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Cambio de escala en combustibles procedentes de microalgas: aspectos económicos y medioambientales
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Cambio de escala en combustibles procedentes de microalgas: aspectos económicos y medioambientales

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En el marco de la jornada Microalgas, ¿una fuente de petróleo verde?, organizada con IMDEA y celebrada el 8 de abril en EOI, Escuela de Organización Industrial, Enrique Espí, de Repsol, presenta los …

En el marco de la jornada Microalgas, ¿una fuente de petróleo verde?, organizada con IMDEA y celebrada el 8 de abril en EOI, Escuela de Organización Industrial, Enrique Espí, de Repsol, presenta los retos todavía pendientes para llegar a una producción rentable de combustibles procedentes de microalgas.
8_04_2010


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  • 1. Scaling up algae fuels: economic and environmental issues Enrique Espí Repsol Technology Center Madrid, April 08, 2010 © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 2. Summary Introduction Pros & cons of algae for bioenergy Repsol’s R&D activities on microalgae Strains selection FBR optimization Next developments Economic issues Environmental issues © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 3. Introduction: pros & cons of algae for bioenergy © Repsol D. Technology, June 2009
  • 4. Pros  High yield ¿up to 1000 t/ha·year?  Capture CO2  Don’t consume water  Don’t contaminate soils or aquifers  Continuous harvesting  Positive energy balance  Don’t need pesticides  High-value products © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 5. Cons Large-scale productivity do not surpass 100 t/ha·year Cost between 2 and 20 €/kg biomass Lipids not always suitable for biodiesel Energy balance: 1-2 energy return on energy invested GHG balance negative if synthetic fertilizers and pure CO2 are used © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 6. Repsol’s R&D activities on microalgae © Repsol D. Technology, June 2009
  • 7. R&D lines on microalgae Basic biochemistry: deep understanding of algae metabolism for lipids or other added-value molecules synthesis. Species selection: isolation and characterization of species and varieties with high biomass, lipids or other molecules productitvity. Methabolic engineering: genetic (or other route) modification of natural species for increasing their biomass, lipids or other molecules productivity. Growing systems: development, optimization and scale-up of open (raceways) or closed (FBRs) systems including design, materials, management, nutrients, CO2 enrichment, etc. Downstream processing: physical (harvesting, drying, extraction, etc.) and chemical processing of algae biomass. … for Biomass (heat, electricity and CO2 capture) Lipids (biofuels…) High-value products (omega-3, proteins, lutein…) © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 8. Repsol’s R&D activities on microalgae Projects PIIBE Proyecto de investigación para el Impulso del Biodiesel en España www.piibe.com (2006-2009) Sost-CO2 Nuevas utilizaciones sostenibles del CO 2 www.cenit-sostco2.com (2008-2011) Plan E Microalgae New project (2010-2011) Associations &Technology Platforms © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 9. Cenit PIIBE objectives and results PIIBE Proyecto de investigación para el Impulso del Biodiesel en España Method for selecting microalgae strains Result: flow cytometry method developped and optimised for lipogenic microalgae selection Selection and isolation of a high lipids-producing strain Result: one strain registered (T. repsoliensis) Optimization of a vertical tubular photobioreactor (design, management, CDF…) Result: patent application issued Development of an anti-biofouling cheap plastic material for FBRs Results: preliminar positive results © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 10. Cenit PIIBE results: strains selection Hundreds of wild algae strains collected, selected and isolated using flow cytometry. © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 11. Cenit PIIBE results: strains selection Lipid production of wild strains. Lipid yield (t/ha·year) Soya 0,4 Sunflower 0,8 Rape 1 Olive 1 Jatropha 1,5 Avocado 2,2 Coconut 2,2 Palm 5 Very interesting results at lab-scale, but scale-up is still needed © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 12. Cenit PIIBE results: strains selection Lipid content optimization using flow cytometry & sorting. © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 13. Cenit PIIBE results: FBR optimization Optimizing FBRs design using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): shape, stirring, light distribution, etc. PCT/ES2010/070132 patent 6 rpm 12 rpm 18 rpm © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 14. Cenit PIIBE results: FBR optimization FBR farm optimization © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 15. Cenit PIIBE results: FBR optimization Materials for FBRs. Optical properties: Repsol is applying its experience with plastics for greenhouse covers to FBR materials: Ultraviolet transmission (UV). Near infrared transmission (NIR). Middle infrared transmission (MIR). Luminescence (UV-VIS, VIS-VIS). © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 16. Cenit PIIBE results: FBR optimization Materials for FBRs. Surface properties: Repsol is using its experience managing chemical and physical surface properties of plastics to develop antifouling FBRs. 70% 5% © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 17. Heat, electricity and CO2 Some figures: 180 t 100 t 20 t CO2 biomass lipids Algae growing for CO2 capture and direct energy production (heat and electricity) has all the advantages and less technical uncertenties (fuel quality, compatibility with fossil fuels, etc.) than their use for biofuels © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 18. Cenit Sost-CO2 objectives Sost-CO2 Nuevas utilizaciones sostenibles del CO 2 Selection of a high biomass-producing microalgae strain www.cenit-sostco2.com www.repsol.com Selection and optimization of different growing systems, including open ponds, vertical and flat pipes, flexible bags… Scale-up these systems. © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 19. Plan E Microalgae objectives Plan E Microalgae Effect of different refinery flue gases and wastewaters on algae growing Downstream processing (harvesting, de- watering, extraction…) of algae biomass © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 20. Future developments © Repsol D. Technology, June 2009
  • 21. Economic issues Source: Proviron Present price of algae fuels: 2 to 20 €/l Present price of other biofuels: 0.5 to 1 €/l © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 22. Economic issues Pathway for cuting down costs: To increase productivity: • high productivity algae strains (GM?) • high productivity photobioreactors  To cut down investments: • low-cost photobioreactors (all-plastic) • harvesting methods alternative to centrifugation • extraction methods alternative to solvent extraction  To cut down operating costs: • personnel costs (automation) • energy costs (farming, harvesting, extraction) • water, nutrients and CO2 costs © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 23. Environmental issues Energy and GHG balances highly dependent on the nutrients and CO2 supplies. Focus on: Wastewaters vs. Chemical nutrients Flue gas vs. Pure CO2 Source: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 1813-1819 © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010
  • 24. Thank you for your attention © D.Technology Repsol, April 2010