C. Bonifazi, C. Conti, D. Ghio, F. M. Rottino, S. Strozza  - Measuring active citizenship
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  • 1. Measuring active citizenship Corrado Bonifazi | Irpps Cinzia Conti | Istat Daniela Ghio | Ministero dell’Interno Fabio Massimo Rottino | Istat Salvatore Strozza | Università Federico II
  • 2. Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 3. • 24 athletes born abroad in the Italian oliypic games London 2012. • 267 born in Italy Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Censimento 2001: 285.782 cittadini italiani per acquisizione Tra il 2001 e il 2011: circa 400 mila acquisizioni Rilevanza della naturalizzazioni
  • 4. Citizenship: formal and substantial Citizenship denotes the particular legal bond between an individual and his or her State, acquired by birth or naturalization, whether by declaration, choice, marriage or other means according to national legislation (ER n° 862/2007). Formal Different laws in different countries (Law of 5 February 1992 91) Substantive The rights of citizenship as participation in social life chances Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 5. Formal citizenship Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Gli anni sono dieci per i cittadini dei Paesi Terzi 4 per i comunitari
  • 6. Substantive citizenship Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 7. Statistics and citizenship Formal Regulation 862/2007: data on acquisition of citizenship (art.3) and long term residence permits (art.6) Formal and substantive The Zaragoza Declaration (2010) Active citizenship core indicators: o the share of immigrants that have acquired citizenship o the share of immigrants holding permanent or long-term residence permits o the share of immigrants among elected representatives A step forward “Social Inclusion & Active Citizenship indicators for migrant integration” (Discussion Paper, Migration Policy Group, Lisbon 2012) trust in public institutions voter turnout among the population entitled to vote sense of belonging Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 8. Long term-resident permits: longitudinal versus cross sectional approach • The share of immigrants who acquired permanent or long-term residence Long- term resident status refers to permits issued only under Council Directive 2003/109/EC. This is based on a total duration of legal residence of 5 years or longer, combined with a series of other conditions that must be met to qualify for this status. • Residence permits data contain statistical information based on Article 6 of Regulation (CE) No 862/2007 of 11 July 2007 with reference to permits valid at the end of the reference period, disaggregated by citizenship, reasons for the permit being issued and by the length of validity; and on the number of long-term residents at the end of reference period. • The numerator used is the population of third-country nationals having long-term legal resident status. The denominator is the total number of valid residence permits held by third country nationals • Elegibility and population at risk.....Longitudinal versus cross sectional approach: some evidences from Italian experience Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 9. Title of presentation | Name and Surname | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Long-term residence permits: longitudìnal approach Citizenship Share of long-term residence permits Stock 2013 (total) Share of long-term residence permits Stock 2013 (only holders) Inflows 2007 % still present % long-term residence permit on total flows 2007 still present in 2013 % long-term residence permit on total flows 2007 Morocco 64.4 59.1 66.8 27.2 18.2 Albania 66.3 63.8 69.9 29.6 20.7 Ukraine 49.3 49.3 75.4 20.5 15.4 Moldova 39.3 38.6 76.2 20.8 15.9 China 39.0 34.4 74.9 5.9 4.4 India 52.1 45.4 60.9 25.5 15.5 Bangladesh 53.7 46.5 70.5 18.9 13.3 Philippines 49.5 47.5 55.2 8.9 4.9 Sri Lanka 52.3 47.2 72.2 13.7 9.9 Peru 50.5 48.5 68.8 17.5 12.0 Tunisia 66.2 59.4 52.3 28.9 15.1 Total 54.6 50.4 63.2 22.5 14.2 Share of immigrants holding permanent or long-term residence permits Source: Istat on data of Ministry of Interior
  • 10. Long-term residence permits: Longitudinal approach Reason of the permit in 2007 % inflows 2007 still present in 2013 % long-term residents on total inflows 2007 still present in 2013 % long-term residents on total inflows 2007 Male Female Male and female Male Female Male and female Male Female Male and female Work 60.6 73.5 66.1 8.7 14.5 11.4 5.3 10.6 7.6 Family reunification 63.8 67.4 66.3 44.4 56.2 52.8 28.3 37.9 35.0 Study 26.5 29.1 27.8 9.9 11.5 10.7 2.6 3.3 3.0 Asylum/humanitarian 50.3 50.7 50.4 1.9 1.8 1.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 Other reasons 33.8 32.4 33.1 9.5 14.2 11.8 3.2 4.6 3.9 Total 58.5 68.1 63.2 14.5 29.6 22.5 8.5 20.1 14.2 Source: Istat on data of Ministry of Interior Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 11. An indicator also for the future? • Presently the indicator is expected only to grow • The growth is not only the result of a increasing integration level • In Italy the long-term permits have not an expiration date • If a person that has a long-term permit decides to go back in his country of origin, nobody will delete his name from the register of residence permits Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 12. Acquisition of citizenship: Regulation 862/2007 Data on acquisitions of citizenship are collected annually by Eurostat as part of an annual data collection on migration flows and on population stocks by citizenship and country of birth. These statistics are regulated by Article 3 of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 on Community statistics on migration and international protection, which is binding for the countries of the European Economic Area Data on acquisition of citizenship relate to the number of persons who acquired citizenship of the country of residence during the reference year, having previously held the citizenship of another country or having being stateless. These data cover only acquisitions after birth and exclude acquisitions by non-residents. (Eurostat Indicators of Immigrant Integration, A Pilot Study, 2011) Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 13. Acquisition of citizenship: Zaragoza declaration The share of foreigners that have acquired citizenship is the ratio between the number of residents who acquired citizenship in a country during a calendar year and the total number of resident foreigners in that country