History of Internet Searching

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A short history of the Internet and searching on the Internet and World Wide Web.

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  • First map of the ARPANET. http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/. SDS 940, IBM 360
  • In February, the public got its first glimpse of the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator & Computer), a machine built by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert that improved by 1,000 times on the speed of its contemporaries.
    Start of project:1943Completed:1946Programmed:plug board and switchesSpeed:5,000 operations per secondInput/output:cards, lights, switches, plugsFloor space:1,000 square feetProject leaders:John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert.
    (From: www.computerhistory.org).
  • 1960’s. This is a color image of the ILLIAC IV with three men nearest to the camera, standing and working around the system. There are two other men in the far back of the room. The light is coming from the ceiling. Written on verso side on white label is "ILLIAC IV Boston". Also written on verso side is "#1449". Parallel Processing appeared in the huge ILLIAC IV, the first computer to abandon the classic one-step-at-a-time scheme of John von Neumann. ILLIAC IV had sixty-four processors, each with its own memory, all operating simultaneously on separate parts of one problem. Designed at the University of Illinois and built by Burroughs, the computer took six years to complete at a cost of $40 million. It was the fastest machine then in use, but ahead of its time. Plagued by technical ills and very difficult to program, ILLIAC IV was one of a kind. (From: http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/accession/102630726)
  • 1965 - Digital Equipment Corp. introduced the PDP-8, the first commercially successful minicomputer. The PDP-8 sold for $18,000, one-fifth the price of a small IBM 360 mainframe. The speed, small size, and reasonable cost enabled the PDP-8 to go into thousands of manufacturing plants, small businesses, and scientific laboratories. (From: www.computerhistory.org). Aprox. 100 pounds.
  • Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN)
    http://www.bbn.com/about/timeline/. Now owned by Raytheon.
  • Leonard Kleinrock (Professor at UCLA) in front of IMP1 (The first ARPANET node) at UCLA, 1969. http://www.lk.cs.ucla.edu/personal_history.html
  • http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/full_size_images/1971_net_map.gif
  • http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/full_size_images/1973_net_map.gif
  • https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Arpanet_logical_map,_march_1977.png
  • Leonard Kleinrock at UCLA, 2009.
  • http://www.broadband.gov/broadband_types.html
  • googol (1 to the 100th power)
  • History of Internet Searching

