Calorie and exercise

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In this slide, we can caculate the amount of calorie we eat or calorie after we do exercise! As a result, we can make plan to lose weigh

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  • This lecture will cover the essential aspects of weight control. The myths and problems associated with fad diets are described and the benefits of healthy lifestyle approaches are described.
  • Interesting quote!
  • Review from a previous concept.
    The primary factors associated with an increase in body fat with age is a progressive decrease in the metabolism. Basal metabolic rate is highly dependent on the amount of lean body mass an individual has. With age a person's LBM decreases and, therefore, so does the BMR. Exercise is one way of maintaining LBM and keeping BMR elevated.
    Physical Activity is also known to decrease with age. This decrease is another reason for creeping obesity.
    To maintain body weight it is necessary for people to either maintain a habit of regular exercise or to progressively decrease their caloric intake as they get older.
  • This graphic shows the number of pounds that Americans say they want to lose.
  • There are a number of factors that may influence a person’s risk of being overfat.
    There is considerable evidence to suggest that obesity and body composition are strongly influenced by genetics. Research by Claude Bouchard (1992) has suggested that genetics accounts for about 25% of the variance in body composition among individuals. The concept of somatotypes has been used to understand differences in individual body types. Some people may be genetically predetermined to carry higher amounts of body fat (endomorph) while others are meant to be leaner (ectomorph)
    Gland problems account for only 2% of cases of overfatness but it is often used as an excuse. It is also possible that individuals with high levels of fat when they are a baby can have a harder time remaining normal weight as an adult. This is because the body has more fat cells (hyperplasia) and has a harder time keeping them all small.
    While these factors may make it hard for everyone to attain the perfect body everyone can improve their body composition up to their own personal ideal or best through lifestyle behaviors. Modern environments make it harder to live a healthy lifestyle!
    Bouchard, C. Genetic Aspects of Human Obesity (1992). IN: Bjorntorp, P. & Brodoff, B.N. (Eds.) Obesity. Lippincott Co.., Philadelphia, pp 343-351.
  • Dieting is a national obsession in our country. It has been estimated that 40% of all men and 25% of all women in the U.S. are on a diet at any one time. Overall, the weight loss industry has been valued at over 33 billion dollars (1992 estimate).
    The dieting craze is largely caused by our societies preoccupation with appearance and in particular leanness. (Issues regarding body image can be discussed at this point if desired).
  • Most "diets" are unsuccessful.
    It has been estimated that over 50% of people gain weight back within 2 years (reference) Only 5-10% manage to keep most of the weight off. (see Kramer et al.(1989) Int. J. Obesity 13:123-126
    Wadden, J. et al. (1988) J. Consult. Clin. Psych. 56:925-928)
    Why do diets fail?
    - Short term (quick fix!)
    - Not a change in lifestyle
  • This figure shows the typical cycle of dieting
    People begin a diet and have good initial motivation. They may see some initial positive results but eventually they will have trouble with compliance (party, eating out, stress). They may give up and blow diet and gain the weight back. Eventually, people regain inspiration and decide to try again.
    Because of the initial positive results, most people blame themselves and believe that dieting works. They keep trying new diets to try to find one that they can live with. Because most “diets” are inherently short term they will all fail when people come off of the diet. Only long term lifestyle changes will be effective in keeping the weight off.
  • The concept of weight cycling or Yo-Yo dieting has recently received a lot of attention in the literature. Some evidence suggests that with repeated cycles of dieting there is increased resistance to weight loss and increased efficiency of weight gain (Essentially the body adapts to fewer calories and becomes more efficient).
    Some studies have suggested that repeated cycles of weight loss can increase a person's risk for CHD (usually attributed to tendency to store fat in the abdominal region. A recent review in JAMA (1994) suggests that this risk is unfounded and that individuals should persist in their efforts at weight loss. Essentially, they argued that the health risks of obesity far outweigh the potential health risks associated with weight cycling.
  • The main problem with fad diets is that they are inherently temporary. If the change is not a part of a healthy lifestyle adherence will be poor.
    The weight loss that is seen is often water loss and is gained back very quickly
    The diet treatments (appetite suppressants) can often be addictive and or dangerous.
    Diet may lack essential vitamins and minerals and create health problems.
    Extreme caloric restriction may also cause the bodies metabolism to slow down and resist further weight loss.
