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Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
Pascal
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Pascal
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Pascal

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  • 1. More Metaphysics <ul><li>Blaise Pascal </li></ul>sleepless productions
  • 2. what happens if you die in the matrix? why does it matter? sleepless productions
  • 3. why does it matter? <ul><li>why does Neo want to know what happens if you die in the matrix? </li></ul>sleepless productions
  • 4. what about real life... <ul><li>is there anything that changes the way you live? </li></ul><ul><li>we’re going to think about something related to this today... </li></ul>sleepless productions
  • 5. but first: some words you need to know <ul><li>agnostic </li></ul><ul><li>theist </li></ul><ul><li>atheist </li></ul>sleepless productions
  • 6. Pascal - The Man... <ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><li>1623-1662 </li></ul><ul><li>Mother died. </li></ul><ul><li>bit of a maths geek. </li></ul><ul><li>home-schooled by mathematician father. </li></ul><ul><li>contemporary of R Descartes </li></ul>sleepless productions
  • 7. there is neither proof that God does or does not exist. <ul><li>so what should we do? </li></ul><ul><li>remember the maths... </li></ul>the agnostic is right sleepless productions
  • 8. believe in God! <ul><li>It still makes sense to believe in God, and the sensible thing, the maths/logical thing to do, is to believe. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you work out why? </li></ul>sleepless productions
  • 9. Heaven & <ul><li>Hell </li></ul>sleepless productions
  • 10. 1. If you believe in God and God does exist, you will be rewarded in the afterlife. 2. If you do not believe in God and God does exist, you will be punished in the afterlife. 3. If God does not exist, nothing will happen to you in the afterlife whether you believed in him or not. 4. Clearly there is more to gain from believing than not believing in God. 5. Therefore it makes sense to believe in God. formally: sleepless productions
  • 11. think another way... <ul><li>you meet a guy, who says if you meet him at the police station, he will give you a million pounds </li></ul><ul><li>would you go? </li></ul><ul><li>what happens if you do, if you don’t? </li></ul><ul><li>(assume being at the police station means the guy isn’t going to try and put you in the boot of his car...) </li></ul>sleepless productions
  • 12. So The potential benefits, are much greater than the potential losses. So you might as well go to the station. Now make a table for Pascal’s Wager... sleepless productions Guy turns up with money Guy is nowhere to be seen you believe & go to police station YOU’RE RICH you go home you think crazy & don’t go... nothing changes, you’re gutted you go home
  • 13. so clearly the only thing to do is to choose between [BIG + or nothing] or [BIG - or nothing] sleepless productions God is Real/Exists God does not exist you believe you live in paradise (BIG +) nothing happens (£0.00) you do not believe you live in hell (BIG -) nothing happens (£0.00)
  • 14. problem solved <ul><li>everyone should believe in God </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the sensible thing to do... </li></ul>NOT AT ALL and the objections are easy enough to spot. Give it a go in groups. sleepless productions
  • 15. why do we believe things usually? <ul><li>write the question & think about it... </li></ul>sleepless productions
  • 16. that’s a problem... <ul><li>pascal’s reasons to believe are not the usual ‘believing reasons’ </li></ul><ul><li>he tells us that the potential gain in happiness is better, but nothing of the likelihood that this happiness will happen... </li></ul>if i told you it might be good for you to believe something, it doesn’t mean you would... sleepless productions
  • 17. put simply <ul><li>belief isn’t about what you would like to be the case, it’s about what you believe to be the case. </li></ul>if someone says your parent is in hospital, saying that you don’t want to believe it doesn’t help much. sleepless productions
  • 18. you don’t lose? <ul><li>Pascal says if you spend a devoted life believing and it turns out that God isn’t there, you don’t lose out. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this true? </li></ul>sleepless productions
