S. Strozza, C. Conti, A. Di Bartolomeo, F. M. Rottino - Second generation immigrants

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Integration: knowing, measuring, evaluating 17-18 giugno 2013

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S. Strozza, C. Conti, A. Di Bartolomeo, F. M. Rottino - Second generation immigrants

  1. 1. Second generation immigrants Salvatore Strozza*, Cinzia Conti**, Anna Di Bartolomeo*** and Fabio Massimo Rottino* *Università di Napoli “Federico II, **Istat, ***Migration Policy Centre, Istituto Universitario Europeo
  2. 2. Who are immigrants’ children? Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Definitional issues depending on: • STATUS OF PARENTS: born abroad or foreigners (naturalizations?) • STATUS OF CHILDREN:  With one or both parents born abroad or foreigners (children of mixed couples?)  Born in the host country or born abroad (pure second generation or also decimal generations, i.e. 1.75-1.5..?)
  3. 3. Who are immigrants’ children? At an international level: •No full agreement •Most used definition: individuals “born in the host country” or “born abroad and migrated before the age of 18” with at least one parent born abroad -> three variables of interest:  country of birth of the parents (at least one abroad);  country of birth of the person (if born abroad …)  age at arrival (less than 18 years old) Does the above definition fit the Italian case? Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  4. 4. Who are immigrants’ children? Italian peculiarities: Being recently characterized by mass emigration flows, in Italy this population would also include children of Italian people born in the Italian traditional emigration countries, who later returned to Italy -> these children are the result of emigration from Italy rather than immigration to Italy The variable parents’ citizenship at birth needs to be considered as well! In the Italian case, immigrants’ children are thus defined as individuals “born in Italy” or “born abroad and migrated before the age of 18” with at least a) one parent born abroad and b) one parent being foreigner by birth Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  5. 5. Searching for immigrants’ children in Italian statistical sources Variables of interest: country of birth and (current) country of citizenship of respondents; year of arrival -> it allows indirect estimation of immigrants’ children who live in the same household of their parents. Resident population aged less than 18 by country of birth and citizenship according to parents’ country of birth and citizenship. Italy. 21 October 2001. Absolute and percentage values Country of birth and citizenship (a) of individuals Parents’ country of birth % born abroad children Total(b) Both parents born in Italy At least one parent born abroad total with at least one foreign or naturalised parent Total of whic: at least one foreign or naturalised parent Born in Italy 9,551,244 8,799,996 677,917 368,621 7.1 3.9 - Italian 9,410,561 8,798,117 541,660 232,427 5.8 2.5 - Naturalised 3,389 935 2,421 2,359 71.4 69.6 - Foreigner 137,294 944 133,836 133,835 97.5 97.5 Born abroad 281,924 87,503 183,985 170,622 65.3 60.5 - Italian 89,541 54,810 32,736 20,449 36.6 22.8 - Naturalised 45,453 32,273 12,784 11,728 28.1 25.8 - Foreigner 146,930 420 138,465 138,445 94.2 94.2 Total 9,833,168 8,887,499 861,902 539,243 8.8 5.5 - Italian 9,500,102 8,852,927 574,396 252,876 6.0 2.7 - Naturalised 48,842 33,208 15,205 14,087 31.1 28.8 - Foreigner 284,224 1,364 272,301 272,280 95.8 95.8 Second generation Generation 1.75, 1.5, 1.25 Total immigrants’ children Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  6. 6. Condition and social integration of foreigners in Italy (Istat, 2011-2012) Variables of interest: country of birth of respondents and their parents; country of citizenship (current, at birth) of respondents and their parents; year of arrival. Italian Labour Force Survey (Istat, annual basis) Variables of interest: country of birth and (current) country of citizenship of respondents; year of arrival -> it allows indirect estimation of immigrants’ children who live in the same household of their parents. Italian Labour Force Survey – Ad hoc module “Labour market situation of migrants and their immediate descendants” (Istat, 2008) Variables of interest: country of birth of respondents and their parents; country of citizenship (current, at birth) of respondents and their parents; year of arrival. Income and Living Conditions of foreign citizens (Istat, 2009) Variables of interest: country of birth of respondents and their parents; country of citizenship (current, at birth) of respondents and their parents; year of arrival. Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Searching for immigrants’ children in Italian statistical sources