at the beginning of the year. This indicator is commonly referred to as ‘naturalisation rate’, even if this terminology may be misleading since the acquisitions considered are all modes of acquisitions in force in each country, and not only naturalisations (residence-based acquisitions requiring an application by the person concerned). The indicator can be computed for specific groups of foreigners (for example third country nationals), for specific age groups and/or for men and women separately. (Eurostat Indicators of Immigrant Integration, A Pilot Study, 2011) Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 14. Acquisitions of citizenship: untill 2010 Individual data provided by Ministry of Interior (only some kinds of acquisitions, but many information on individulas: age, previous citizenship, sex) Aggregated data collected by Istat at municipality level (all kinds of acquisition but few information: manicipality and sex Istat estimation for Regulation 862/2007: data for all kind of acquisitions for age, sex and previous citizenship Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 15. Acquisitions of citizenship: 2011 Individual data provided by Ministry of Interior (only some kinds of acquisitions, but many information on individulas: age, previous citizenship, sex) Aggregated data collected by Istat at municipality level (all kinds of acquisition but few information: manicipality and sex) Istat estimations For Regulation 862/2007: data for all kind of acquisitions for age, sex and previous citizenship Estimation for different territories and for kind of acquisition (marriage, residence, etc.) Muncipality lists at different years (t-1 and t). Record linkage Individual data to individuate the changes of citizenship (many information about individuals, not the type of acquisition) Linkage using tax code Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 16. Acquisition of citizenship: a longitudinal approach Necessity of longitudinal approach “To do so, it would be necessary to base the rate on the foreign population actually eligible for naturalization, or as statisticians call it, the population at risk of experiencing an event. As pointed out by Nicolas Perrin (2006) a cohort approach towards measuring rates of citizenship acquisition would allow the calculation of the likelihood of obtaining citizenship for individual cohorts of immigrants which would provide a much better measure of the impact of policy measures on patterns of citizenship acquisition“(Reichel 2011) THESIM: Towrds Harmonised European statistics on International Migration 2006. Perrin «A cohort Approach to Acquisition of Citizenship Statistics Th problem of elegibility and the definition of the population «at risk» Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 17. Acquisition of citizenship: year of submission Citizenship Total 2011 % for year of submission of the application Naturalization rates (x 1.000) 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 < 2005 Crudea Correct1b Correct2c Morocco 3,840 7.5 43.9 31.9 10.5 4.4 1.9 7.7 14.1 13.5 Albania 3,424 13.5 48.9 26.0 9.0 1.1 1.5 7.1 11.3 10.8 Tunisia 624 7.9 36.5 34.3 15.1 4.3 1.9 5.3 9.3 9.2 Peru 601 11.3 49.3 28.3 9.3 1.2 0.7 5.9 10.6 10.0 Serbia/ Kosovo/ Montenegro 449 14.0 51.0 22.5 9.4 2.2 0.9 4.5 7.5 7.2 Egypt 446 5.4 24.0 33.2 30.0 5.4 2.0 4.0 8.8 8.7 Macedonia, Republic of 444 19.8 54.7 18.9 4.7 1.6 0.2 5.7 9.3 8.7 India 439 5.7 33.9 29.6 23.9 6.2 0.7 3.1 7.4 7.2 Bangladesh 362 6.4 40.9 31.5 17.7 3.6 0.0 3.5 8.1 7.7 Bosnia-Herzegovina 296 10.1 54.1 25.7 6.4 3.0 0.7 10.0 14.3 13.0 Note: (a) calculated on permits in early 2011; (b) correct1: rates obtained by dividing the sum of the application in each year by the number of residence permits at the beginning of the corresponding year; (c) correct2: acquisitions computed on a weighted average of the valid residence permits in previous years with weights given by the share of applications for each year. Source: elaboration on data of he Ministry of the Interior. Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 18. Beyond the Regulation 862/2007 and the Zaragoza declaration: substantive citizenship Zaragoza declaration: elected representatives This indicator is supposed to capture the share of immigrants among elected representatives in each of the Member States. So far, data for this indicator is not collected systematically at EU level. Case studies are available but limited to a small number of countries Indicators of political participation (only few countries) voting, membership in (political) organisations, running for office, elected officials, protesting, volunteering as well as subjective citizenship such as sense of belonging, trust in political institutions, and awareness of discrimination In Italy: waiting for the data of Survey on ‘Condition and social integration of foreign citizens’ and further developments…... Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 19. Social inclusion and active citizenship Ismu Survey (2008) 68 53 17 19 23 40 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Quanto ritiene importante che i figli degli immigrati possano ottenere subito la cittadinanza italiana? Quanto sarebbe importante per lei ottenere la cittadinanza italiana? Quanto sente di appartenere all'Italia? Molto Abbastanza Poco Per nulla Belonging Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 20. Social inclusion and active citizenship: associated life 10 6 5 7 10 14 7 8 11 9 10 8 9 10 16 6 10 17 3 4 2 4 5 5 2 4 6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Uomo Donna 0-4 anni 5-9 anni 10-14 anni 15+ anni Sc. obbligo Diploma Laurea in prevalenza di italiani italiani e stranieri stranieri 21,8% partecipa ad associazioni Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 il 21,8% degli intervistati partecipa alle attività di qualche associazione. Questa cifra si compone di un 8,2% di persone che contribuiscono a associazioni di soli stranieri, di un 9,8% di individui che, invece, partecipano a quelle miste e di un restante 3,8% che collabora a quelle formate prevalentemente da italiani
  • 21. Many developments in recent years…further steps Quality and completeness of administrative data Full exploitation of administrative data (record linkage) Monitoring the integration of naturalised people…starting from Census data Sample survey for indicators about substantive citizenship Cooperation between statistics ad policy makers…..Cooperation between Istat and Ministry of Interior Active citizenship | Cinzia Conti| Rome 17 - 18 June 2013