  • 19. sacrifice servitude abstinence restraint devotion obedience <ul><li>This depends what religion and belief is really all about. </li></ul>could be about the best way to live... or maybe not...? if you only live once , you have to decide on the best way to live... sleepless productions
  • 20. is the real wager between belief & not? <ul><li>is it more complicated than that? </li></ul><ul><li>what do you believe in? </li></ul><ul><li>could you lose if you believe in the wrong thing? </li></ul><ul><li>or is God bigger than religion? </li></ul>sleepless productions
  • 21. Cosmological Argument <ul><li>perfect answer and some late additions </li></ul>
  • 22. cosmological argument
  • 23. cosmological argument what is the cosmological argument? is the cosmological argument convincing? conclusion
  • 24. cosmological argument what is the cosmological argument? 1 Everything has a cause II Nothing is its own cause III Chain cannot be infinite IV There must a be first cause V This is God Who? Thomas Aquinas (Christian) Where? 5 ways, Summa Theoligica Why? Trying to provide foundation for belief in God. is the cosmological argument convincing? conclusion
  • 25. cosmological argument what is the cosmological argument? 1 Everything has a cause II Nothing is its own cause III Chain cannot be infinite IV There must a be first cause V This is God Who? Thomas Aquinas (Christian) Where? 5 ways, Summa Theoligica Why? Trying to provide foundation for belief in God. is the cosmological argument convincing? Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig conclusion
  • 26. cosmological argument what is the cosmological argument? 1 Everything has a cause II Nothing is its own cause III Chain cannot be infinite IV There must a be first cause V This is God Who? Thomas Aquinas (Christian) Where? 5 ways, Summa Theoligica Why? Trying to provide foundation for belief in God. is the cosmological argument convincing? yes no Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig conclusion
  • 27. cosmological argument what is the cosmological argument? 1 Everything has a cause II Nothing is its own cause III Chain cannot be infinite IV There must a be first cause V This is God Who? Thomas Aquinas (Christian) Where? 5 ways, Summa Theoligica Why? Trying to provide foundation for belief in God. is the cosmological argument convincing? yes no Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig seems to fit with the idea of a finite universe Einstein, Hubble Big bang as caused? some say big bang, but this fits nicely for Aquinas... conclusion
  • 28. cosmological argument what is the cosmological argument? 1 Everything has a cause II Nothing is its own cause III Chain cannot be infinite IV There must a be first cause V This is God Who? Thomas Aquinas (Christian) Where? 5 ways, Summa Theoligica Why? Trying to provide foundation for belief in God. is the cosmological argument convincing? yes no Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig ‘ schoolboy’ objection, either: p1 & p4 contradict or: ‘well who made God?’ Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig this is a bad objection... p 1-3 describe a problem p4 is like a solution or a tactical substitution seems to fit with the idea of a finite universe Einstein, Hubble Big bang as caused? some say big bang, but this fits nicely for Aquinas... conclusion
  • 29. cosmological argument what is the cosmological argument? 1 Everything has a cause II Nothing is its own cause III Chain cannot be infinite IV There must a be first cause V This is God Who? Thomas Aquinas (Christian) Where? 5 ways, Summa Theoligica Why? Trying to provide foundation for belief in God. is the cosmological argument convincing? yes no Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig ‘ schoolboy’ objection, either: p1 & p4 contradict or: ‘well who made God?’ Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig this is a bad objection... p 1-3 describe a problem p4 is like a solution or a tactical substitution this is where Aquinas talks about ‘necessary’ and ‘contingent’ beings definitions fallacy of composition? equivocation? explain both these phrases and explain how they apply (Russell) seems to fit with the idea of a finite universe Einstein, Hubble Big bang as caused? some say big bang, but this fits nicely for Aquinas... conclusion
  • 30. quantum theory <ul><li>remember we talked about Professor Hawking </li></ul><ul><li>at an atomic level things do on occasion happen by chance, in fact always </li></ul><ul><li>perhaps this means there didn’t need to be a first cause? </li></ul>but there was still something...
