Evolving the Web into a Giant Global Database

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The Web as we know it today will not be the Web as we know it tomorrow. The Web of today is oriented towards the universal accessibility of files (e.g. web pages, images). The Web of today can be …

The Web as we know it today will not be the Web as we know it tomorrow. The Web of today is oriented towards the universal accessibility of files (e.g. web pages, images). The Web of today can be thought of as a large-scale, distributed file system. The Web of tomorrow will encode any datum (e.g. strings, integers, dates). The Web of tomorrow can be thought of as a large-scale, distributed database. This talk will discuss the the future Web with special focus on the supporting standards and application visions.

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  • 1. Evolving the Web into a Giant Global Database Marko A. Rodriguez T-5, Center for Nonlinear Studies Los Alamos National Laboratory http://markorodriguez.com February 12, 2009
  • 2. Abstract The Web as we know it today will not be the Web as we know it tomorrow. The Web of today is oriented towards the universal accessibility of files (e.g. web pages, images). The Web of today can be thought of as a large-scale, distributed file system. The Web of tomorrow will encode any datum (e.g. strings, integers, dates). The Web of tomorrow can be thought of as a large-scale, distributed database. This talk will discuss the the future Web with special focus on the supporting standards and application visions. New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 3. Outline • The Space of Uniform Resource Identifiers • The World Wide Web vs. the Semantic Web • Relational Databases vs. Triple Stores • Ontologies and Reasoning • General-Purpose Computing on the Semantic Web New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 4. Outline • The Space of Uniform Resource Identifiers • The World Wide Web vs. the Semantic Web • Relational Databases vs. Triple Stores • Ontologies and Reasoning • General-Purpose Computing on the Semantic Web New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 5. Internet Address Spaces • The Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is the superclass of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and Uniform Resource Name (URN). New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 6. The Uniform Resource Locator • The set of all URLs is the address space of all resources that can be located and retrieved on the Web. URLs denote where a resource is. http://markorodriguez.com/index.html ∗ Domain name server (DNS): markorodriguez.com → 216.251.43.6 ∗ http:// means GET at port 80, ∗ /index.html means the resource to get at that Internet location. Web Server index.html markorodriguez.com 216.251.43.6 New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 7. The Uniform Resource Name • The set of all URNs is the address space of all resources within the urn: namespace. urn:uuid:bd93def0-8026-11dd-842be54955baa12 urn:issn:0892-3310 urn:doi:10.1016/j.knosys.2008.03.030 • Named resources need not be retrievable through the Web. • URNs denote what a resource is. New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 8. The Uniform Resource Identifier • The URI address space is an infinite space for all Internet resources. http://markorodriguez.com/index.html urn:issn:0892-3310 ftp://markorodriguez.com/private/markos_secrets.txt http://www.lanl.gov#fluffy • Imporant: URIs can denote concepts, instances, and datum. lanl:fluffy lanl:fluffy_legs New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 9. The “Uniform Resource Graph” • We can denote where something is, what something is, but how do we denote how something relates to something else? • How can we denote what something means, where meaning is determined by its place within a larger relational structure? URIs are like words. They denote things in the real or imaginary world. Linking URIs is like defining words. Similar to how a dictionary defines words in terms of other words. New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 10. Outline • The Space of Uniform Resource Identifiers • The World Wide Web vs. the Semantic Web • Relational Databases vs. Triple Stores • Ontologies and Reasoning • General-Purpose Computing on the Semantic Web New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 11. Undirected Single-Relational Network Human-D Human-B Human-F Human-C Human-A Human-E New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 12. Directed Single-Relational Network Article-D Article-B Article-F Article-C Article-A Article-E New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 13. From the World Wide Web to the Semantic Web • The World Wide Web is primarily concerned with the Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and with retrievable resources in the URL address space. • These retrievable resources are files: HTML documents, images, audio, etc. The “web” is created when HTML documents contain URLs. http://markorodriguez.com/ index.html href Resume.html href Home.html href Research.html New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 14. Directed Multi-Relational Network Publisher-A Article-A publishedBy authored editorOf Human-B Journal-A containedIn authored Human-A authored Article-B New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 15. From the World Wide Web to the Semantic Web • The Semantic Web is primarily concerned with URIs. If the World Wide Web is the web of files, the Semantic Web is the web of concepts. In other words, for the World Wide Web, the level of granularity is the retrievable file. For the Semantic Web, it is the ideas in that file. Moreover, these ideas are not necessarily contained in a file. There existence is predicated on their URI. Their meaning is predicated on their relationship to other URIs. The web of URIs is the Semantic Web. New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 16. The Resource Description Framework • The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard for representing the relationship between URIs and literals (e.g. float, string, date time, etc.). I would have preferred the name “Uniform Resource Graph” (URG). • Relationships are directed, labeled links between URIs. A subject URI points to an object URI or literal by means of a predicate URI. subject predicate object lanl:marko foaf:knows lanl:jhw foaf:name foaf:name "Marko A. Rodrigez"^^xsd:string "Jennifer H. Watkins"^^xsd:string New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 17. foaf:Organization "University of New "Los Alamos National Laboratory"^^xsd:string Mexico"^^xsd:string rdf:type rdf:type foaf:name foaf:name foaf:Document lanl:lanl unm:unm rdf:type foaf:member foaf:member urn:doi:10.1016/j.joi.2008.04.002 foaf:member foaf:Person foaf:publications rdf:type rdf:type lanl:marko foaf:knows lanl:jhw foaf:name foaf:name "Marko A. Rodrigez"^^xsd:string "Jennifer H. Watkins"^^xsd:string New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 18. The RDF Data Model and its Serializations • RDF is a data model. As such, there exists many serializations (encodings) of that model. • RDF/XML is not RDF. It is a serialization of RDF. It is smart to, at all costs, avoid learning RDF/XML as it is an unintuitive standard. Other serializations include: N-TRIPLE, N3, TRIX, TRIG, ... <http://www.lanl.gov/uc33c7c98> <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> <http://www.mesur.org/schemas/2007-01/mesur#Journal> . <http://www.lanl.gov/uc33c7c98> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> "Journal of Neuroscience Research"^^<http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string> . <http://www.lanl.gov/uc33c7c98> <http://www.mesur.org/schemas/2007-01/mesur#hasDoi> "urn:doi:10.1002/(issn)1097-4547"^^<http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#anyURI> . <http://www.lanl.gov/uc33c7c98> <http://www.mesur.org/schemas/2007-01/mesur#hasIssn> "urn:issn:0360-4012"^^<http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#anyURI> . <http://www.lanl.gov/uc33c7c98> <http://www.mesur.org/schemas/2007-01/mesur#hasIssn> "urn:issn:1097-4547"^^<http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#anyURI> . New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 19. The Semantic Web is a Distributed Database • The URI address space is distributed. • URIs can denote datum. • RDF denotes the relationships URIs. • The Semantic Web’s foundational standard is RDF. • Therefore, the Semantic Web is a distributed database. New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 20. The World Wide Web vs. the Semantic Web Web Server Web Server HTML href HTML 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.2 Web Server Triple Store RDF foaf:knows 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.2 New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 21. Linked Data Cloud1 ECS Sem- South- Web- ampton Central updated Music- Doap- Audio- space Flickr brainz Scrobbler QDOS exporter SIOC profiles BBC BBC Magna- Onto- SW Later + John tune Jamendo world Conference TOTP Peel FOAF Corpus profiles Open- Guides Geo- names Revyu DBpedia RDF Book US Census Mashup World Data NEW! Fact- DBLP book lingvoj riese Berlin NEW! RKB Euro- Explorer stat flickr Gov- Wiki- Open wrappr Track company Cyc DBLP Hannover W3C Project WordNet Guten- berg 1 provided by Richard Cyganiak (richard@cyganiak.de) New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 22. Outline • The Space of Uniform Resource Identifiers • The World Wide Web vs. the Semantic Web • Relational Databases vs. Triple Stores • Ontologies