  • Review issues with Atkins diet and public health concerns
  • Appetite suppresants containing ephedra are dangerous. Refer students to On the Web for more information.
  • A drug combination called fenfluramine/phentermine (fen/phen) was found to lead to a form of valvular heart disease. Products containing these drugs – Redux and Pondimin have been taken off the market.
    A new drug called Sibutramine is used in a product called Meridia. It alters a person's appetite by making a person feel full. It is approved by the FDA but reports have indicated that it can raise blood pressure and lead some people to have irregular heart beats.
  • Weight Control is simply a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. If you take in more calories than you expend you will gain weight. If you take in less calories than you expend you will lose weight. To maintain weight intake must be balanced by expenditure.
  • To lose weight it is necessary to create a caloric deficit (expend more than you take in). There is really only two ways to do this (eat less or exercise more)
    Despite what the fad diets claim, there are no secret pills or techniques that make weight loss easy.
  • A lifestyle approach may take longer than the fad diets claim but the weight loss will be real and it will be allow you to take in enough calories for good health. It will also be easier to live with than an extreme fad diet.
    Nutritious diet
    Regular Exercise
  • The following guidelines are healthy dietary patterns.
  • Continued
  • There are many benefits of exercise for weight loss
    1. Burns calories
    2. Maintains LBM which keeps the BMR higher
    3. Increases the metabolic rate following exercise so you burn more calories even when resting
    4. Exercise promotes greater fat loss. Fad diets, on the other hand, may cause a loss of LBM
    5. Suppresses the appetite. Moderate levels of activity can decrease the appetite because the body is somewhat tricked into thinking it is full.
    Research shows that people who combine diet with exercise may not lose that many more calories but they will keep the weight off more easily.
  • The following represent some general weight loss calculations.
    1 pound of fat contains 3500 calories. Therefore, to lose 1 pound of fat a person must have a deficit of 3500 calories.
    To give students a perception of this amount give them some examples:
    1. The average diet is approximately 2000 calories per day so this represents nearly 2 days worth of food
    2. 1 mile burns off about 100 calories so this amounts to
    nearly 35 miles of walking/jogging
    The maximum weight loss per week should be no more than 1-2 pounds to permit a healthy and "livable" diet. Use examples to show required deficit per day and mention that it is easiest to create a greater caloric deficit if efforts at reducing intake and increasing expenditure are combined.
  • In summary, there are a few general principles to follow in a weight loss program
    1. Set realistic goals. Weight takes a while to put on and therefore it takes time to take it off
    2. Be moderate in your behavior change efforts. Extreme changes will not be easy to maintain
    3. Be consistent in behavior. It is okay to splurge or miss a day of exercise just get back to it the next day.
    4. Seek out positive social support (family, friends)
  • Supplemental graphics follow this slide.
  • Lab information
  • Lab information
  • These and many other studies document the benefits of low fat diets for long term weight control.
    Kendall et al (1991) AJCN 53, 11224-1129
  • This study compared people that dieted with exercise versus those who dieted without exercise. One would expect those that exercised to lose more weight because of a greater caloric deficit but the participants lost the same amount of weight. Interestingly, participants who exercised lost a larger amount of body fat rather than muscle.
  • Calorie and exercise

    1. 1. 1 Presentation Package forPresentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14eConcepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section V: Concept 15Section V: Concept 15 Managing DietManaging Diet and Activity forand Activity for Healthy BodyHealthy Body FatnessFatness Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activityVarious management strategies for eating and performing physical activity are useful in achieving and maintaining optimal body composition.are useful in achieving and maintaining optimal body composition.
    2. 2. ““We’re raising our children the wayWe’re raising our children the way we raise calves for veal - keepwe raise calves for veal - keep them in boxes, feed them toothem in boxes, feed them too much, and allow them nomuch, and allow them no exercise.”exercise.” Rich KillingsworthRich Killingsworth Center for Disease Control andCenter for Disease Control and PreventionPrevention
    3. 3. 3 Creeping ObesityCreeping Obesity Physical activity decreases and leads to a decrease In metabolic rate. If energy expenditure drops more than energy intake, weight gain will occur.