  7. 7. Searching for immigrants’ children at school Students’ population register (MIUR, annual update) Variables of interest: country of birth and (current) country of citizenship of students. INVALSI ad hoc surveys (INVALSI, annual basis) Variables of interest: country of birth of students and their parents; year of arrival. Programme for International Student Assessment (OECD, triennial survey) Variables of interest: country of birth of students and their parents; year of arrival. Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  8. 8. 1. Educational outcomes Vertical differentiation indicators • Average age of entrance into the school system • Proportion of students attending pre-primary schools • Enrolment rates by age • Average years of schooling (or average level of education) • Repetition and dropout rates by grade and educational level • Proportion of students with delayed enrolment by age • Probability of passing to the next grade (micro-individual indicator) Horizontal differentiation indicators • Distribution of immigrants’ children by type of education and field of studies (relative dissimilarity index by type of education) • Probability of choosing a given type of higher secondary or tertiary education (micro-individual indicator) Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Indicators of immigrants’ children integration at school. Focus on educational attainment
  9. 9. 2. Educational achievement (cognitive skills) Indicators of educational achievement as measured by standardized test scores • Average performance by grade and subject • Proportion of students by number of correct answers according to grade and subject • Probability of performing above/below the average performance by grade and subject (micro-individual indicator) Indicators of educational achievement as measured by marks • Proportion of students by mark, according to grade and subject • Probability of getting a given mark by grade and subject (micro-individual indicator) Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Indicators of immigrants’ children integration at school. Focus on educational attainment
  10. 10. Educational outcomes in Italy: some available indicators Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Citizenship Partial enrolment rate Total enrolment rate (6-18 years) 6-10 years 11-13 years 14-18 years - EU15 4.9 2.9 4.2 11.9 - New EU 4.8 2.8 3.5 11.0 - MD Third-country 4.8 2.9 4.3 12.0 - LD Third-country 4.7 2.7 3.1 10.5 TOTAL 4.7 2.8 3.1 10.6 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Iugoslavia Macedonia Pakistan India Marocco Albania Bosnia-Erz. SriLanka Tunisia Romania Cina Ghana Egitto Filippine Colombia Brasile Perù Germania Polonia Russia Anni di scuola 6-10 anni 11-13 anni 14-18 anni Partial and total enrolment rate Enrolment rate by age according to origin and migratory generation. Italy, 21 October 2001 Source: 2001 Italian Census of Population and Housing
  11. 11. Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Educational outcomes in Italy: some available indicators Source: MIUR population register. 2001-02 2011-12 Pre-primary 39,445 156,701 117,256 397 Primary 84,122 268,671 184,549 319 Lower secondary school 45,253 166,043 120,790 367 Upper secondary school 27,594 164,524 136,930 596 TOTAL 196,414 755,939 559,525 385 Year school Absolute increase Educational level N. index 2001-02=100 Enrolled foreign students by educational level. Italy, school years 2001-02 and 2011-12
  12. 12. Other available indicators (MIUR population register) - Proportion of students passed to the next grade - Rates of admission to the final examination (lower and upper secondary schools) - Dropout rates: they are proxied by the difference between actual and ‘expected’ enrolled students at time t - Proportion of students by enrolment status (delayed vs. non delayed enrolment) and years of delay - Distribution of immigrants’ children enrolled in upper secondary schools by type of education (vocational vs. academic) In 2011/12, immigrants’ children have worst educational outcomes with respect to all the above indicators! Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Educational outcomes in Italy: some available indicators
  13. 13. Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Educational outcomes in Italy: some available indicators Source: MIUR population register. Positive outcomes by level of education and citizenship, s.y. 2008-09 Final exam of the lower secondary education, s.y. 2009-10 Final exam of the upper secondary education, s.y. 2008-09
  14. 14. Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Educational outcomes in Italy: some available indicators Pupils by situation on the educational path distinguished by age and nationality (Italian and non-Italian). Italy, s.y. 2007-08 and 2011-12. Percentages
  15. 15. Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Educational outcomes in Italy: some available indicators Type of education in upper secondary school % by type of education Odds-ratio (reference category = Italians) Italians Foreigners born in Italy (G2) Foreigners born abroad (G1,5) Foreigners born in Italy (G2) Foreigners born abroad (G1,5) Classic Lyceum 11,1 4,7 3,6 0,42 0,32 Scientific Lyceum 23,8 14,3 9,8 0,60 0,41 Linguistic Lyceum 0,7 0,7 0,3 1,11 0,40 Art Institute 3,8 3,6 2,9 0,95 0,78 Former Teaching Institute 8,4 5,4 5,0 0,64 0,59 Technical Institute 33,3 40,8 38,0 1,22 1,14 Vocational school 18,9 30,6 40,4 1,62 2,14 TOTAL 100,0 100,0 100,0 Relative index of dissimilarity (%) with Italians 38,5 52,3 Percentage of Italian and foreign student by type of education in upper secondary school. Italy, s.y. 2011-12 Source: MIUR population register.
