climate change degradation of ecosystems
population growth loss of biotopes
food demand floods (surface water treatment)
city densification loss of neighbourhood identity
city expansion unsatisfying everyday peopletransportation systems
Co2 emissions urban heat islands
future fuel demand devaluation of land/loss of public goods
HUMAN IN ITS ENVIRONMENT
“intervention and exploitation of the diversity (in
nature) without jeopardising the mechanisms”
thoughts after reading about Gilles Clement´s works and thoughts with
How will Malmø be “gardened” in the future?
How do we deside what matters more?
MALMØ IN ITS
RESPONSIBILITY FOR BIODIVERSITY
ethical; as our planets supposed most intelligent species
we have a responsebility to care for the rest
emotional;nature/ecosystems as background for memories and
key-factor for survival
(“the worlds poor” most at risk)
environmental;securing strong ecosystems
economic; nature exceeds culture in production
(insects ability to pollinate hundred-thousands of
flowers in one day)
PROVIDED BY NATURE
the loss of nature-services is often not detected
by our current economic incentive system
PRESSURE ON (DE)VALUATED LAND
result=ecosystems continously beeing degraded
PRESERVATION and SUSTAINABLE USE OF NATURE
valuation of land
“natural resources, and the ecosystems that provide them, underpin
our economic activity, our quality of life and our sosial cohesion”
referance : TEEB08
The economics of ecosystems & biodiversity
An interim report by Pavan Sukhdev
for the Environment European Commission
Malmø´s lokation is shown with a red/black sircle in the pictures. According to the surface-temperature map and
other sources of forcast, Malmø´s overall temperature is rising, and similar to the west-coast of Norway the
a few degrees warmer giving the inhabitants in urban aeras possible trou-
climate will be
ble in summertime, But first of all the overall climatic conditions will be wetter. More frequent and
heavier rainfalls will be one of the challenges to deal with in everyday life ; surface-runoff from
roofing,roads and other hard surfaces.
picture indicating world urbanisation (from the site astronomy picture of the day) 2005 surface temperature of the world,anomaly
PLANNING FOR FUTURE
POTENTIALS / ADVANTAGES
“Compact cities with mixed landuse, a good public
transport network and people-oriented public environments is the
most economically sucsessful and most likable ones”.
ALBERT SPEER; A MANIFESTO FOR SUSTAINABLE CITIES
Even if Malmø is facing a moistier future, the summers in most (all?) cities of the world seems to be
getting warmer during this season. This phenomenon is caused by our changing of the landscape and our
surroundings into more and more “grey surfaces” that gives us the “urban heat island” effect. In
short it makes our city-scape warmer during the summer, making citylife more dificult, and for some
(old,sick, children etc.) even deadly as we have seen late summers in cities like Paris, Madrid,
To avoid this problem in the future it is important in cityplanning to spread out the green aeras
(that fight the UHI-effect) in between the buildings where people live and work and stretch them out
along where people move between home-work-school-shop-and perform everyday activities, making them
accecible for everyone. “Green lungs” decrease sharp, and lower high temperature-curves.
variation in night temperature;city-suburban-rural pildammsparken slottsparken møllevångstorget västrahamnen
CREATING BETTER PLACES
IN CITY SPACES
Co2 binding abilities
OF URBAN RUNOFF
Based on the basic principles outlined in the policy document the following general goals were
identified for the management of storm- water in Malmö:
: The natural water balance shall not be affected by the urbanization
: Pollutants shall to gratest possible extent be kept away from the urban runoff (source control
: The drainage system shall be designed so that harmful backing up of water in the existing
drainage system is avoided.
: The drainage system shall be designed so that part of the pollutants in the runoff are removed
along its way to the receiving waters.
: Stormwater shall wherever possible be looked upon as a positive resource in the urban landscape
The ambition with the new drainage approach is that experts from different disciplines in the
city administration shall be actively in- volved in creating additional values to parks, recre-
ation areas and other free spaces in the urban environment.
from the dokument “BlueGreenFingerprints” by Peter Stahre; international known expert in the
field of “sustainable urban drainage”
The policy document presupposes an extensive cooperation between the technical departments in the
city as well as with other stakeholders in the planning process.
