Universal Design Rethinking Barriers To Quality Of Life


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Universal Design Rethinking Barriers To Quality Of Life

  3. 3. Accessibility refers to the “ability to access” Impaired and better accessible sorrundings encreases quality of life for everyone ; the toddler, the old, the tired, the injured, the confused, the stressed, the unfocused etc. Good planning and design can help many to a better everyday life. Beeing dependent on others to manage (seemingly) simple everyday tasks can be a source to frustration ; :traveling to work :entering the trainstation and finding the desired train :bying a ticet :getting on the bus :crossing a street :finding a shop :finding information on the internet :walking on the sidewalk :getting home, etc the challenges can be tiredsome... Knowing about these challenges and knowledge of the concequenses of not taking them into consideration is the most important tool the proffesional designer has got to make our environment more accessible... GMI-Segway Cooperation, knowledge-exchange, good desition-making on the political level and seeking information from the right sources is of great importance. The Norwegian Ministry of The Environment did a pilot-project with 16 Municipalities from 2005-2008. In this period seminars were hold including very different levels of the regional and local administration and the community. Planners, responsible for purchasing, municipality advisors, organisationes, engineers, architects, landscape architects, etc... To sucseed in creating good accessible environments all professionals involved needs knowledge so that all details will work together in the final results. It is important to realise; sustainable environments are those that can guarantee not only safety, but also usability and autonomous mobility to the highest possible number of people. CASS SCULPTURE 3
  4. 4. WHAT DOES IT MEAN ; “UNIVERSAL DESIGN”? Design is in the therm of Universal Design understood to be a common term for all work prossesses involved in the shaping of the physical environment. This encompasses community planning, land use, architecture, construction, activity,product development and more. The consept of Universal Design is a strategic approach to planning and design of products and environments in a fashion that promotes an inclusive society that ensures full equality and participation for all, in the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaption or Barcelona specialized design. Primary aims for the strategy is to promote equality for, and ensure the full partispation in society of individuals with reduced functional- ity, by removing existing disabling barriers and preventing new ones from emerging. In Norway the therm of “ Universell Utforming” Universal Design, has in some design-circles, maybe due to lack of knowledge on the field, faced problems beeing embraced. The potentials and challeng- es that follows the aspect of “designing for everyone” has not been taken fully advantage of in the design-prosess in many projects. The term of universal design is named differently in various regions Barcelona of the world, small changes that indicate the focus in the different aspects of work to achive the goal of accessebility and selfmanage- ment in everyday situations for as many as possible; USA : Universal design England : Inclusive design Danmark, Finland, Nederland, EU : Design for alle also used : Transgenerational design, Accessible design MACBA ; Barcelona 4
  5. 5. THE ACCESSIBILITY TRIANGLE The WWT distinguish between three different health conditions when it comes to term of accessebility; damage, function disabled and handicapped. The three groups are listed below. The better accessebility, the fewer handicapped. People with severe disability;needs help with many daily activities, people in wheelchairs, and people with limited strength and mobility in their hands and arms. Mobility redused due to diseace, age-related impairment. The majority of the 10 % of the population refered to as disabled. Minor disabilities like reduced strenght and mobility, impaired hearing and sight. This group overlap with the group over. We will all experience to be potential users of universal design suited to our everyday needs. A situation with a stroller, a bag with wheels, beeing parents in public space, an injured foot and you need to use crutch, beeing to small in hight, or to tall. For most of us, it is not easy to be aware of these situations before they suddenly appare; the stairs become to difficult to get up, or to have a conversation in the cafe or in the hall of the theater becomes impossible because you can not manage to shut out all the “noise” of others talking. 5
