G. Blangiardo, M. Perez, L. Quattrociocchi, R. Zizza - Job and opportunities Income and poverty

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Integration: knowing, measuring, evaluating 17-18 giugno 2013

Integration: knowing, measuring, evaluating 17-18 giugno 2013

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  • 1. Job and opportunities Income and poverty Giancarlo Blangiardo - Università Milano Bicocca Monica Perez - Istat Luciana Quattrociocchi - Istat Roberta Zizza - Banca d’Italia
  • 2. What kind of integration? Integration shows three specific characteristics: processuality, multi-dimensionality, and bi-directionality. a)Integration is a process which always and only develops over time and requires some time. b)Integration is always a multi-dimensional process, since it concerns different aspects of a migrant person’s life, that is to say, the economic, social, cultural, and political dimension. c)Integration is always a bi-directional process, even when it is not immediately visible or it is rejected. Migrants must start a process of inclusion in the host society, which may be put into effect in different ways, but in any case obliges them to be confronted with the culture of the host country. The citizens of the host country, in turn, must be confronted with the newcomers and take a stance towards them (rejection, acceptance, mistrust, tolerance, openness, etc.), which may call their lifestyle into question, as well as their idea of their own integration in the society they belong to Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 3. Some Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration (*) • (1) Integration is a dynamic, two-way process of mutual accommodation by all immigrants and residents of Member States (…). • (3) Employment is a key part of the integration process and is central to the participation of immigrants, to the contributions immigrants make to the host society, and to making such contributions visible • (6) Access for immigrants (…) to public and private goods and services, on a basis equal to national citizens and in a non-discriminatory way is a critical foundation for better integration. • (11) Developing clear goals, indicators and evaluation mechanisms are necessary to adjust policy, evaluate progress on integration and to make the exchange of information more effective. (*) (*) Justice and Home Affairs Council, 2004 Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 4. Integration measure How to measure and compare integration levels among migrant populations (or sub-populations defined according to some specific features) Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 5. The classical macro approach: by statistical indicators of integration Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 6. Indicators on job and living conditions • Job opportunities  Employment rate  Unemployment rate  Activity rate  Permanent/fixed term employment  Part time/full time employment  Education job-mismatches (over qualification) … • Income, living conditions, poverty  Household net income  People at risk of poverty or social esclusion  Peolple living in household with very low work intensity  Peolple at risk of poverty after social transfer  Severally material deprived people ..... Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 7. Main labour market indicators processed on foreigners Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013 Source: Labour Force Survey- Year 2012
  • 8. Main indicators on living conditions of foreigners Source: Survey on Living conditions of families with foreigners – Year 2009
  • 9. Macro data from statistical sources duly processed to produce indicators Main sources •Labour Force Survey •EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions •OECD PISA Survey •Census data •Etc. Ad hoc Italian surveys •Survey on Living conditions of families with foreigners •Survey on Social condition and integration of foreigners •Survey of the Regional Observatory for Integration and Multiethnicity (Ismu-Eupolis 2001-2012) Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 10. The alternative micro approach: by individual scores of integration Very apt to investigate differential aspects of the integration corresponding to local areas or to specific sub-populations & to control the effects of local or targeted policies Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 11. Individual data-base from statistical surveys duly processed The tools •1) Individual Census outcomes or Representative samples of the target population •2) A methodology able to assign an integration score, according to a preliminary definition of integration, to every statistical unit of the sample Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 12. HOW TO assign an integration score, according to a preliminary definition of integration, to every statistical unit of the data-base ? the following steps are required REMARK In this example we shall consider the sole topic of labor market integration of TCNs. Anyway a similar procedure can be followed in order to assign individual integration scores regarding both other specific dimensions (education, social exclusion, etc.) and the integration level as a whole Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 13. Measuring integration through individual integration scores • STEP1 Choice of the k integration variables of the dataset (according to a shared definition of integration in the labor market) • STEP2 Identification of integration scores for each variable by processing the frequencies of the sample distribution of the k variables selected • STEP3 Assignment the k scores to each statistical unit according to its modality of the variables under consideration • STEP4 Attribution of the average score of integration at each statistical unit (such score will be considered as an additional variable to the original dataset) • STEP5 Processing the integration average score in connection with the structural data (personal features, education, social inclusion, etc.) Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 14. Example of the application of the procedure Definition: “a migrant who is employed with a stable/secured job that gives good income and is adequate to his education level can be considered fully integrated into the labor market” Step 1 Selection of a set of indicators according to a definition of integration in the labor market 4 dimensions Employment Stability & job security Net income from work Over qualification Source: PerLa Survey 2009 - Percorsi Lavorativi (Labour Path) 13,006 sample units; Target population: migrants living in Italy who have or had a legal job since 12 months before the survey Methodology: Centre sampling Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 15. Step 2 Identification of integration scores by processing the frequencies of the sample distribution of the variables selected lowest highest -1 0 1 Employment integration index (score) (for each of the 4 dimensions) Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 16. Step 2 (cont’d) Identification of integration scores by processing the frequencies of the sample distribution Sample Frequency % Employment Unemployed 7.1 Employed 92.9 Total 100 Stability & Low 0.1 job security Medium 38.6 High 61.3 Total 100 Net income <500 € 3.1 from work 500-800 € 28.5 800-1200 € 50.9 1200 – 1500 € 13.5 1500- 2000 € 2.9 2000- 3000 € 0.9 > 3000 e 0.3 Total 100 Over qualification Severely inadequate 4.8 (job compared Moderately inadequate 27.2 to education) Adequate 68.0 Total 100 Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 17. Step 2 (cont’d) Example of identification of integration scores by processing the frequencies of the sample distribution Sample Frequency % Corresponding Scores Over qualification Severely inadequate 4.8 [ -27.2 -68.0 ] / 100 = -0.95 (job compared Moderately inadequate 27.2 [+4.8 – 68.0] /100 = -0.63 to education) Adequate 68.0 [+4.8 +27.2] /100 = +32.0 Total 100 For each modality the corresponding score is obtained through the difference between the sum of the previous frequencies (relative) less the sum of the following ones. It can be remarked that, for any variable, the mean score for the whole set of sample units will be zero. Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 18. Set of scores (for each of the 4 dimensions) Employment Unemployed -0.93 Employed +0.07 Stability & Low -0.99 job security Medium -0.61 High +0.39 < 500 € -0.97 Net income 500 – 800 € -0.65 from work 800 – 1200 € 0.14 1200 – 1500 € 0.78 1500 – 2000 € 0.95 2000 – 3000 € 0.99 > 3000 € 1.00 Over qualification Severely inadequate -0.95 (job compared Moderately inadequate -0.63 to education) Adequate 0.32 Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 19. Steps 3 & 4 Assignment the scores to each statistical unit according to its modality of the variable under consideration (total 13,006 units) & Average of the 4 partial scores (Final Mean score)Sampl e unit No. Employment Stability & job security (*) Net income from work (*) (*) Over qualification Mean score Modality Score Modality Score Modality Score Modality Score 1 Employed +0.07 Low -0.99 <500 € -0.97 Severely inadequate -0.95 - 0.71 2 Unemploye d -0.93 High +0.39 500-800€ -0.65 Moderately inadequate -0.63 -0.45 3 Employed +0.07 Medium -0.61 1500- 2000€ +0.95 Adequate +0.32 +0.18 4 Employed +0.07 Medium -0.61 2000- 3000€ +0.99 Severely inadequate -0.95 -0.12 … … 1,000 Unemploye d -0.93 High +0.39 800-1200€ +0.14 Moderately inadequate -0.63 -0.26 … … 13,006 Employed +0.07 Low -0.99 >3000€ +1.00 Adequate +0.32 +0.10 All sample units Mean Score 0.00 Mean Score 0.00 Mean Score 0.00 Mean Score 0.00 (*) Present or last job Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 20. Steps 5 Processing the integration scores together with structural data (personal features, education, social inclusion, etc.) Integration Index: final mean scores by year of arrival to Italy and gender Source: Ismu-PerLa 2009 Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 21. Additional remark Positive integration scores seem to be associated to better work conditionsscores Source: Ismu-PerLa 2009 Work conditions Yes/No Final Mean integration score Satisfaction for the present job Yes + 0.0341 No -0.1183 In the work place being the victim of aggression, threats, because foreign Yes -0.0374 No +0.090 Aspects improved in the present work compared to the previous - Salary / gain Yes +0.0513 No -0.1013 Type of job Yes +0.0429 No -0.0341 Responsibility Yes +0.0545 No -0.0259 Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 22. A further example Financial and ‘asset’ integration, based on Bank of Italy’s SHIW (Survey on Household Income and Wealth)  biennial survey ran since the 1960’s on a sample of resident households (including foreign citizens) 4 dimensions •Home ownership •Having a current account or deposit •Net income from work •Net wealth per capita Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 23. The definition of financial and ‘asset’ integration (*) “An adult who possesses a current account or a savings deposit with a bank or postal office, who is the owner of his/her dwelling, and has adequate financial resources (obtained by a work) and assets can be considered fully integrated from a financial point of view”. (*) For economic resources refers to labor income (dependent and independent) for the whole assets to the complex of real assets and net financial assets held by the family and made in per capita terms. Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 24. Financial and ‘asset’ integration of foreign migrants (2006; 20-64 yrs) • Men are more integrated than women, penalised by lower labour income, while they perform better in the other components referred to the household and not to the individual, plausibly reflecting the fact that women are less likely to live in single-person households (14%, versus 27% for men) • Integration increases with the level of education (especially due to the labour income dimension) Men Women <=7years 8-11years >=12years Compulsory Diploma Tertiaryeduc. -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 Notes: our elaborations on SHIW data. Caveats are needed due to small sample size. Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 25. Financial and ‘asset’ integration - The effects of the crisis • In 2012 the degree of integration deteriorated wrt 2006 for both men (only due to the wealth component) and women (all dimensions) Year Men Women Home ownership 2006 -0.047 0.053 2010 -0.037 -0.008 Var. 2010-2006 0.01 -0.061 Having a current account or deposit 2006 -0.011 0.012 2010 0.026 -0.047 Var. 2010-2006 0.037 -0.059 Net income from work 2006 0.277 -0.308 2010 0.311 -0.309 Var. 2010-2006 0.034 -0.001 Net wealth per capita 2006 -0.027 0.03 2010 -0.153 -0.073 Var. 2010-2006 -0.126 -0.103 Average index 2006 0.048 -0.053 2010 0.035 -0.109 Var. 2010-2006 -0.013 -0.0056 Notes: our elaborations on SHIW data. Caveats are needed due to small sample size. Results are shown for the sake of illustration of the methodology. Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 26. Conclusions • Micro and macro approaches can be fully achieved and can be complementary. • Periodical sample surveys are required to monitor integration levels of foreign population and to assess progress. • Individual level data from 2011 Census will offer an important opportunity to investigate in detail integration within migrant sub-populations and to compare them to the autochthons’. Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013
  • 27. Thank you for your attention