and Reasoning • General-Purpose Computing on the Semantic Web New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 23. Relational Databases vs. Triple Stores: Technology • A relational databases’ (e.g. MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle) natural representation is a collection interlinked tables. • A triple stores’ (e.g. OpenSesame, AllegroGraph, Neo4j) natural representation is a multi-relational network, or graph. Relational Database Triple Store 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.2 New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 24. Relational Databases vs. Triple Stores: Culture • Relational databases tend to not maintain public access points. • Relational database users tend to not publish their schemas. • Triple stores maintain public access points called SPARQL end-points. • Triple store users tend to reuse and extend public schemas called ontologies. New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 25. SQL vs. SPARQL SELECT ?x WHERE { ?y foaf:name "Los Alamos National Laboratory"^^xsd:string . ?y foaf:member ?x . ?x foaf:knows ?z . ?z foaf:name "Marko A. Rodriguez"^^xsd:string } SELECT p1.id FROM person p1, organization o1 AS r1, person p2 WHERE o1.name="Los Alamos National Laboratory" AND o1.id = p1.member AND p1.id = r1.id AND r1.knows=p2.id AND p2.name="Marko A. Rodriguez"; New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 26. Outline • The Space of Uniform Resource Identifiers • The World Wide Web vs. the Semantic Web • Relational Databases vs. Triple Stores • Ontologies and Reasoning • General-Purpose Computing on the Semantic Web New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 27. foaf:Organization "University of New "Los Alamos National Laboratory"^^xsd:string Mexico"^^xsd:string rdf:type rdf:type foaf:name foaf:name foaf:Document lanl:lanl unm:unm rdf:type foaf:member foaf:member urn:doi:10.1016/j.joi.2008.04.002 foaf:member foaf:Person foaf:publications rdf:type rdf:type lanl:marko foaf:knows lanl:jhw foaf:name foaf:name "Marko A. Rodrigez"^^xsd:string "Jennifer H. Watkins"^^xsd:string New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 28. Ontologies • An ontology defines your domain of discourse. • An ontology helps to define the types of abstract classes that exist in your domain and the types of relationships that exist between instances of those classes. • An ontology allows you to infer implicit knowledge from explicit knowledge. New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 29. "1"^^xsd:int owl:Restriction lanl:Mammal owl:maxCardinality rdf:type rdf:subClassOf lanl:hasOwner owl:onProperty _:12345 rdf:type rdf:type rdfs:subClassOf foaf:Person lanl:Dog rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type lanl:jhw owl:differentFrom lanl:marko lanl:hasOwner lanl:fluffy lanl:hasOwner New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 30. Outline • The Space of Uniform Resource Identifiers • The World Wide Web vs. the Semantic Web • Relational Databases vs. Triple Stores • Ontologies and Reasoning • General-Purpose Computing on the Semantic Web New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 31. General-Purpose Computing on the Semantic Web • It is possible to represent a virtual computing machine and software in the Semantic Web. • Given that the URI address space is distributed, the computing structures are inherently distributed. • Thus, the Semantic Web can be used as a giant computer – data, programs, and virtual machines all within the same address space. New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 32. x = (3 ∗ 2) + 1 urn:uuid: lanl:Push rdf:type neno:hasValue "1"^^xsd:int 3cff4d2e neno:nextInst urn:uuid: lanl:Push rdf:type neno:hasValue "2"^^xsd:int 403d632c neno:nextInst urn:uuid: lanl:Push rdf:type neno:hasValue "3"^^xsd:int 47fe91e2 neno:nextInst urn:uuid: lanl:Multiply rdf:type 7c08528e neno:nextInst urn:uuid: lanl:Add rdf:type "x"^^xsd:string 7c08528e neno:nextInst urn:uuid: lanl:Set rdf:type neno:hasSymbol 361604bc New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 33. xsd:boolean RVM xsd:boolean [1] [1] methodReuse halt programLocation Fhat operandTop hasFrame returnTop [0..1] [0..1] [0..1] currentFrame [0..1] Operand [0..1] Instruction ReturnStack Stack rdf:rest rdf:rest blockTop rdf:first [0..1] [0..*] rdf:first [0..1] [0..1] forFrame Frame [1] rdfs:Resource Instruction rdf:li [0..*] [0..1] [0..1] Frame Block Variable Stack rdf:rest hasSymbol hasValue fromBlock rdf:first [0..1] [1] [0..*] [1] Block xsd:string rdfs:Resource Block New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009
  • 34. Conclusion • Thank you for your time... My homepage: http://markorodriguez.com Neno/Fhat: http://neno.lanl.gov New Mexico Internet Professionals Association Lecture (NMIPA) – Santa Fe, New Mexico – February 12, 2009