  6. 6. WHAT TO TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION : Area and volum adjusted to the use of the room. WHEN PLANNING AND DESIGNING These priciples was developed to achieve equality, and by that “Day-to-day activities” are activities which are carried out by it means that special sollutions isn`t a good enough answer. most people on a fairly regular and frequent basis. Selfman- Addable sollutions can be stigmatising for a group, and must agement is of great importance for everyones quality of life, be avoided. Not just the moving disabled must be considered, not to depend on others in daily tasks. “Disabilities” to take but also orienting disabled and environmental disabled.It is into consideration when planning and designing our environ- important to strive for a holistic forming and sollutions that ment should include; will be incorporated in the consept from the beginning of the project to the end. Another side of the same aspect is the : mobility acceccebility to collective trasportation. : manual dexterity (fingerferdighet) : physical co-ordination Obstacles: : continence : ability to lift, carry or otherwise move everyday objects : eyesight (even when wearing glasses or contact lenses), : speech or hearing : memory, learning, concentration, understanding : perception of the risk of physical danger Sometimes it will be dificult to meet all of these issues but accessibility is about meeting as many as possible in our sour- roundings. The University of North Carolina worked on a list in the 1990ies on priciples that should be considered for designers as well as architects throughout their projects. Hav- Poor eyesight: ing all these principles in mind when designing, the environ- ment should be more suited for all to use. These priciples are : Same possibilities for use - make good functional projects, even if it is about buildings, parks or trafical areas. : Flexible design of rooms and buildings : Easy access and intuitive use of houses, areas, traffic termi- nals etc. : Understandable information in urban public environment as Part of eyesight is Tunnel-vision/ poor Top level of eye- well as in complex houses like hospitals and universities. : Security for all - like as fire or trafic poor or missing. eyesight in the sight over-exposed : Low physical tire in interior - open doors etc wide angle. and hardly visible. 6
  7. 7. ACCESSIBILITY IN TRAVEL In transportation, accessibility refers to the ease of reaching des- tinations. People who are in places that are highly accessible can reach many other activities or destinations quickly, people in inaccessible places can reach many fewer places in the same amount of time. The planning engineer could put it like this; .....20 Accessibility_i = sum_j {Opportunities_j } times fleft( {C_{ij} } right) where: * i = index of origin zones * j = index of destination zones * fleft( {C_{ij} } right) = function of generalized travel cost (so that nearer or less expensive places are weighted more than farther or more expensive places). In planning this means that accessible zones or aeras in a city will entering a bus-stop in Curitiba (Brazil), not he best solution with elevator but with slope on the other side also be more popular, and will give the inhabitants a wider set of choices than the ones living in less accessible aeras. And this has a consequence to the economy and quality of life of the inhabitants. And in the end this costs money... Said in a easier understood way; easy solutions for everyone to use save money and time. Well designed vending machines and guidelines to help the traveller to find the right train/bus/boat/gate is of course important. Wide entrances to traffic halls, train stationes and hubs to avoid pact people crowds unable to move in preferred directiones. Good signing to find information desks, kiosks, vending machines, toilets etc. In public transportation it is of preferance to have “low floor” ve- hicles in traffic, meaning easy access without stairs, and preferably without use of elevator, wide doors, and no obstacles inside vehicle so that users on wheels (strollers, wheelchair) can move around without help and those with poor eyesight not bumping into objects arial view of access to unnessasary. entering bus from station bus-stop in Curitiba 7
  8. 8. ACCESSIBILITY IN THE CITY AND IN THE STREETSCAPE ity, but also with different ability in perception and orientation such as elderly, children, occasional users and foreigners, that Moving in our sorrundings without obstacles is preferred by need references in order to orientate themselves (the so- anyone, not only by the ones dependent on wheels. called landmarks and road signs), that are relate to different Good planning and design can give us good, accessible and cognitive and cultural backgrounds. The issue of the orienta- obstacle-free environments. tion and perceptibility of the urban space, used by “weak” us- In Barcelona they have worked in their city for a long time ers even on occasional basis, is still underestimated and very to be user friendly for as many as possible. This has become critical: in order to understand how difficult it is for a visually very visible in the streets, urban rooms and in many buildings impaired person to move around and orientate himself freely, in the city. The Urban Planning office works after the strategy we can just say that when we move around we use the sight of “reversed priority” which basically means they consider the in order to gather around 90% of the environmental informa- pedestrian environment their most important task. The tion. This element should influence also the choices in urban private car is private, and it is not considered a public task to planning and in creating streetscapes and urban space. give the private car good conditions in the public space. Reasonable! On the subject of “accessibility and people with disabilities in Barcelona, (they say:) Accessibility