Early history of jefferson county, iowa 08 10Presentation Transcript
An Early History ofJefferson County: WHEN iowa is ‘THE wild WEST’
CARNEGIE HISTORICAL MUSEUM - an Iowa Century Museum -
Pleistocene Ice Age Migration
Paleo-indians 13,500–10,500 years ago Hunters & gatherers first occupy Iowa at the end of thePleistoceneglacial period. IOWA is covered by tundra, coniferforests and deciduous forests. Clovis Points
Mastodon (left) and mammoth (right) teeth Tooth shapes of these 15,000 year-old molars indicate mastodons browse tree branches, while mammoths graze grasses. Fossils of these extinct Ice Age (Pleistocene) creatures resembling elephants have been widely found across Iowa.
St. Charles LANCE POINT 5000 B.C. ARCHAIC
the longest period of Iowa prehistory, lasts about 8,000 years.
Populations increase in Iowa despite a changing climate. In the Late Archaic (5,000–2,800 years ago) the climate becomes similar to modern. Larger populations create The Late Archaic sees the first mound building in Iowa, as well as direct evidence of domesticated plants, and large, long-term settlements. new subsistence strategies.
Woodland period 1000 B.C. – 1000 A.D. Native Iowans shift away from hunting & gathering. More domesticated plants come into use . . . . . . wild food is still important. Hand-built CERAMICS, bows & arrows, burial mounds and evidence of political and social hierarchy become common at Iowa Woodland sites.
Bob Hall, circa 1980 Banner Stones and ceremonial flint blades he dug as a boy from burial mounds on the home farm c. 1915.
EARLY RECORDED HISTORY
1673 1st recorded Europeans in Iowa, Jesuit Father Marquette & Louis Joliet Last voyage of the CARNEGIE MUSEUM’s Birch bark canoe, paddled by Bill Kay- Van Buren County . . . . . . October 1969
1803 Louisiana Purchase 4 April 1804 Lewis & Clark mention the IOWAY in their journal. The Carnegie Museum has seventy-five artifacts of a type referred to in the expedition records.
The Ioway Chief Mahaska of Iowaville McKinney & Hall diplomatic portrait Iowaville, an Ioway village on the Des Moines River near Ottumwa. The Ioways live there between about 1770 and 1824. They hunt, trap, farm, & trade . . . and . . . defend themselves against other groups. 1836 relocation of the Ioways from Western Missouri to Wolf River, Kansas. Corporate Charter of the Iowa Tribe of the Iowa Reservation in Kansas and Nebraska -- Ratified June 19, 1937
Black Hawk war Both Abraham Lincoln and early Jefferson County settlers serve in the Illinois Militia . . . . . . 1832. The U.S. Army moves the Sauk Indian tribe from Illinois to Iowa. The Sauk have run-ins with the native Iowaysand don't like Iowa. Chief Black Hawk leads them back to plant their old fields. Seeing Indians on their land, white settlers panic & shoot two Indians dead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black Hawk retaliates.
Black Hawk Purchase
Keokuk & his favorites : Horse Wife Son Circa 1910 litho reproductions of portraits by George Catlin
Black Hawk George Catlin pays scant homage to Keokuk’s old rival.
Sac & Fox Elder By George Catlin Catlin is most famous for documenting tribes of the Great Plains but spends a surprising amount of time painting in Eastern Iowa.
The Mes-kwa-ki Meskwaki means “PEOPLE of the RED EARTH". They are originally from Wisconsin. The French call them "Reynards" or foxes - the Sac (or Sauk) have a similar language . Both groups are designated “Meskwaki “ by the federal government. The Meskwaki come to Iowa in the mid 1800s after wars with various European settlers & other tribal groups. The Treaty of 1842 relocates them to Kansas. Chief Poweshiek's band returns to Iowa and purchases settlement land near Tama. Ribbon-work by Mrs. Bill Leaf, circa 1915
Pow-a-sheek McKinney & Hall lithograph from an 1830’s oil portrait painted in Washington, D.C. Sauk & Fox War Dance
John huff born 1811 First man of European descent known to visit Jefferson County in 1835 . . . makes barrels and fills them with wild honey. $ $ $ $ $ McCormick Reaper 1834 John Deere steel plow 1835
Breaking sod Tough root system
The mysteriousiron cross The first settlers encounter it on a limestone bluff near Libertyville. Bill Perry 1953 As a Parsons College geology student, Bill finds a hand–forged iron spike embedded at the site. This may be a cross fragment.
