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PLANNING / EDUCATION / ACTION p. 6
WORLD BIO-CAPACITY & ECOSYSTEM SERVICES p. 8
WHAT IS THE FOOTPRINT ABOUT? p. 11
SHORT TRAVELED FOOD and why this is important p. 12
ARTISAN AGRICULTURE & AGRARIAN ECONOMY art of food-craft p. 14
I live here
INTRODUCING THE FOOD CYCLE - the cycle of life p. 19 Bergen,Norway
PREPARATIONS FOR THE PRODUCTIVE SEASON p. 20
COMPOST p. 23
NETTLE p. 25
NETTLE WATER p. 27
CLOVER p. 29 blue dot : hundred mile diet outline of Bergen (160 km)
SEEDING & PLANTING fascination over growing things p. 32
ALTERNATIVE LEGACY RECIPES - celebration of garden delights p. 34-137
to contribute with pollination in their search for food. (No man made technology can replace the
PLANNING / EDUCATION / ACTION pollination that is done by eager bees in search for honey on a summer day). It puts nature-
services and bio-capacity into perspective.
UTOPIA= “good place” or “no place”
From the ecological point of view the aspects of nature services matters more for the future
(greek; eu=good, ou=no)
rather than (only) green gas emissions effect on climate change. Biodiversity over and under the
sea surface is the eco-systems supporting our way of life.
SITOPIA = foodplace
Valuation of productive land and how we decide to manage these resources have great impact
(greek; sitos=food + topos,place)
on future generations quality of life.
The background for the study leading to this book is the city of Bergen, a small city of challeng-
SUSTAINBILITY = the capacity to endure, remaining diverse and productive over time
ing topography. Only small contiguous areas are good for urban settlement, surrounded and
(lat.; sustinere; tenere=“to hold”, sus=“up”)
divided by several mountains forming what is known as “Bergens buene”. Only 3,5% of the
465,68 km2 area of Bergen Municipality today is productive land, and still the Municipality of
How can we make personal changes and changes in our communities and cities to live “easier
Bergen and neighboring Municipalities continue to re-regulate productive land into areas of real
green” lives in the future?
estate and business / industry zones.
We are big spenders of oil, a resource it took millions of years to “make”, and a really dirty busi-
The ecological footprint of the average Norwegian was, according to the Living Planet Report,
ness, once it is let out of its dark caves.
6,8 gha (global hectares) in 2008. Relative to available bio-capacity and the existing population
There is an enormous amount of oil involved in almost everything we eat and drink; about ten
of the planet, the ideal ecological footprint is 1,8 gha.
calories of fossil fuels are used to produce one calorie of food, and approximately half of ev-
Mobility, food, shelter, goods and services are the main issues regarding the everyday-choices
erything produced in the western countries today is thrown away; due to trade regulations, not
we make (or not), to lower our individual eco-footprint.
because its unusable or to old.
Densification, Urban Agriculture and Urban Planning with Nature are key aspects in planning to
The diet we hold in western cities is challenging to supply within sustainable limits; most people
make these choices easier.
enjoy a meat based diet. Production of meat is very space consuming as the process requires
Visualization of the processes involved “from field to fork” can be important tools to raise aware-
ten times more calories than crops produced for human consummation directly.
ness to how food shapes our cities and how we deal with this need, in the most sustainable
We have built a system on a terminal resource, making us very vulnerable.
We need to adopt new behavioral ethics, and it is effective to do this within a renewed eco-
“The role of humans in the environment
nomic system. “The throwaway economy will be replaced by a comprehensive reuse / recycle
is to understand how it functions,
economy.” ( Lester R. Brown, Plan B 2.0: Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in
and to promote its continued functioning.
