DAP Chapter Presentation: ECED 341


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DAP Chapter Presentation: ECED 341

  1. 1. DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE PRACTICE Stephany Lawhon Amanda Ballard Jordan Bittner Jenny Kim
  2. 2. CHAPTER 11 Developmentally Appropriate Social/Emotional Environments: For Preschoolers
  3. 3. SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL ISSUES IN PRESCHOOL YEARS  Identification process  Gender/sex role identity  Cultural and racial identity  Initiative  Friendship  Prosocial behavior versus Aggression  Self Control
  4. 4. GENDER IDENTIT Y  Two components:  Sexual identity  Sex-role behavior “Young children struggle with many issues as they attempt to understand what being a girl or boy means. The support they do or do not get in their preschool years lays the foundation for the rest of their gender identity formation”
  5. 5. CULTURAL AND RACIAL IDENTIT Y  Understanding of one’s racial or ethnic identity  It is important to respond to cultural diversity.  Respect and acceptance is required for an ef fective early childhood education. Question:  How can you show acceptance to all races/cultures in your classroom?
  6. 6. INITIATIVE  Healthy sense of self  Children want to assert themselves through initiative through pretending, inventing, creating, taking risks, and playing with others.  PLAY!
  7. 7. FRIENDSHIP Friendship and learning the skills of friendship are important social/emotional issues of early childhood. Desirable social skills can be taught and modeled by helpful teachers .
  8. 8. PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR VERSUS AGGRESSION Positive discipline methods help promote prosocial behaviors and lessen aggression Children exhibit prosocial behaviors when they become aware of the need of help of others
  9. 9. SELF CONTROL  The process of forming a conscience - “an inner voice of self observation, self-guidance, self-punishment” is the goal of appropriate guidance for preschoolers.
  10. 10. DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE ENVIRONMENTS FOR FEELINGS  Security  Warm Relationships  Acceptance  Active Listening  Limits on Expression  Providing outlets  Modeling behavior  Materials for expression  Learning about feelings  Vocabulary to Express Feelings
  11. 11. NURTURING INDIVIDUAL IDENTIT Y  It is inappropriate to treat children as they are only members of a group  It is important to recognize the unique characteristics and needs of each and every child as an individual  It is important to recognize that forming a healthy gender identity is development task for preschool children.  It helps to enable them to clarify answers.
  12. 12. IMPLICATIONS-INDIVIDUAL IDENTIT Y  Use words and nonverbal actions to show affection and sincere interest in them  Spend time talking individually with each child each day.  Create a classroom atmosphere that encourages and values individuality  Respond with sensitivity to children’s individuality.  Convey respect for individual parents’ styles and needs.
  13. 13.  Provide opportunities, materials, and encouragement for children to initiate activities that have meaning and interest them personally.  Continually incorporate concepts related to personal identity into learning activities and conversations.
  14. 14. IMPLICATIONS-GENDER IDENTIT Y  Accept children's rights to be curious about their bodies  Offer experiences that challenge narrow, stereotypical views of gender behavior.  Recognize the play environment to encourage more cross-gender play choices.  Use art and photos to broaden children's views of what jobs men and women can do.
  15. 15.  Examine pictures and language in books in the classroom to show diversity in work and home roles.  Involved children in new activities.  Encourage all family members to become involved.  Communicate with parents about goals and classroom practices to support healthy gender identity  Examine personal feelings about gender -free activities, comments, and attitudes.
  16. 16. DISCUSSION  What types of things do you see in your classroom that show acceptance for gender and individual identity?  What would you do in your classroom?
  17. 17. ROUTINES: WHY THEY MATTER AND HOW TO GET STARTED  Having a routine in a classroom allows children to feel secure and safe.  Feeling secure and safe allow children to trust each other because their lives are predictable and stable.  What types of routines do you see in your classroom?
  18. 18. CULTURAL AND RACIAL IDENTIT Y  When teachers are able to create an antibias environment for the students it will promote positive attitudes towards cultural and race identity.  There are many goals for an antibias environment for all children to be aware of.       Self awareness Confidence Family pride Positive social identities Express comfort with human diversity Recognize fairness and understand that fairness hurts  Teachers should be including ideas about cultural diversity and respect in their daily interactions and aware that what they are or are not using in the classroom will show what is valued by others.
  19. 19. CULTURAL AND RACIAL IDENTIT Y CONT.  Teachers can do the following:  Look through all pictures and books to make sure that they are portraying the diversity of the classroom, community, and total North American population.  Reading daily to the students can help them appreciate the diversity of the world.  Providing toys, materials, and activities for centers that celebrate diversity.  Involving parents in classroom activities, visits, and allowing them to share family stories about cultural background.  Working with families to support and maintain children's home language, but also working with them to learn English.  Becoming sensitive to opportunities to help children move from discomfort to knowing how to gently challenge ideas that could lead to bias development.
  20. 20. FRIENDSHIP  Preschoolers are at the stage where they are beginning to understand what friendship means.  Adults and teachers able to help students with the beginning of friendship when they: Allow time for face to face conversations. Providing materials that promote social play. Pairing children up during activities. Asking children if they would like to play with a friend. Help children develop effective skills for entering play. Help children understand how their behavior affects the response of others.  Model play entry skills to help students who are less skilled in the activity learn how to enter the play.      