    4. 4. 4 Pounds of Weight American’sPounds of Weight American’s Want to LoseWant to Lose
    5. 5. 5 Factors Influencing Weight & FatFactors Influencing Weight & Fat ControlControl  Heredity / GeneticsHeredity / Genetics  LifestylesLifestyles  Consumption of excess caloriesConsumption of excess calories  Lack of regular physical activityLack of regular physical activity  EnvironmentEnvironment  Easy access to high calorie food makes it harderEasy access to high calorie food makes it harder to eat properlyto eat properly  Modern “conveniences” make activity less likelyModern “conveniences” make activity less likely
    6. 6. 6 Portion DistortionPortion Distortion Click here to visitClick here to visit the “Portionthe “Portion DistortionDistortion”” demonstrationdemonstration
    7. 7. 7 Prevalence of DietingPrevalence of Dieting  40% of all women40% of all women  25% of all men25% of all men Diet products are a 33 billion dollar industry.
    8. 8. 8 Almost All Diets areAlmost All Diets are UnsuccessfulUnsuccessful  50% regain all weight50% regain all weight within 2 yearswithin 2 years  5-10% keep weight off5-10% keep weight off permanentlypermanently Why do diets fail?
    9. 9. 9 Cycle of DietingCycle of Dieting START DIETSTART DIET INITIALINITIAL MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION POSITIVE RESULTSPOSITIVE RESULTS TROUBLE WITH COMPLIANCETROUBLE WITH COMPLIANCE FAIL W / DIETFAIL W / DIET BLAME SELFBLAME SELF REGAINREGAIN INSPIRATIONINSPIRATION
    10. 10. 10 Yo-Yo DietingYo-Yo Dieting  Increased resistanceIncreased resistance to weight lossto weight loss  Increased efficiencyIncreased efficiency of weight gainof weight gain
    11. 11. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 11 Problems withProblems with Fad DietsFad Diets  Weight loss is often water lossWeight loss is often water loss  Supplements may be dangerousSupplements may be dangerous  Diet may lack essential nutrientsDiet may lack essential nutrients  Metabolism may slow down if caloricMetabolism may slow down if caloric intake is very low.intake is very low.  Most (if not all) simply do not work forMost (if not all) simply do not work for people long term!people long term! Web15-03 for information on fad diets
    12. 12. Dangers of the Atkins DietDangers of the Atkins Diet Low carb diets are not a panacea as is typically claimed but the extreme aspects of the Atkins diet are even more problematic. The diet may yield modest weight loss in the short term but long term studies show negative consequences. The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine has been working to counter the pro-Atkins media and slow the hype about the Atkins diet.
    13. 13. 13 Problems with AppetiteProblems with Appetite SuppressantsSuppressants  Many people use non prescriptionMany people use non prescription appetite suppressants to control eating.appetite suppressants to control eating.  Ephedrine related products have beenEphedrine related products have been found to be dangerous and have beenfound to be dangerous and have been banned by the FDAbanned by the FDA  Herbal equivalents (e.g. Ma Huang are notHerbal equivalents (e.g. Ma Huang are not safe).safe).
    14. 14. 14 Problems with Prescription WeightProblems with Prescription Weight Control PillsControl Pills  Fenfluramine/phentermine (fen/phenFenfluramine/phentermine (fen/phen))  Used in medicines such as Redux and PondiminUsed in medicines such as Redux and Pondimin  Contributes to a form of valvular heart disease.Contributes to a form of valvular heart disease.  Currently banned by the FDACurrently banned by the FDA  SibutramineSibutramine  Used in a product called Meridia.Used in a product called Meridia.  Has been approved by the FDA but may raiseHas been approved by the FDA but may raise blood pressure and lead to irregular heart beats.blood pressure and lead to irregular heart beats.
    15. 15. 15 Principles of Weight ControlPrinciples of Weight Control (A balance between intake and expenditure)(A balance between intake and expenditure) EXEXININ IN > EX - Gain WeightGain Weight IN = EX - Maintain WeightMaintain Weight IN < EX - Lose Weight
    16. 16. 16 Guidelines for Losing Body FatGuidelines for Losing Body Fat  Need to create a caloric deficitNeed to create a caloric deficit (2 ways to do it!)(2 ways to do it!)  Eat less!  Exercise more! Lab 15b info Web15-02 for information on different weight control resources and links
    17. 17. 17 Lifestyle Approach!Lifestyle Approach!  Healthy eating patternsHealthy eating patterns  Regular activity patternsRegular activity patterns A simple AND effective method for long-term weight control.