in the streets and to transport, but also to education, participation, employment, clear distinction of zones training, culture, sport, leisure… Building the accessible city means eliminating physical, communicational and mental barriers to improve quality of life for all. In Barcelona, peo- ple with disabilities and their associations are key players in meeting this challenge, a challenge that must be reviewed and renewed constantly. Accessibility is a goal from which all can benefit, and it should, therefore, form part of the very lifestyle of our city.” Therefore; In order to start a positive change in the field of urban planning, human changeability should be more consci- entiously used as the most important variable in the relation between man and the built environment; the project solutions should be made compatible with the different needs, guar- anteeing usability, safety, autonomy, easiness of perception and use, alternative ways of use, according to changeable and diverse needs. The routes should be thought so as to be easy to use also by weak pedestrians, people with reduced mobil- Magnor Torg New Old Market Square Nottingham, Eidskog Gustafson Porter 8
  9. 9. The potenciality to walk and orientate oneself within pub- lic spaces can therefore become the common denominator for different users, also with the help of the new information technologies. An intervention proposal could be the following; To identify an area, in which to test some pilot projects, by using methodologies and strategies that pay particular atten- tion to weak users: : identify an area of intervention, or a group of priority pedes- trian pathways. Connection to important nodes, in relation to the aims of the project; services, places of tourist interest and dedicated to leisure activities, resting areas, green areas. In order to be able to realise a possible network that is continu- ous, safe, accessible, comfortable, recognisable and attrac- tive. : remove from these pathways the elements of inconvenience Barcelona; untextured surface , due to the discontinuity of the pathway, to big difficulties in Entrance to Eiganes Park stadion easier for wheels and to orientate, using it, to the physical, visual and psychological threat smooth surface and wide door symbol unnessasary represented by the motor means of transport. : access the connections with public transports, with parking spaces, with places of interchange in terms of comfort and accessibility, to optimise the communication systems, the road signs and the connected urban furniture. : access the possibility to keep together or separate pedes- trian flows from other motorised or non-motorised flows. The urban complexity, in order to be accessible, can be man- aged with those tools and methods that are typical of Design for All and Ergonomics, disciplines whose parameters are us- ability and compatibility (referred to User Centred Design), the user-focussed project; these disciplines, that foresee the participation of final users and all stakeholders since the very beginning of the project, can give a significant contribution to the management of a quality urban project useable, enjoyable by everybody. Sketch of Vogtsgt. in Oslo Signing on surface in new streetscape in crossings of slowrail/tramline 9
  10. 10. Smooth surface in street; Wide and automatic Lowered steps to sidewalks, One smooth surface in Surface levels subtile indicated easier to keep clean and to door, smooth surface. and no obstacles street and place, draining with material-colours use for everyone This door can be difi- element in same level as cult for visualy im- surface paired to use due to the invisible glass... Wide ramps gives good space for different users; Access to beach with ramps, Even flooring and few ob- Adjustment of entrance to an old building, bikes, wheelchairs, strollers etc good space around showers stacles in bus and metro steps on one side and ramp on the other. and entry-aera. makes it easy to use. Could be better even with handrail on wallside of ramp. All pictures show situations in Barcelona 10
  11. 11. USE OF COLORS A right use of colours are very essential for orientation in spaces. Combined with different materials, light and acoustic qualities, architecture achieve individual amosphere that also can be helpful both for the experience and the orientation for bevegelseshemma, synshemma, orienteringshemma og miljøhemmede( astma og andre allergikere.) Here is a list of some things to think of, when it comes to use of colours. :The use of white surfaces, and specially in very bright envi- ronments with few differenciations of colour can make it diffi- cult for a person with a bad sight to handle and orient. :Head intrances should be marked with colour, it will make it easy to find both for svaksynt and orienteringshemma. :It is preferable to use different colours on floor and walls Different stations coloured for Outdoor playgrounds marked :Steps and stairs should be marked in contrast colours. different use. with clear colours. :Free standing columns should have a clear colour that dis- tinct from the colours of the surrounding walls. There should also bee a clear difference of colour between floor and col- umns. :Marking columns can also be used to convey direction. :A use of colour codes in different “stations” or areas for dif- ferent use is very helpful both for visually impaired and those who experience difficulties orientating. This is specially help- full in big open rooms. Main entrance aera Use of colour can separate indicated with colour. one staircase from another. 11