  21. 21. FRIENDSHIP CONT.  Help children practice effective communication.  Give children information to help them recognize when a friend wants to play with them.  Explore ideas of friendship and social skills with children.  Help students recognize that preschool friendships may be short lived.
  22. 22. TEACHING PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR  The preschool years are the time to become aware of early opportunities for learning and teaching.  Teachers are able to do many things to help students develop prosocial behavior.       Providing Materials Providing Activities Encouraging Assistance Considering Posocial Actions Help Children Recognize Prosocial Behavior Reinforcing Prosocial Behavior
  23. 23. TEACHING PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR CONT.      Modeling Prosocial Behavior Limiting Aggression and Antisocial Behavior Help Develop Empathy Opportunities for Kindness Creating a Caring Community
  24. 24. GUIDANCE TOWARD SELF -CONTROL  Preschool children are beginning to develop to control their impulses and are able to express their needs through language.  There are many dif ferent techniques that teachers should know and try to help teach appropriate behaviors.  Developmentally Appropriate Guidance:        Focusing on what children do right, rather than what they are doing wrong. Working together to correct situations Practices that do not support positive guidance Emphasize coercion Focus on retaliation Stop behavior without teaching alternatives Involve displaying adult anger with children’s limitations in self -control.
  25. 25. GUIDANCE TOWARD SELF -CONTROL CONT.  Ten positive guidance techniques that are developmentally appropriate:           Modeling Positive Statements Reinforcement, Noticing, Strokes Redirection Setting Limits Choices for Control Natural and Logical Consequences Discussion for Problem Solving “I”-messages Renewal Time
  26. 26. SUPPORTING PRESCHOOLERS’ POSITIVE PEER RELATIONSHIPS  Friendships provide important opportunities for children to learn and develop.  Best practice emphasizes the importance of respecting and promoting diversity in children’s play experiences and friendships.  When children try dif ferent activities and ways of communicating and interacting, they are better poised to develop the flexibility to interact successfully in a range of social groups and situations. (Manaster, 2012)
  27. 27. SUPPORTING PRESCHOOLERS’ POSITIVE PEER RELATIONSHIPS  Teachers are in a unique position to cultivate children’s cross gender interactions and friendships. By intentionally planning and supporting certain experiences, educators can encourage children to build a social world characterized by meaningful relationships with peers of both sexes.  When we take action to help children focus on their common interests, we create opportunities for girls and boys to share positive experiences with one another —and this may encourage them to seek each other out in the future. (Manaster, 2012)
  28. 28. ACTIVIT Y Behavior Role Play
  29. 29. CHAPTER 12 Developmentally Appropriate Social/Emotional Environments: For Primary Aged Children
  30. 30. SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL ISSUES FOR THE PRIMARY YEARS  Development of self-esteem in the primary years is closely bound to the development of a sense of industry, defined as the core conflict of the school years.  Core Conflict: Erikson’s term that describes the psychosocial issue to be resolved in each stage of development for healthy personality development  Influenced by both cognitive and social accomplishments
  31. 31. SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL ISSUES FOR THE PRIMARY YEARS  Peer Relationships and Group Skills  “By age six most American children spend more than 40% of their waking hours in the company of peers”  This has to do with the development of middle childhood.  At this age parents are realizing the children’s greater ability to think and act for themselves and allow them to begin spending extensive time with their friends.  These new experiences in friendship allow for children to master new cognitive and social skills.
  32. 32. SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL ISSUES FOR THE PRIMARY YEARS Peer Relationships and Group Skills ( ctnd.)  Basic Developmental Functions of Friendship Friendships…  Are the source of learning basic social skills such as communication, cooperation, and the ability to enter an existing group.  Help children learn about themselves, others and the larger world.  Offer fun, emotional support and relief from stress.  Help children begin to learn about intimate relationships  Seem to help children feel good about themselves.  Friendship teaches skills that help children fit into peer groups which is an important task in the primary years.
  33. 33. SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL ISSUES FOR THE PRIMARY YEARS Peer Relationships and Group Skills ( ctnd.)  It is crucial for teachers to help children develop the social skills necessary for group membership.  Students who do not develop these friendship skills are at risk for:     Poor school achievement Greater likelihood of dropping out of school Higher incidences of juvenile delinquency Poor mental health as adults.  Adult interventions and coaching from teachers can help children develop better relationship skills.
  34. 34. SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL ISSUES FOR THE PRIMARY YEARS Moral Development  Primary aged children become increasingly able to judge right from wrong, based on intentions.  Primary aged children are in a stage of moral realism.  Moral Realism: when rules are regarded as unchangeable, absolute, and imposed by an external authority.  Preconventional level of morality: when moral reasoning is influenced by a concern for obedience and punishment for satisfying personal needs.  School age children slowly move into the conventional level of morality.  Conventional level of morality: when children become more concerned with being fair and good, and look to others to approve the moral acts.