    18. 18. 18 Healthy Eating PatternsHealthy Eating Patterns  Eating a variety of foodsEating a variety of foods  Eating smaller, more frequent mealsEating smaller, more frequent meals  Avoiding bingeingAvoiding bingeing  Reducing fat intakeReducing fat intake  Fat is calorically dense (high in calories)Fat is calorically dense (high in calories)  Fat is more easily stored than carbohydratesFat is more easily stored than carbohydrates or proteinor protein Lab 15a info Info from studies on dietary fat and weight control
    19. 19. 19 Healthy Eating PatternsHealthy Eating Patterns continuedcontinued  Low “glycemic load” diets may be aLow “glycemic load” diets may be a more sensible alternative to low-more sensible alternative to low- carbohydrate diets.carbohydrate diets.  Artificial sweeteners and fat substitutesArtificial sweeteners and fat substitutes may help but cannot be considered amay help but cannot be considered a “sure cure” for body fat problems.“sure cure” for body fat problems.  Avoid anything with ephedra.Avoid anything with ephedra.  Restrict “empty” calories.Restrict “empty” calories.  Learn the difference between cravingLearn the difference between craving and hunger.and hunger.
    20. 20. 20 Regular Activity PatternsRegular Activity Patterns  Benefits of Exercise for Weight ControlBenefits of Exercise for Weight Control  Burns caloriesBurns calories  Maintains LBMMaintains LBM  Increases metabolismIncreases metabolism  Promotes greater fat lossPromotes greater fat loss  Suppresses appetiteSuppresses appetite  What type of exercise is best?What type of exercise is best?  Aerobic exerciseAerobic exercise  Strength or muscle endurance exerciseStrength or muscle endurance exercise Info on exercise and weight
    21. 21. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 21 Weight Loss CalculationsWeight Loss Calculations 1 pound of fat = 3500 calories1 pound of fat = 3500 calories Maximum weight loss should beMaximum weight loss should be no more than 1-2 pounds per week:no more than 1-2 pounds per week: 500 calories/day x 7 days/week = 3500 calories/week (1 pound) 1000 calories/day x 7 days/week = 7000 calories/week (2 pounds)
    22. 22. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 22 Guidelines for Gaining Muscle MassGuidelines for Gaining Muscle Mass  Young people often have difficulty inYoung people often have difficulty in gaining weight or muscle mass.gaining weight or muscle mass.  Changes in the frequency andChanges in the frequency and composition of meals are important tocomposition of meals are important to gain muscle mass.gain muscle mass.  Physical activity is important in gainingPhysical activity is important in gaining muscle mass.muscle mass.
    23. 23. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 23 Behavior Change PrinciplesBehavior Change Principles for Weight Controlfor Weight Control  Set realistic behavioral goalsSet realistic behavioral goals  Moderation in behaviorModeration in behavior  Consistency in behaviorConsistency in behavior  Social supportSocial support
    24. 24. SupplementalSupplemental GraphicsGraphics Lab InformationLab Information Additional Graphics on the Effects of DietAdditional Graphics on the Effects of Diet and Activity on Weight Controland Activity on Weight Control
    25. 25. 25 Lab 15a InformationLab 15a Information Selecting Strategies for Managing EatingSelecting Strategies for Managing Eating  Select strategies that you might findSelect strategies that you might find useful for effective eating habits fromuseful for effective eating habits from Chart 1.Chart 1.  Discuss your personal experiences withDiscuss your personal experiences with eating and describe your need foreating and describe your need for employing these strategies in your life.employing these strategies in your life. Return to presentation
    26. 26. 26 Return to presentation Lab 15b InformationLab 15b Information Evaluating Fast Food OptionsEvaluating Fast Food Options  Compute intake of calories, fat,Compute intake of calories, fat, saturated fat and cholesterol from asaturated fat and cholesterol from a typical fast food meal. (see Appendix E)typical fast food meal. (see Appendix E)  Compare values to recommendedCompare values to recommended amounts to see how fast food mealsamounts to see how fast food meals influence daily intakes.influence daily intakes.  Discuss the resultsDiscuss the results
    27. 27. 27 Benefits of Low Fat Diets forBenefits of Low Fat Diets for Long Term Weight ControlLong Term Weight Control  Dietary fat is stored more efficiently - 3% of ingestedDietary fat is stored more efficiently - 3% of ingested energy (Tucker, 1991).energy (Tucker, 1991).  Energy intake is lower when consuming low fat foodsEnergy intake is lower when consuming low fat foods (Lissner, 1987; Kendall, 1991).(Lissner, 1987; Kendall, 1991).  Body can increase metabolism of carbohydrates but willBody can increase metabolism of carbohydrates but will store excess fat (Thomas, 1992).store excess fat (Thomas, 1992).