Since man is just one species among
the great diversity of species in nature,
The 21st century will be characterized by big changes in style of life, at least the way we know
he cannot hope to intervene and
it in the west. Governments sign treaties and make regulations on how to lower our green gas
to exploit this diversity without
emissions. We will maybe not go short on oil and gas during the first 50 years, but regulations
jeopardising the mechanisms
on emissions will make it difficult to continue the way we have done the last 50.
of interaction among the many forms
But as the focus on green gas emissions so far has been driven by the existing economical
of life on the planet.”
system; lacking a value-system for ecosystem-services, there is now a careful and slow shift at-
tempting to value nature-services before / beside the value given in the financial market. Market-
(Gilles Clément, Environ(ne)ment, 2006)
value given to resources like the amazon forest reserves, besides the value of f.ex rainforest
wood. Financial losses discussed before turning wetlands into farmland or real-estate. These
matters are important all the way down to the choice of clover fields covering the floors of our
public landscapes before monotone grass-fields, encouraging wasps, bees and other insects
exceeding their own biocapacity. The other five countries,(Canada) are creditors. Ecological
WORLD BIO - CAPACITY debtor countries face increasing risk from a growing dependence on the biological capacity of
& ECOSYSTEM SERVICES others, while countries with ecological reserves can view their biological wealth as an asset that
provides an important competitive advantage in an uncertain world. (Livingplanet report)
Wild species and natural ecosystems are under pressure across all biomes and regions of the With the consumption level of the average Norwegian, equivalent to 6,8 gha (global hectares)
world. The direct, anthropogenic threats to biodiversity are often grouped under five headings: in 2009 we would need about 4,5 planets to sustain our lifestyle, relative to the number of
:: habitat loss, fragmentation or change, especially due to agriculture people inhabiting the planet now. Increasing local bio-capasity, managing organic waste, re-
:: over exploitation of species, especially due to fishing and hunting use of goods and resources, local food production and accessibility for pedestrians will start the
:: pollution change and raise awareness around this.
:: the spread of invasive species or genes
:: climate change
Humanity depends on healthy ecosystems, they support or improve our quality of life, and
without them, the Earth would be uninhabitable. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)
describes four categories of ecosystem services, starting with the most fundamental:
:: supporting services such as nutrient cycling
:: soil formation and primary production provisioning services such as the production of food,
freshwater, materials or fuel
:: regulating services including climate and flood regulation, water purification, pollination and
:: cultural (including aesthetic, spiritual, educational and recreational) services.
The MA reported that biodiversity loss contributes to food and energy insecurity, increased vul-
nerability to natural disasters such as floods or tropical storms, poorer health, reduced availability
and quality of water, and the erosion of cultural heritage.
Most supporting, regulating and cultural ecosystem services are not bought and sold com-
mercially, so have no market value. Their decline sends no warning signal to the local or global
economy. Markets lead to decisions about resource use that maximize benefits to individual
producers and consumers, but often undermine the biodiversity and ecosystem services on
which the production and consumption ultimately depend. The value of biodiversity to human
well-being, while not readily quantifiable in monetary terms, could be the difference between a
planet that can support its human population and one which cannot.
In a globally interdependent economy, people increasingly use ecological capacity from afar.
When China imports wood from Tanzania, or Europe imports beef from cattle raised on Brazilian
soy, these countries are relying on biocapacity outside of their borders to provide the resources
being consumed by their population.
Biocapacity is not evenly distributed around the world. The eight countries with the most bioca-
pacity – the United States, Brazil, Russia, China, Canada, India, Argentina and Australia – con-
tain 50 per cent of the total world biocapacity. Three of the eight countries with the largest bioca-
pacity – the United States, China and India – are ecological debtors, with their national footprints
Thursday, June 10, 2010
WHAT IS THE FOOTPRINT ABOUT?
Ecological Footprints can be calculated for individuals, groups of people (such
as a nation), and activities (such as manufacturing a product).
The Ecological Footprint of a person is calculated by considering all of the
biological materials consumed and all of the biological wastes generated by that
person in a given year. All these materials and wastes are then individually trans-
lated into an equivalent number of global hectares.
To accomplish this, the amount of material consumed by that person (tonnes
per year) is divided by the yield of the specific land or sea area (annual tonnes
per hectare) from which it was harvested, or where its waste material was
absorbed. The number of hectares that result from this calculation are then
converted to global hectares using yield and equivalence factors. The sum of
the global hectares needed to support the resource consumption and waste
generation of the person is that person’s Ecological Footprint.