Pow-a-sheek encampment is near Lockridge in 1836 when William Coop is born. He is the first pioneer child born in Jefferson County. William Coop & Friend 1981 bronze statue by Christopher Bennett
John Rush Parsons 1840’s Plows six mile furrow from his farm to Fairfield . . . . Now Highway 34 Huge sod-breaking plow Eight yoke of oxen Judith Ward is a descendent.
The LINCOLN Romance In 1837, two years after Ann’s death, Mrs. Rutledge moves to Birmingham and brings this walking wheel with her.
Bonnifield cabin 1838 Listed on the NATIONAL REGISTER of HISTORIC PLACES . . . where Nancy Bonnifield gives Fairfield its name in 1839. Restoration work 2005
Buffalo Hunt by George Catlin The last sightings of American Bison in the wild Buffalo Dance by Catlin
IowaStatehood 1846 Texas Statehood, December 29, 1845 Iowa Statehood, December 28, 1846
Joel turney Builds wagons for the “49ers” on their way to California . . . In1888he moves the business from Trenton, Iowa to FAIRFIELD.
Railway service 1858 - Irish Catholic workers lay Fairfield’s first railway line.
1860 The Wideawakes This flag is carried in Jefferson County’s largest political rally. Ink drawing by W. H. Jackson The torchlight parade sees 25,000 people in attendance.
– PATRIOTIC IOWA – From Fairfield More Iowans serve per capita than any other state.
Lincoln Sat Here the President and Fairfield’s U. S. Representative, James Falconer Wilson, sit for Brady Studio portraits. 1862-
Lewis b. parsons, jr. 1818 - 1907 1863 – Lincoln signs promotion to rank of Captain 1865 – Lincoln, Grant & Stanton write testimonials praising his work as QUARTER MASTER .
!!You’ve won!! It’s official. Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, James F. Wilson calls on Lincoln at the White House
Thomas emersonMaplethorpe 1849 - 1922 walks from his farm near Wellman to the Iowa City train depot for this newspaper. Emigrated from England at age ten.
Our Congressman rides theLINCOLNFuneral Train. 1865 James F. Wilson
The Byrkits were Quaker Conductors on the UNDERGROUND RAIL ROAD Archie Byrkit RIFLE
William Loudeninventor, 1841 - 1931 McCormick Reaper 1834 1867 LOUDEN Hay Carrier William Louden, the Cyrus McCormick of Jefferson County . . . . . . . . 30,000 custom barns on every continent, except Antarctica
Stephenson Coverlets the family shear the sheep, spin & dye the wool Jacquard weave
1867 synergy Louden Hay Carrier = BIGGER barns BIGGER barns = More hay Split rails keep foraging critters OUT ! 1870’s barbed wire keep BIGGER herds IN !
Draft horses By the 1880’s imported horses replace oxen. They are faster.
The end Mark Shafer Carnegie Historical Museum 25 August 2010
credits Carnegie Historical Museum AFairField by Susan Fulton Welty FairfieldattheTurnoftheCentury by Mark Shafer Maasdam Barns Preservation Committe Jefferson County Historic Preservstion Commission Wikipedia GOOGLE Image Search Mrs. Gwen Wells William Perry Bill Cay Mrs. Vera Young Fairfield Public Library Keith Shafer Mrs. Edith Jordan Jefferson County Heritage Trail
If Illinois is the LAND of LINCOLN, Southeast Iowa is the land of his shirt-tail relations