  12. 12. USE OF LIGHT Artificial light, daylight and sunlight can be challengig for sight disabled.With more and more glass used in modern architec- ture is also difficult for many to see the delimit of a room, a space or just where the door is. :Blinding can be avoided by planning where to put glass sur- faces in relation to sunlight and artificial light. :Light can be used to create open an closed rooms, or varia- tion in big open rooms and areas. :Light can be used to mark directions :It is important to increase lighting in spots where we usually dont use that much light, like in hallways and stairways. It Lights potential to change rooms. can be difficult to see the stairs without light. :There should be increased litghting by frontdoors, other doors and doorbells. :Light can be used as signal for doorbells, or when to go etc. :Light can be used symbolically like red and green in traffic. Light can be used to indicate direction. 12
  13. 13. TACTILITY AND TEXTURE- Sensing architecture One of the most profound and informative senses that we have is our sense of touch. This sense informs so much of the way we “see” the world around us. “It is interesting to think that in some way all of our other senses engage in some form of “touch” as we experience the things which make up our environments. Thus, as we move through architectural spaces, we touch what we perceive and we perceive what we touch — we extract it, interpret it and make meaning of it in our memory and through learning. You can say that “touch” helps us to understand.” “When you touch something it has been said that you can “feel” it. One could suppose that this means that you com- pletely take it in through the senses — to cognitively and emotionally form a perception and then an impression.” www.sensingarchitecture.com You can touch, feel, hear and see. We use all our senses when Textures on walls Textures on floors we orientate. A use of texture in walls, floors and other sur- faces, both inside an outside, can be very helpful for orien- tation for all users. The acoustic changes in different rooms with different surfaces and textures. Tactility gives an uniqe possiblilty to experience the architecture in another way than just through sight. The texture of walls, floors, ceilings etc can abstract light, be in help for orientation and wellbeeing. Big white rooms can be softened up by texture and light can give it an impression of being smaller, or bigger. Tekstures on building, in indoor or outdoor space can be im- portant factors on individual mapping or reading of a room, a space... and the place can also tell a story of its own. Another element is a greater us of textured maps, direction markers and pictogram. The whole place can be read without being around in every area of it. Textured maps 13
  14. 14. ACOUSTICS The acoustic is essential to make a room, a place a situa- tion bearable to stay in. Sound can stress, distress, orien- tate or dissorientate. The sound can be to quite or load or to unfocused. Did you manage to hear what was said from the speaker system at youre local supermarket, at your last flight or at a big lecture without a sound system? We are all hearing disabled in different situations. It is important to think of different aspects when designing room and space. Good acoustic environments can be made without electric equipment, and just by using the right materi- als and the right angels of walls, roofs and floors. :It is important to plan good understanding of speach in big rooms where the sound must bear long distances. In addition to increasing the architectual qualities, this can be used by central speakers with specific angles of direction. Symbol for telecoil Theis can be complementert med telecoil or similar equip- ment. :It is important to think of the soundlevel and the resonance time both for hearing dissabled and orientation disabled. It can be challenging to meet multiple needs, feks it can be dif- ficult for people with mobility impaired to open heavy sound issolating doors and treshholds. :It is also essential to reduce background noise to support conversation in public space where social interaction often takes place. recomended aqoustic relations in areas feks for educational purposes are resonance time: T; 0,4-0,6 sek backgroundnoise: L; less than or equal 35 dba signal and sound relation; bigger than or equal + 15 db total soundlevel in spaces; Lpa; less than or equal 70 dba Acoustic panel 14
  15. 15. USE OF HEALTY MATERIALS There is a great, and increasing amount of people that is suf- fering from asthma or allergies. The indoor climate as well as the outdoor is important to consider during a prosess of de- sign. By choosing the right material, the right paint, the right surfaces etc, a lot is already improved to make better environments. Here is a list of actions that can be done to prevent bad indoor climate; Paint with low emission :Secure low amount of moist in materials and finished build- and minimal smell ings :Secure ingestion of clean outdoor air, a way that prevent or- ganic materials like dust, snow and other moist to get sucked in to the building. :Avoid plants and trees close to the main entrance and air systems. :Choose materials that does not give off health damaging or Achieving an healthy environment irritating aviation; low emission materials. - is a balance between; :Choose materials and other building materials from product Temperature documentation that show good qualities in due to aviation :Avoid hot sourses with high surface temperature :Choose materials that got cleanable surfaces. :Ensure airfilters :Avoid shelves and constructions that collect dust, that seldom will be cleaned. Relative humidity Ventilation 15