  16. 16. Educational achievement in Italy: some available indicators School grade Italian Mathematics Foreigners G1,5 Foreigners 2G Foreigners G1,5 Foreigners G2 “Raw” differentials Primary-class II -23 -16 -16 -12 Primary-class V -28 -16 -18 -11 Lower sec.-class I -35 -16 -20 -7 Lower sec.-class III -20 -7 -11 -3 Upper sec.-class II -28 -10 -16 -7 “Residual” differentials – after controlling for individual characteristics (a) Primary-class II -6 -5 0 -2 Primary-class V -8 -6 -3 -2 Lower sec.-class I -13 -6 0 2 Lower sec.-class III -7 -1 1 4 Upper sec.-class II -9 -2 2 1 Note: (a) The following control variables are here included: sex, educational path, the difference with the average admission mark obtained at a class level (lower sec.-class III), the difference with the average mark in italian and mathematics obtained at a class level, the type of school (upper sec.-class II). In the upper sec.-class II, the reference category is a male Italian student with no delayed enrolment. Source: INVALSI. Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 1. Average performance by grade and subject (source INVALSI) Educational achievement differential between foreign and Italian students by grade and subject and according to migrants’ generation. Italy, 2011-12 (a.y)
  17. 17. Notes: (a) The following individual control variables are here included: sex, socio-economic and cultural background (parents highest level of occupation and education together with economic and cultural possessions); family structure (presence of siblings and type of family); language spoken at home. At a school level, the following variables are here included: ethnic and socio-economic segregation proxies (high vs. low); type of school (private vs. public); and school resources. (b) AEA stands for Average Educational Achievement. Source: PISA-2009 -67.0 -81.5 -82.4 -40.8 -46.1 -50.4 -1.9 n.s. -1.2 n.s -2.5 (n.s) -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 Mathematics (AEA=493.5) (b) Science (AEA=500.3) (b) Reading (AEA=495.7) (b) 1. "Raw" differential Children of mixed couples 2G G1.5 -32.3 -45.8 -41.4 -21.8 -24.1 -22.8 -1.3 (n.s.) -0.7 (n.s.) -2.0 (n.s.) -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 Mathematics Science Reading 2. "Residual" differential - after controlling for individual and scholastic characteristics (b) Children of mixed couples 2G G1.5 2. Average performance by grade and subject (source PISA) Educational achievement differential between immigrants’ children and natives students aged 15 by subject. Italy, 2009 Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Educational achievement in Italy: some available indicators
  18. 18. Naples Observatory as a Laboratory • A project carried out by the Municipality of Napoli, Istat and MIUR in order to monitoring the integration of the second generation at School • Integration among different institutions • Integration of different approaches (qualitative and quantitative) and sources (administrative data and survey) • Monitoring of integration and policy making • A first step: the focus groups • Next step: the survey on students and families Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  19. 19. So far, in Italy, much attention has been devoted to understanding patterns and characteristics of immigrants’ children and their integration at school at both a national and local level: • Existing sources have been fine-tuned (e.g. MIUR register; LFS..) • New sources have been designed (e.g. Condition and social integration of foreigners; ISMU surveys..) However, much needs still to be done. In particular: 1.Being integration a dynamic process, it needs to be monitored over time: • Retrospective and longitudinal surveys represent a powerful tool being conscious that Italy will soon face the massive entry of immigrants’ children into the labour market. Focusing on the link between educational and labour market outcomes is a must. 2. Being integration a complex phenomenon, a variety of individual and contextual factors should be taken into account: • INVALSI and MIUR annual statistics need to be enriched by adding new variables of interest and reorganized in order to o take into account all stages of the educational process. Second generation immigrants | Salvatore Strozza | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Conclusions and recommendations

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