The Ecological Footprint of a group of people, such as a city or a nation, is sim-
ply the sum of the Ecological Footprint of all the residents of that city or nation.
It is also possible to construct an Ecological Footprint of production for a city or
INDIVIDUAL CONSUMPTION PLANET BIO - CAPACITY
nation, which instead sums the Ecological Footprint of all resources extracted
and wastes generated within the borders of the city or nation.
The Ecological Footprint of an activity, such as producing a good (an airplane) or
service (providing insurance) in the human economy, is calculated by summing
the Ecological Footprint of all of the material consumed and waste generated
during that activity. When calculating the Footprint of a business or an organiza-
tion, the activities to be included within the boundaries of that organization must
be clearly defined.
Posted by laura at 10:39 PM 0 comments
Labels: # food, # footprint basics, # goods, # mobility, # services, # shelter
IDEAL FOOTPRINT VS. ACTUAL FOOTPRINT OF NORWEGIANS
SHORT TRAVELED FOOD
and why this is important
Small-scale processed, locally manufactured and short-trav-
elled food are
important to the environmentally conscious as it relies on and
support local economy and businesses. Supporting local
food-businesses shifts our food system from a global set of
production and economy more dependent on oil as energy
source, and a system that consumes a lot more oil.
The so called hundred mile diet, or low carbon diet as it is also
called, minimizes the emissions released from the production,
packaging, processing, transport, preparation and waste of
Major tenets of a low carbon diet include eating less indus- Bergen
trial meat and dairy, eating less industrially produced food in
general, eating food grown locally and seasonally, eating less
processed and packaged foods and reducing waste from
food by proper portion size, recycling or composting.*1
Transport of food across great distances of land or sea in
high speed refrigerated ships or airplanes is a contributor to
carbon dioxide emissions in the food industry. Some studies
have argued that growing food only accounts for 21% of the
energy required for many food products. Transportation (14%),
processing (16%), packaging (7%), food retailing (4%), restau-
rants and caterers (7%) and home refrigeration and preparation
(32%) account for the rest. *2
Locavore describes a person attempting to eat a diet consist-
ing of foods harvested from within a 100-mile radius.
*1 (Randy Hall, “Low Carbon Diet’ Aims to Take Bite Out of Global Warming,” Cybercast
News Service, April 18, 2007)
*2 (Danielle Murray, “Oil and Food: A Rising Security Challenge,” Earth Policy Institute, May 9,
12 blue dot : hundred mile diet outline of Bergen (160 km) 13
ARTISAN AGRICULTURE into final products.
# integrated infrastructure; water, waste-water, energy and solid-waste
& AGRARIAN ECONOMY management systems offer opportunities to both integrate with urban infrastruc-
art of food-craft ture and turn waste into shared resources. ( Composting food waste for soil
improvement, treating urban runoff in ponds using it for irrigation (water source),
Food, and the processes involved is essential to start dealing with when we at- using waste urban heat for green houses.
tempt to develop more resilient and sustainable communities. # diverse education; the urban farmers education, or training of skills, covers
The amount of food produced is not the main issue, it is about re-introducing agro-ecological farming practices and possible a range of small-business man-
important aspects of eating, and increasing the value of the actions involved. agement strategies (to support
Visualizing the processes, influences the habits we take regarding consumption vertically integrated business opportunities).
of food. It raises awareness and can change our relationship to our environ- # economic diversity; mixing agriculture with processing, retail, restaurants,
ment. Introducing the processes of the food-cycle (soil improvement, seeding, agro-tourism and education, greater economic diversity is achieved in the com-
planting, harvesting, processing, consume and waste management) locally, can munity, and offers new opportunities for the inhabitants.
show us the impact of our choices on our surroundings. With an Artisan ap-
proach to Urban Agriculture (refers to the hand craft of making food products), Skills and knowledge are of high value; appealing and inspiring.
education and skills become important.