  16. 16. EXAMPLES IN SIGNING AND GUIDELINES Obstacles referres not only to bumps, stairs and steep slopes, but it can also be lack of, or overload in signing. This can be truly confusing for the one with poor eyesight, the hearing impared or simply the tourist. Clever signing and guidelines in our environment can save us from lost time and a lot of negative stress and frustration. Using guidelines with texture and with contrast colours on the Clear guideline in bus-stop,with surface-texture,direct to bus entreance, and surface can be helpful to indicate directiones, change in di- indicating road-crossing and edges to sidewalk. Dark line most effective. rectiones, edges, crossings, entrances, etc. But it needs good planning and design to be sucsessful, and to not make poor visual and aesthetic solutions or in worst case chaotic sorrundings for the ones depending on visual and sensory help. It is desirable to make signing and guiding continously leading but also continously readable in large buildings and aeras in a Left: good contrasts in street sign, city (or the whole city) to achieve the best results in achiev- white on pink, pink on grey back- ing this. When developing a project, one can implement this ground. from the beginng as part of developing a strong identity and a Top left: service sign; clear white “i” on orange background. conceptually unit language to a building or a street, etc. Top right : service sign dark matt sign on translucent (frosted glass) background. From Modern Art Museum, Iceland From Dragvoll,Norway From Modern Art Museum, Iceland Guidelines in floor to indicate Clear and visual guidelines; yellow on Street name and nr in entrance rail on Museum name above entrance; dark classroom entrances. tarmac. Metro-tunnel in London. light background, Sensory accessible. writing on light background. 16
  17. 17. EXAPLES OF SMART ADJUSTMENTS IN DETAILS : Smooth ground surfaces of entranceways, without stairs : Wide interior doors and hallways : Lever handles for opening doors rather than twisting knobs : Light switches with large flat panels rather than small toggle switches : Buttons on control panels that can be distinguished by touch : Bright and appropriate lighting, particularly task lighting : Auditory output redundant with information on visual displays : Visual output redundant with information in auditory output : Contrast controls on visual output From Danfors -center,Danmark From Danfors : Use of meaningful icons as well as text labels Smooth surface for wheels and tired legs. Benches and trashbin : Clear lines of sight (to reduce dependence on sound) Clear divertion in colour indicating walk-zone easy to reach from path. : Volume controls on auditory output : Speed controls on auditory output : Choice of language on speech output : Ramp access in swimming pools : Closed captioning on television networks : Voice output on (official) web-pages (municipality, govern ment, cinema, papers? etc) 3 4 From Danfors From Danfors Ramps leading to different floors Ramps leading to different zones, easy to use by everyone. taking you over uneven terrain. From City Hall, 2 Iceland 1 The web-site of Malmø Municipality; one have the optiones of sign-language (1), voice-output (2), large text (3) for easy reading and other languages is From Dragvoll, Norway an option. This makes the information more accessible for more inhabitants Wide entrance door with change in Apropriate lighting; here natural than if the optiones were missing. surface on floor. Glass with stripes. overlight indicating walk-aera 17
  18. 18. From The Museum From From From of Modern Art, Iceland The City Hall, Iceland The Univercity of Iceland The Univercity of Iceland Entrance from street with change in surface Steps indicated with Large doorhandle better for visualy im- Ramp with rails, next to stairs for textures indicating something happening. light, easy to locate paired as automatic doors can be a chal- variated use. edges of stairs. lenge. Glass indicated with frosted pattern. Handrail indicating steps in stair, it is Metalnails indicating something new Lighting in roof of waitingaera Good lighting on f.ex a work desk important that rails are continous so that happening; steps going up. to lightrail in Paris. Makes it helps very much when the eyes someone with poor eyesight or who needs easy to find at night. get tired or the eyesight is poor. it for support suddenly is not left helpless. 18
