – Test Center Stuttgart Widderstall Ulm - 51 -