A project group, with representatives from the city’s technical departments was commissioned to
work out detailed directives. This was completed in the early 2008 and the new directives were
accepted by the politicians in 2008. On the background of these directives already established
further developement of green-blue structures is consentrated on where and woh far to take it.
rail with new cityline(pink/brown) inner and outer ringroad(grey) bikepaths(red)
Organic waste is important for natures nutrient-cycles. Today most of the exsess-waste of
the organic products we take in to our household is sendt to waste-plants where it is nor-
mally burnt together with other waste, for energy production, or simply to get rid of it.
This is not a very sustainable way of handeling a source of nutrients, it is polluting the
air relasing green-gasses when burnt, and the nutrient value is lost when it is mixed with
other not organically degradable waste-products. At the same time a lot of oil/energy is
used to produse, transport and distribute artificial nutrients to the agricultural land-
scape to produce new crops.
All cities will benefit from having an improved strategy for waste-management in the fu-
ture. It will release economic resources better invested elswere. Different cities can ben-
efit from different solutiones. Malmø`s sorrunding landscape is heavily agricultural run by
large agricultural machinery and farming is havily monocultural based on artificial nutri-
ents. This is a challenging way of produsing OUR source of nutrients, it comes with many
:loss of biotopes and biodiversity due to the monocultural way to manage the landscape
:contamination of ocean and fresh water (surface- and ground-) due to nutrient-spills
caused by laking wetlands and other ecological systems that could have caught the nutrient
overspill (missing because of our laking ability to manage our land better)
BIO-CHAR is a new method to better recycle and use the organic wasteproducts of our way of
living and in Malmø it can connect to the nutrient-cycle in a short traveled way, saving
money in the agricultural field giving it a low-cost lokal nutrient source that gives fast-
er growing crops. And it makes our farmland store (more) Co2 in the prosess.
“Pre-Columbian Amazonian Natives used biochar to enhance soil productivity and made it by smoldering agricul-
tural waste. European settlers called it Terra Preta de Indio. Biochar is a high-carbon, fine-grained
residue which used to be produced using centuries-old techniques by smoldering biomass (i.e., covering burning
biomass with soil and letting it smolder). The ancient method for producing biochar as a soil additive was the
“pit” or “trench” method, which created terra preta, or dark soil.
(The new method of) Biochar is charcoal created by pyrolysis of biomass. The resulting charcoal-like mate-
rial is a form of biosequestration or atmospheric carbon capture and storage. Charcoal is a stable solid
and rich in carbon content, and thus, can be used to lock carbon in the soil. Biochar is of increasing inter-
est because of concerns about climate change caused by emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse
gases (GHG). Carbon dioxide capture also ties up large amounts of oxygen and requires energy for injection
(as via carbon capture and storage), whereas the biochar process breaks into the carbon dioxide cycle, thus
releasing oxygen as did coal formation hundreds of millions of years ago. The atmosphere would be rebalanced
more quickly this way.
Biochar is a way for carbon to be drawn from the atmosphere and is a solution to reducing the global impact
of farming (and in reducing the impact from all agricultural waste). Since biochar can sequester carbon in the
soil for hundreds to thousands of years, it has received considerable interest as a potential tool to slow
global warming. The burning and natural decomposition of trees and agricultural matter contributes a large
amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere. Biochar can store this carbon in the ground, potentially making a
significant reduction in atmospheric GHG levels; at the same time its presence in the earth can improve water
quality, increase soil fertility, raise agricultural productivity and reduce pressure on old growth forests.
” from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar
see also : “The UK Biochar Research Centre (UKBRC)” http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/sccs/biochar
article : Terra Preta;Magic Soil of the Lost Amazon by Allan Balliett
“Background note, the Basics of Biochar; Anita Talberg Science, Technology, Environment and Resources Section
A bio-char solution for Malmø would benefit most from focusing on the process of producing the char for
recycling household bio-waste, and other waste products suited for this process, into nutrients suitable
for agricultural production.
relevant process for Malmø less important for Malmø