  19. 19. UNIVERSAL DESIGN- CHALLENGING OR, A NECESSARY out an integration in mind from the first pensil draw? Special EVIL? design often leeds to segregation, stigma and not integration. Universal design have in some ways been sentral in the build- Years to come we will experience the challenge in Norway in a ing prossess of architects. The focus have been on easy bigger scale. The elder population in Norway will double in the access, m2, and ability to move, but the focus have not been next 30 years, from 600 000 to 1 million people, and a sentral in the row of many other demands during the design- majority of these will have sight and mobility impairments. prossess. And the focus have also just been on ability to move, and not so much the ability to see, hear and orientate. We see an increasing focus on Universal Design. Architectural The challenges that architects will face in the nearest future is competitions is sponsored by the authorities, pilotprojects based on the new legislation of 01.01.09, the ” law of discrim- are starting, there is bigger focus on class courses for archi- ination”. The law says that it is illegal to discriminate on the tects, and NAL (Norwegian Architects National Foundation) basis of impaired ability to function. This means that Universal initiated Stavanger 2008 project, Norwegian Wood, focusing Design must be a output factor in all new public buildings and on contemporary sustainable timber architecture has inclusive spaces during planning and building. There is also sanctions design as one of its four quality criteria. Norwegian Wood is for those who not practise this law or not take this into a learning arena both for those directly involved and for the consideration. construction industry as a whole. This law contains a change of attitude, and a work for what is NAL have also created a strategy plan for Universal design. good design consider the users. Universell Design strive for a In their strategy for “Inclusive design” they write; holistic design, throughout the whole prossess. By having this in mind the good solutions will most certain appear. “Architects, planners and other associated professions contribute to all aspects of design in the built environment. They, So is this going to be challenging and just a new irritating law therefore, have a fundamental duty to incorporate that is necessary evil, or can this be a positiv challenge, that inclusive design in the planning and delivery of optimal solutions.” will make us architects think in new ways, be more creative and make good solutions and consepts in our projects? We have in this assignment tried to find all the aspects of The intention, meaning and interepetation of the law is very Design for All. The challenge will be to find good subtile diverse. But then again, we are designing for people, human solutions that will not dominate the expression in our en- beeings, individuals and it seems logic to take functions and vironment. Certainly we will see a change of thoughts and handicaps into bigger consideration, after all its all about de- attitudes, and creative projects that will consider Universal veloping sustainable projects, and sustainable is surroundings Design to is’t fullest will be built. This can be an interesting designed for lifelong conditiones. Architects may have had the direction architecture, urban planning and design can evolve reputation of beeing more interested in their personal expres- to its perfection. There is a need to develope these skills into sion and art, and trivialize the needs of the users. The adjust- our intuition together with our construction-, shaping- and ment to Universal Design, have usually been “add on’s”, like “green” skills. Exiting!! ramps, ellivators, signs and soforth. But will not these “add // Tove Helen Grande Dyb & Laura Ve on’s” destroy the original consept when its planned with- Bergen School of Architecture January 2010 19
  20. 20. referances and sources : www.wikipedia.org : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accessibility : www.ons.gov.uk : ”Accessible Train and Station Design for Disabled People: A Code of Practice”; Code of Practice Version 01 – July 2008 : “Universell utforming som kommunal strategi”, Pilotkommunesatsingen 2005-2008, Norwegian Ministry of The Environment : Norge universelt utformet 2025, Regjeringens handlingsplan 2009-2013, Norwegian Ministry of Children, Equality and Social inclusion : Designprosesser med brukbarhet som målsetting - en introduksjon til brukersentrert design Tom Vavik; NALs seminar 13.november 2006 Universell utforming DESIGN OG TILGJENGELIGHET Formgivning og funksjonalitet for alle : Redevelopment and Revitalization Along Urban Arterials-Case Study of San Pablo Avenue, California, from the Developers’ Perspective : Barcelona-Studietur rapport, mai 2006 (www.universell-utforming.miljo.no/file.../barcelona_rapport.pdf) : http://w3.bcn.es/XMLServeis/XMLHomeLink Pl/0,4022,290652867_291374213_3,00.html; english website to BNC-CITY : Urban planning and accessibility of urban spaces. Isabella Tiziana Steffan (STUDIO STEFFAN) : Designprosesser med brukbarhet som målsetting-en itroduksjon til brukersentrert design. : UNIVERSELL UTFORMING - byer, hus og parker for alle, Sigmund Asmervik Institutt for landskapsplanlegging, UMB : http://sensingarchitecture.com/2469/maximizing-the-sense-of- touch-in-adaptive-architecture/ : www.akustikk-selskap.com : www.hlf.no : www.statsbygg.no : www.universell-utforming.miljo.no : www.asimo.no : Formakademisk artikkel, Universell utforming i arkitektpraksis, Inger-Marie Hølmebakk : www.NAL.no/universell utforming 20