C. Thoreau - OECD work on the integration of immigrants and their children How does Italy compare?

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Integration: knowing, measuring, evaluating 17-18 giugno 2013

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C. Thoreau - OECD work on the integration of immigrants and their children How does Italy compare?

  1. 1. OECD work on the integration of immigrants and their children How does Italy compare? Cécile Thoreau International Migration Division Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, OECD
  2. 2. Work by the International Migration Division on the integration of immigrants and their children 2  Country reviews on labour market integration for 12 OECD countries (« Jobs for immigrants »; Vol. 1-3)  Indicators of integration (Settling In: OECD Indicators of Immigrant integration)  Continuous monitoring in the International Migration Outlook  Cross-cutting thematic work on specific issues, e.g. • Children of immigrants • Immigrants’ skills and qualifications • Discrimination; naturalisation; entrepreneurship.
  3. 3. Objectives of the OECD publication on indicators of integration  Provide a set of contextual indicators as a support to the analysis of each indicator  Disentangle as much as possible the influence of demographic and educational characteristics on outcomes  Analyse progress over time  Measure also outcomes of offspring of immigrants (Benchmark for integration)
  4. 4. Content of the OECD publication on indicators of integration  Focus on the foreign-born and their children  21 indicators in seven central integration areas  Rich context information on the characteristics of the immigrant population for all 34 OECD countries, to account for the different composition of immigrant populations  Comprehensive documentation and analysis on the basis of prior OECD work on integration  Country notes and an interactive tool online to compare countries: www.oecd.org/migration/integrationindicators.htm
  5. 5. Overall, in international comparisons, immigrant labour market outcomes are not unfavourable in Italy… 5 Employment rates by gender and place of birth in selected OECD countries, 2011-2012 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Difference with native-born men Difference with native-born women Immigrants are more likely to be employed Immigrants are less likely to be employed % points … but the positive gap is partly driven by the age composition of the immigrant population…
  6. 6. The share of low-educated is particularly high among the working-age population but also among young migrants 6 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 15-34 Foreign-born ISCED 0-2 15-34 Difference with the native-born ISCED 0-2 Percentage of 15-34 low-educated migrants, 2011 Levels and differences with the native-born Note: Persons still in education are counted separately. ISCED 0-2 refers to a level of education at best equivalent to lower secondary. Source: Eurostat 2011 Labour Force Survey.  Comparable share of low-educated among the 15-64 (43.5%) - (35.9% in these selected European countries).
  7. 7. 7 In all countries (and Italy is no exception), the highly educated immigrants are less likely to be employed than their native-born counterparts Difference in employment rate of foreign- and native-born persons 15 to 64, 2009-10 -20 -10 0 10 20 Low educated Highly educated Note: excluding persons still in education. Source: Settling in, OECD 2012.
  8. 8. Immigrants are strongly over-represented in low-skilled jobs 8 Share of immigrants in low-skilled jobs, by gender, 2009-10 01020 Australia Ireland United States Poland Sweden Hungary Canada Norway United Kingdom Czech Republic Slovak Republic Denmark Switzerland Finland Netherlands Luxembourg OECD average Belgium Estonia Iceland Germany Portugal Slovenia France Austria Spain Italy Greece Native-born 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Men Women Foreign-born Source: Settling in, OECD 2012. • Half of the highly educated employed immigrants are overqualified in their jobs. • Migrants who obtained their diploma abroad as well as those born outside the OECD zone are the most affected by overqualification.
  9. 9. … and in some specific sectors 9 Industry segregation by gender, 2008 and 2012 Source: Settling in, OECD 2012. Source: International Migration Outlook, OECD, 2013.
  10. 10. The economic crisis has particularly affected immigrant men labour market outcomes 10 Immigrant and native-born employment rates by gender, 2001-2012 Source: International Migration Outlook, OECD, 2013.
  11. 11. Marked decline in North Africans labour market outcomes 11 Immigrant and native-born employment rates by region of origin, 2007-2012, Italy 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 EU15 + EFTA Bulgaria and Romania other Europe North Africa Asia Native-born % Source: Quarterly Labour Force Surveys, ISTAT.
  12. 12. 12 Other findings from Settling in: OECD Indicators of Immigrant Integration • 17.8% of immigrants are at risk of poverty in Italy (same rate in the OECD on average) but children living in an immigrant household are much more at risk to live in poverty than their native peers. • Low home ownership rate and bad housing conditions are only partly explained by age of the household head and level of income. • The share of immigrant self employed is high in international comparison but low in the national context. The share slightly increases with the duration of stay. • The share of nationals among the foreign-born population (excluding nationals at birth) is low in international comparison. • Among immigrants born outside the OECD zone, highly educated immigrants are twice as likely to be naturalised than their low educated peers.
  13. 13. Most children of immigrants are born abroad Immigrants and native-born offspring of immigrants aged 15 to 34, 2008 Percentage of the population 15-34 13 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Immigrants Native-born offspring of immigrants % Source: Settling in: OECD Indicators of Immigrant Integration, OECD. …and their share among young adults is growing
  14. 14. High probability of having poor reading skills at the age of 15 and high penalty for arriving at old ages -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Immigrant students who arrived between 6 and 12 Immigrant students who arrived after 12 14 Difference in PISA 2009 reading scores with immigrant students who arrived before 6, after accounting for socio-economic background More than a quarter of minor children arrive after the age of 11 Note: Students aged around 15 in 2009. Source: PISA 2009, OECD.
  15. 15. High proportion of immigrant students not speaking Italian at home and a high penalty for those who do not 15 Difference in reading scores between native students and students with an immigrant background who speak a language at home that is different from the language of assessment, after accounting for socio-economic background Note: Students aged around 15 in 2009. Source: PISA 2009, OECD. AUT BEL DNK EST FIN FRA DEU GRC IRL ISR ITA LUX NZL NORPRT SVN ESP SWE CHE GBR USA OECD -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % speaking another language at home Difference in points
  16. 16. Differences in distribution by type of schools explain part of differences in mean reading scores 16 2009 PISA reading scores and percentage of students by type of schools and immigrant status 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 100 200 300 400 500 High-school Technical institute Vocational institute Lower secondary school Vocational training course (regional programmes) Scores Scores % distribution (right-hand scale) % distribution (right-hand scale) Scores % Offspring of native-born: Immigrant students: Note: Students aged around 15 in 2009. Source: PISA 2009, OECD.
  17. 17. Difficult transition to work for youngsters with a foreign background, especially for those arrived at a late age 17 NEET rates by place of birth in selected OECD countries, 2008, 2011 and 2012 Percentage of the 15-24 population who is neither in employment, nor in education or training Source: International Migration Outlook, OECD, 2013.
  18. 18. Summary of findings 18 • Labour market outcomes are still relatively good, but limited professional mobility of migrants raises concerns. • Immigrant workers have been hardly hit by the crisis, in particular men and North Africans. • Employability, in particular of low-educated migrants, is a key issue. • Immigrant housing conditions are unfavourable, unconditional on their level of income and this raises issues in terms of access to credit and access to information on the renting system. • Many children of immigrants arrive at old age and this is associated with low educational and labour market outcomes. • Low educational outcomes of offspring of immigrants require special policy attention.
  19. 19. Thank you for your attention! For further information on the OECD’s work on integration: www.oecd.org/migration

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