    28. 28. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 28 Exercise No Exercise BodyWeight Time Weight Loss (kg)Weight Loss (kg) ExEx No ExNo Ex FatFat 6.16.1 4.64.6 LBMLBM 2.12.1 3.73.7 TotalTotal 8.28.2 8.38.3 (Hill et al., 1987)(Hill et al., 1987) Effects of Exercise andEffects of Exercise and Caloric RestrictionCaloric Restriction
    29. 29. Do You Know How Food Portions Have Changed in 20 Years? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Obesity Education Initiative
    30. 30. BAGELBAGEL 20 Years Ago TodayToday 140 calories 3-inch diameter How many calories are in this bagel?
    31. 31. 140 calories 3-inch diameter Calorie Difference: 210 calories 350 calories 6-inch diameter BAGELBAGEL 20 Years Ago Today
    32. 32. How long will you have to rake leaves in order to burn the extra 210 calories?* *Based on 130-pound person Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out
    33. 33. If you rake the leaves for 50 minutes you will burn the extra 210 calories.* *Based on 130-pound person Calories In = Calories OutCalories In = Calories Out
    34. 34. CHEESEBURGERCHEESEBURGER 20 Years Ago20 Years Ago TodayToday 333 calories333 calories How many calories are in today’s cheeseburger?
    35. 35. Calorie Difference: 257 calories 590 calories CHEESEBURGER 20 Years Ago Today 333 calories
    36. 36. Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to lift weights in order to burn the extra 257 calories?* *Based on 130-pound person
    37. 37. If you lift weights for 1 hour and 30 minutes, you will burn approximately 257 calories.* *Based on 130-pound person Calories In = Calories Out
    38. 38. SPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLSSPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS 20 Years Ago Today 500 calories 1 cup spaghetti with sauce and 3 small meatballs How many calories do you think are in today's portion of spaghetti and meatballs?
    39. 39. Calorie Difference: 525 calories 1,025 calories 2 cups of pasta with sauce and 3 large meatballs 20 Years Ago Today 500 calories 1 cup spaghetti with sauce and 3 small meatballs SPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLSSPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS
    40. 40. How long will you have to houseclean in order to burn the extra 525 calories?* *Based on 130-pound person Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out
    41. 41. *Based on 130-pound person If you houseclean for 2 hours and 35 minutes, you will burn approximately 525 calories.* Calories In = Calories Out
    42. 42. FRENCH FRIESFRENCH FRIES 20 Years Ago Today 210 Calories 2.4 ounces How many calories are in today’s portion of fries?
    43. 43. 610 Calories 6.9 ounces Calorie Difference: 400 Calories FRENCH FRIESFRENCH FRIES 20 Years Ago Today 210 Calories 2.4 ounces
    44. 44. How long will you have to walk leisurely in order to burn those extra 400 calories?* *Based on 160-pound person Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out
    45. 45. *Based on 160-pound person If you walk leisurely for 1 hour and 10 minutes you will burn approximately 400 calories.* Calories In = Calories Out
    46. 46. 85 Calories 6.5 ounces How many calories are in today’s portion? SODASODA 20 Years Ago Today
    47. 47. Calorie Difference: 165 Calories 250 Calories 20 ounces 85 Calories 6.5 ounces SODASODA 20 Years Ago Today
    48. 48. How long will you have to work in the garden to burn those extra calories?* *Based on 160-pound person Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out
    49. 49. If you work in the garden for 35 minutes, you will burn approximately 165 calories.* *Based on 160-pound person Calories In = Calories Out
    50. 50. 320 calories How many calories are in today’s turkey sandwich? TURKEY SANDWICHTURKEY SANDWICH 20 Years Ago Today
    51. 51. Calorie Difference: 500 calories 820 calories320 calories TURKEY SANDWICHTURKEY SANDWICH 20 Years Ago Today
    52. 52. How long will you have to ride a bike in order to burn those extra calories?* *Based on 160-pound person Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out
    53. 53. *Based on 160-pound person If you ride a bike for 1 hour and 25 minutes, you will burn approximately 500 calories.* Calories In = Calories Out
    54. 54. End of PortionEnd of Portion Distortion DemoDistortion Demo Return to PresentationReturn to Presentation

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