  • 31. Ockham’s Razer <ul><li>William of Ockham </li></ul><ul><li>whatever is the most likely explanation is probably what happened </li></ul><ul><li>what’s more probable? </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum accident or Divine causation? </li></ul>
  • 32. cosmological argument what is the cosmological argument? 1 Everything has a cause II Nothing is its own cause III Chain cannot be infinite IV There must a be first cause V This is God Who? Thomas Aquinas (Christian) Where? 5 ways, Summa Theoligica Why? Trying to provide foundation for belief in God. is the cosmological argument convincing? yes no Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig ‘ schoolboy’ objection, either: p1 & p4 contradict or: ‘well who made God?’ Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig this is a bad objection... p 1-3 describe a problem p4 is like a solution or a tactical substitution this is where Aquinas talks about ‘necessary’ and ‘contingent’ beings definitions fallacy of composition? equivocation? explain both these phrases and explain how they apply (Russell) seems to fit with the idea of a finite universe Einstein, Hubble Big bang as caused? some say big bang, but this fits nicely for Aquinas... conclusion Niels Bohr, Quantum Theory Things can just appear/happen at atomic level William of Ockham, Okham’s Razor Perhaps God is more likely than atomic fluke
  • 33. question of infinity <ul><li>just a reminder... </li></ul><ul><li>is an infinite regress really illogical? </li></ul><ul><li>perhaps not, but this moves beyond our reason... </li></ul>
  • 34. cosmological argument what is the cosmological argument? 1 Everything has a cause II Nothing is its own cause III Chain cannot be infinite IV There must a be first cause V This is God Who? Thomas Aquinas (Christian) Where? 5 ways, Summa Theoligica Why? Trying to provide foundation for belief in God. is the cosmological argument convincing? yes no Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig ‘ schoolboy’ objection, either: p1 & p4 contradict or: ‘well who made God?’ Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig this is a bad objection... p 1-3 describe a problem p4 is like a solution or a tactical substitution this is where Aquinas talks about ‘necessary’ and ‘contingent’ beings definitions fallacy of composition? equivocation? explain both these phrases and explain how they apply (Russell) seems to fit with the idea of a finite universe Einstein, Hubble Big bang as caused? why exactly does he say that a chain of causes cannot be infinite? though counter-intuitive perhaps not mathematically contradictory some say big bang, but this fits nicely for Aquinas... conclusion Niels Bohr, Quantum Theory Things can just appear/happen at atomic level William of Ockham, Okham’s Razor Perhaps God is more likely than atomic fluke
  • 35. cosmological argument what is the cosmological argument? 1 Everything has a cause II Nothing is its own cause III Chain cannot be infinite IV There must a be first cause V This is God Who? Thomas Aquinas (Christian) Where? 5 ways, Summa Theoligica Why? Trying to provide foundation for belief in God. is the cosmological argument convincing? yes no Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig ‘ schoolboy’ objection, either: p1 & p4 contradict or: ‘well who made God?’ Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig this is a bad objection... p 1-3 describe a problem p4 is like a solution or a tactical substitution this is where Aquinas talks about ‘necessary’ and ‘contingent’ beings definitions fallacy of composition? equivocation? explain both these phrases and explain how they apply (Russell) seems to fit with the idea of a finite universe Einstein, Hubble Big bang as caused? why exactly does he say that a chain of causes cannot be infinite? though counter-intuitive perhaps not mathematically contradictory some say big bang, but this fits nicely for Aquinas... conclusion measured response if universe is within our reason then possible inconclusive quantum physics is still relatively new Niels Bohr, Quantum Theory Things can just appear/happen at atomic level William of Ockham, Okham’s Razor Perhaps God is more likely than atomic fluke
  • 36. cosmological argument what is the cosmological argument? 1 Everything has a cause II Nothing is its own cause III Chain cannot be infinite IV There must a be first cause V This is God Who? Thomas Aquinas (Christian) Where? 5 ways, Summa Theoligica Why? Trying to provide foundation for belief in God. is the cosmological argument convincing? yes no Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig ‘ schoolboy’ objection, either: p1 & p4 contradict or: ‘well who made God?’ Other Version: Kalam William Lane Craig this is a bad objection... p 1-3 describe a problem p4 is like a solution or a tactical substitution this is where Aquinas talks about ‘necessary’ and ‘contingent’ beings definitions fallacy of composition? equivocation? explain both these phrases and explain how they apply (Russell) seems to fit with the idea of a finite universe Einstein, Hubble Big bang as caused? why exactly does he say that a chain of causes cannot be infinite? though counter-intuitive perhaps not mathematically contradictory some say big bang, but this fits nicely for Aquinas... conclusion measured response if universe is within our reason then possible inconclusive quantum physics is still relatively new Niels Bohr, Quantum Theory Things can just appear/happen at atomic level William of Ockham, Okham’s Razor Perhaps God is more likely than atomic fluke

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