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Black Holes

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  • 1. Lian A. Black Holes
  • 2. What are they?
    • A simple definition would be: a region in space that has a gravitational force so powerful, not even light can escape
    • They are basically are areas in space where because the gravitational pull is very forceful, nothing can escape
  • 3. How do they form?
    • Black holes form when a massive star dies
    • A star is gigantic fusion reactor, that is fueled by gases
    • Eventually the gases will be used up and the star will die, creating a supernova
    • The remains of a supernova form a black hole
  • 4. How do we know black holes actually exist?
    • The prediction of how black holes existing was originally brought up by Einstein's theories and calculations
    • The Hubble Space Telescope showed data that there was mass at an area of space where they appeared to be nothing
    • Scientists studied the data and concluded that the “invisible” mass in space had to be a black hole, formed from a collapsed star
  • 5. How big are they?
    • The size of a typical black hole would be 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg! (31 zeros)
    • This number is estimated by finding the mass of an average star, larger than the sun, and multiplying it by ten because the black holes are extremely dense
    • A black hole with the mass of planet Earth would only have a 2-centimeter diameter
  • 6. Some Definitions:
    • Line of singularity-the collapsed center of the black hole
    • Event Horizon-the opening to the black hole
    • Ergoshpere-the egg shaped area surrounding the black hole; the egg shape is caused by the strong gravitational pull
    • Static Limit-the region between ergosphere and normal space—the area that is not effected by the black hole’s gravitational pull
  • 7. Schwarzschild Black Holes:
      • A black hole that does not rotate
      • This type of black hole only has a line of singularity and an event horizon
      • A black hole that rotates (it rotates because the star that created it rotated)
      • This is the most common type of black hole
      • Kerr black holes have all of the following: a line of singularity, an event horizon, an ergosphere, and a static limit
    Kerr Black Holes:
  • 8. Kerr
  • 9. Schwarzschild
  • 10. Bibliography-Websites
    • &quot;Glossary.&quot; Chandra :: Resources . N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2010. <chandra.harvard.edu/resources/glossaryB
    • Freudenrich, Craig, and Ph.D.. &quot;HowStuffWorks &quot;How Black Holes Work&quot;.&quot; Howstuffworks &quot;Science&quot; . N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2010. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/black-hole1.htm>.
    • Freudenrich, Craig, and Ph.D.. &quot;HowStuffWorks &quot;How Stars Work&quot;.&quot; Howstuffworks &quot;Science&quot; . N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2010. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/
    • &quot;BLACK HOLESby Ted Bunn.&quot; Berkeley Cosmology Group . N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2010. <http://cosmology.berkeley.edu/Education
    • &quot;How Big is the Sun?.&quot; Universe Today . N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2010. <http://www.universetoday.com/guide-to-space/the-sun/how-big-is-the-sun/>.
    • Freudenrich, Craig, and Ph.D.. &quot;HowStuffWorks &quot;How Black Holes Work&quot;.&quot; Howstuffworks &quot;Science&quot; . N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2010. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/black-hole2.htm>.
  • 11. Bibliography-Books
    • Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. &quot;Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe.&quot; Holt Science And Technology: Astronomy Short Course J . Student ed. Austin: Holt Rinehart & Winston, 2007. 45. Print.
    • Burns, Charles. Black Hole . New York: Pantheon, 2008. Print.
    • Tyson, Neil Degrasse. Death by Black Hole: And Other Cosmic Quandaries . New York: W. W. Norton, 2007. Print.