    1. 1. History of Internet Searching  Fall, 2015Fall, 2015
    2. 2. The Internet  Built in 1969.Built in 1969.  Funded by the DoD for scientific research,Funded by the DoD for scientific research, built by BBN (Bolt, Beranek & Newman)built by BBN (Bolt, Beranek & Newman) Technologies.Technologies.  Originally calledOriginally called ARPANETARPANET  AAdvanceddvanced RResearchesearch PProjectsrojects AAgencygency  First nodes (connections) were atFirst nodes (connections) were at universities (UCLA, UCSB, Stanford, Univ.universities (UCLA, UCSB, Stanford, Univ. of Utah)of Utah)  First message sent on Oct. 29, 1969 fromFirst message sent on Oct. 29, 1969 from UCLA to Stanford was “lo”UCLA to Stanford was “lo”..
    3. 3. Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN)
    4. 4. Ray Tomlinson Invented Email in 1971.Invented Email in 1971. Wasn’t supposed to be working on it, he thought it would be aWasn’t supposed to be working on it, he thought it would be a “neat“neat idea”. Decided to use the @ symbol because it was not being used foridea”. Decided to use the @ symbol because it was not being used for anything else.anything else.
    5. 5. The Internet Computers that made up the ARPANET wereComputers that made up the ARPANET were calledcalled IMPIMP’s’s (Internet Message Processor)(Internet Message Processor) The ‘net is grows by about one node per month for first few years.
    6. 6. The Internet Computers that made up the ARPANET wereComputers that made up the ARPANET were calledcalled IMPIMP’s’s (Internet Message Processor)(Internet Message Processor)
    7. 7. Internet Access Speeds - Personal  An Internet Service Provider (ISP) providesAn Internet Service Provider (ISP) provides connection between user and Internet.connection between user and Internet.  DSL 1.5 MbpsDSL 1.5 Mbps  Cable 2.5 MbpsCable 2.5 Mbps  3G Cellular .5 Mbps3G Cellular .5 Mbps  4G Cellular 10 Mbps - 1 Gbps4G Cellular 10 Mbps - 1 Gbps
    8. 8. Internet Access Speeds - Professional  T-1T-1 1.544 Mbps  T-3 43.232 Mbps (28 T1's)  OC-3 155 Mbps (84 T1's)  OC-12 622 Mbps (4 OC3's)  OC-48 2.5 Gbps (4 OC12's)  OC-192 9.6 Gbps (4 OC48's)
    9. 9. Internet Access Speeds – Future  ConnectionsConnections  Lasers & Fiber OpticsLasers & Fiber Optics  BPL (Broadband Over PowerlineBPL (Broadband Over Powerline  TerabitsTerabits  Trillion Bits per SecondTrillion Bits per Second
    10. 10. Protocols  Methods of using the Internet:Methods of using the Internet:  Telnet – Access and Control ComputersTelnet – Access and Control Computers  FTP – File Transfer ProtocolFTP – File Transfer Protocol  HTTP – HyperText Transfer ProtocolHTTP – HyperText Transfer Protocol  Gopher – File Access & DownloadingGopher – File Access & Downloading  EmailEmail Uses IMAP, SMTP, or POP.Uses IMAP, SMTP, or POP.
    11. 11. History of Internet Searching  FTP – File Transfer ProtocolFTP – File Transfer Protocol  Protocol established in 1985.Protocol established in 1985.  FTP Servers provide files to FTP ClientsFTP Servers provide files to FTP Clients Problems with FTP  No organization of FTP Servers  User had to know an FTP Server existed  User had to visit FTP Server to see files
    12. 12. History of Internet Searching  ARCHIEARCHIE  1990 (No WWW)1990 (No WWW)  Alan Emtage @ McGill Univ. inAlan Emtage @ McGill Univ. in MontrealMontreal  Searchable directory of FTP filesSearchable directory of FTP files  Searched FTP Servers and indexed theirSearched FTP Servers and indexed their filesfiles  User searched the IndexUser searched the Index 
    13. 13. History of Internet Searching  GopherGopher  1991 (WWW Began)1991 (WWW Began)  Paul Lindner & Mark P. McCahill ofPaul Lindner & Mark P. McCahill of Univ. of MinnesotaUniv. of Minnesota  Named after the Univ. of Minn. MascotNamed after the Univ. of Minn. Mascot  Connected Gopher servers through theConnected Gopher servers through the Gopher hierarchy (gopherspace)Gopher hierarchy (gopherspace)
    14. 14. History of Internet Searching  WandererWanderer (Matthew Gray(Matthew Gray’s World Wide’s World Wide Web Wanderer)Web Wanderer)  First WWW EngineFirst WWW Engine  Designed to track the size of the WWWDesigned to track the size of the WWW  Captured URLCaptured URL’s and entered into’s and entered into database (Wandex)database (Wandex)  First RobotsFirst Robots “bots”“bots”
    15. 15. Search Engine Technology  Three parts to a Search EngineThree parts to a Search Engine Bots (Robots)Bots (Robots) DatabaseDatabase User InterfaceUser Interface
    16. 16. Search Engine Technology  Bots (Robots)Bots (Robots)  Also called SpidersAlso called Spiders  Computer programs sent out by QueryComputer programs sent out by Query ServersServers  Search the Internet for serversSearch the Internet for servers  Identify servers & collect informationIdentify servers & collect information  Uses links from websites to find otherUses links from websites to find other sitessites
    17. 17. Search Engine Technology  DatabaseDatabase  Collects the information from QueryCollects the information from Query Server and organizes it.Server and organizes it.
    18. 18. Search Engine Technology  User InterfaceUser Interface  Allows users to search the database andAllows users to search the database and returns the information from it.returns the information from it.
    19. 19. Search Engine Technology  Relevance RankingRelevance Ranking  Search engine measures the relevance ofSearch engine measures the relevance of the information found to your requestthe information found to your request  First search engine to use RelevanceFirst search engine to use Relevance Ranking was the Repository-BasedRanking was the Repository-Based Software Engine (RBSE) in 1993Software Engine (RBSE) in 1993
    20. 20. Search Engine Technology  Relevance Ranking (Techniques)Relevance Ranking (Techniques)  How often do the search terms appearHow often do the search terms appear  How close are the search terms to eachHow close are the search terms to each otherother  Where do the search terms appearWhere do the search terms appear  How often do the search terms appearHow often do the search terms appear compared to the length of the web pagecompared to the length of the web page

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