  35. 35. SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL ISSUES IN THE PRIMARY YEARS Emotional Development and Stress  For most students the early school years brings feelings of stress to their lives for the first time.  As children are beginning to learn how to deal with this stress, it is important to create less stressful environments for them.  It is also important to help them learn how to cope with stress, and learn to deal with these new feelings as they develop.
  36. 36.  Table Pairing and Share  What are some potential stressors that school -aged children might face for the first time?  How can a teacher best help his/her students cope with these new feeling of stress? Name one strategy.
  37. 37. IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS PLANNING SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS  Teachers can arrange their classrooms and activities to benefit the social/emotional development of the children. Skills for Group Participation  Teachers trying to help develop peer group skills should:  Become aware a children’s style of interaction, preferences of companions, and ability to communicate with others.  Helps teachers to plan appropriate grouping or pairings  Sociograms are a good tool for keeping track of the children socially, diagraming their patterns of social interaction or isolation.
  38. 38. IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS PLANNING SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS Skills for Group Participation ( ctnd.)  Create informal physical arrangements that allow children to work with particular people and allow for small group interaction.  Physical environment can help support children working and talking together.  This benefits students who are quieter and work more comfortable in a more intimate setting.  Create specific pairings for projects.  Based off of children’s interests or communication styles.  Working collaboratively together on a common activity often fosters friendships between students.
  39. 39. IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS PLANNING SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS Skills for Group Participation ( ctnd.)  Teach social skills directly  Less popular children usually are unable to initiate contact with other children and often provoke those peers with undesirable behaviors.  It is important for adults to intervene and teach these children appropriate social skills to prevent the behavior from becoming permanent. Social Skills that can be taught: 1. Giving attention to others 2. Becoming aware of others perspectives and wishes. 3. Taking turns 4. Initiating conversation 5. Listening and talking appropriately 6. Being assertive rather than aggressive 7. Looking and being supportive of other children 8. Learning to enjoy being with others
  40. 40. IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS PLANNING SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS Skills for Group Participation ( ctnd.)  Support children as they learn to take a social perspective.  Teachers should plan classroom activities and discussions to help children understand other’s feelings  Classroom meetings a great way of implementing this.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= -vCdCoV0JdQ  Plan group activities so that curriculum and daily time are designed for cooperative learning.  When children discover the joys of working with others as a team, they are motivated to develop group participation skills.  Positive group experiences need to be fostered by the teacher, they don’t just “happen”
  41. 41. IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS PLANNING SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS Skills for Group Participation ( ctnd.)  Create a classroom atmosphere that will not tolerate exclusion or unkindness to its members.  Teachers need to help children see that each member of the class has a different and valuable contribution to make.  Teachers should teach children to refuse to react to provocative behavior, instead of negatively reacting to it.  Create a sense of “caring community of learners that supports all children to develop and learn”  Allow children to engage in empathetic activities and consider others perspectives.
  42. 42. SELF-ESTEEM  Teachers have an important role in creating environments that foster the development of student’s self -esteem and selfef ficacy.  Self-esteem: Confidence in one’s own worth or abilities  Self-efficacy: The confidence of an individual in their ability to perform certain tasks.  Children with higher self -esteem and self-ef ficacy seem to be more academically successful. (Szente, 2007)
  43. 43. SELF-ESTEEM Children develop self -esteem from environments which:  Have learning tasks and methods that are developmentally appropriate to their level.  Individual plans and materials allow children to learn without fear of failure/embarrassment.  There is a broadened scope of activities.  This helps children involve themselves with their peers instead of socially comparing themselves to their peers.
  44. 44. SELF-ESTEEM  Children feel that they are equal and respected within the classroom.  Teachers have planned games and classroom activities that enhance self-esteem  Children participate in democratic discipline.  Students should take an active role in classroom regulation.
  45. 45. SELF-ESTEEM  Teachers need to promote a strong self -ef ficacy, just as much as self-esteem.  Children with strong self -ef ficacy are more persistent and more motivated to accomplish goals.  Teachers need to allow children to set goals, and promote self-motivation toward those goals.  Goals need to be both long and short term, as well as measurable.  These goals should be appropriate to the students development, and something they can achieve.  Teachers should find ways to help students reach their goals. (Szente, 2007)
  46. 46. ACTIVIT Y  Group 1  Create a developmentally appropriate classroom environment that promotes group skills and participation for a preschool student who is very timid and does not want to enter in group activities with other students.  Group 2  Create a developmentally appropriate classroom environment that promotes group skills and participation for a primary aged student who is aggressive and hostile toward other students in a group setting.
  47. 47. REFERENCES  Medof f, L. (August 6, 2013). Retrieved from http://www.education.com/magazine/ar ticle/importance routines-preschool-children/  Manaster, Hillar y; Jobe, Maureen (201 2) Suppor ting Preschoolers’ Positive Peer Relationships Young Children, v67 n5 p12 Nov 2012. 6 pp.  Szente, Judit. (2007) Empowering Young Children for Success in School and in Life. Early Childhood Education Journal, vol. 34, No. 6, June 2007. pp.449 -453  The DSC Way (August 26,2011.) Retrieved fromhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vCdCoV0JdQ