Conventional agriculture does not integrate easily into the urban fabric. It is
space consuming, requires large machinery and heavy spraying of fertilizers and
pesticides is “normal”. Risking dust and chemicals to drift into residential areas
is a concern and therefore conventional agriculture becomes incompatible with
In the urban landscape of Bergen, stuck between mountain walls, the Artisan
Model can work better as it is more flexible and adaptable. Artisans employ
creative thinking and manual dexterity to their produce.
When it comes to building communities upon an artisan economy, one can
assume that the food produced is of good quality and worth celebrating, simply
because of the knowledge, skills and concern put into the effort of making it.
Key elements relating to an artisan agrarian economy are;
# low toxicity farming; agro-ecological farming practices with a minimum of
toxic pesticides and fertilizers.
# high value products; for urban markets comes from smaller parcels. A com-
munity will focus on high value products.
# vertically integrated economy; the focus of artisan agriculture is on finished
food products. The local community benefit from transforming the raw foodstuff
‘From field to fork’, means making food visible in all its processes. In future city urban agrarian businesses and urban farmers, to supply restaurants, grocery
planning this is the important tool. Glassed galleries on buildings, green houses stores, kindergartens, schools, canteens, institutions etc. Organic waste com-
on roofs and conservatories in the gardens extends the productive season, posted and used directly in the vegetable gardens and in the fields making them
and saves energy in the built fabric creating an extra climatic buffer zone, spe- productive without fertilizers. Clover covering the fields resting until next season,
cially important in a city like Bergen with a lot of wind and short summer sea- attracting insects and possibly give basis for production of honey. Festivals cel-
son. Children at school seeding and planting in the school gardens and green ebrating the seasons and local food. Farmers markets showing and selling the
houses will educate the youngest members of the society to become skilled local products, sharing their knowledge of the products. People enjoying their
and experienced urban farmers. Grocery stores, cafes and restaurants in the own produce in their backyards with the neighbors.
streets offer local products in their product range. Production fields for the new
celebr introducing the food cycle
the cycle of life
co wa Visualization of the processes involved around our need for food can increase our knowledge
and awareness around its origin and the destination of the waste products. We have grown a
global economy depending on huge amounts of oil, and we are currently in a position to neglect
the recourses lost by throwing away the waste products, be it organic waste or excess food.
Using planning, regulations and education as tools we can little by little facilitate, encourage and
show each other how to get more out of the local resources just lying there in front of us, spe-
cially in a mild humid climate like in the city of Bergen, on the west coast of Norway.
Explaining the steps of the cycle;
ent soil imp
soil improvement, organically, means f.ex charging the soil with nutrients using compost from
organic waste, nutrient made from nettle leafs and by using clover, and other cover crops, to let
the fields rest in between productive seasons.
seeding; is the start of the productive season. Schools, kindergartens and private galleries and
conservatories can be effective producers in this stage of the cycle. Either for own use or for
planting; in larger fields, agro-parks, vegetable gardens or in the conservatories and galleries;
giving the seedlings good environment and enough space to grow into crops.
harvesting; for direct use or when the time is right harvesting of the planted fields, the forest
gardens, the forest, in the mountain or at sea. In surroundings like Bergen the opportunities are
endless from early summer to late autumn.
processing;the harvested raw is made into delicate products.
see consumption; sales of raw and processed local food-stuff in grocery stores, farmers markets,
ng din cafes and restaurants. And of course the food used directly from your private vegetable garden,
planti g gallery and conservatory.
celebration; of the local products and produce with festivals, farmers markets or simply dinner
parties with your family or neighbors.
waste management; urban organic waste managed locally in small scale facilities. Compost
makes excellent organic nutrient. Kept at a small scale the emission of the green gas methane
is much less than in large facilities.
preparations for the produc-
tive season :
Compost is composed of organic materials agriculture. The compost itself is beneficial
derived from plant and animal matter that has for the land in many ways, including as a soil
been decomposed largely through aerobic conditioner, a fertilizer, addition of vital humus
decomposition. The process of composting or humid acids, and as a natural pesticide for
is simple and practiced by individuals in their soil. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compost)
homes, farmers on their land, and industrially Effort made through winter to compost your
by industries and cities. organic waste will pay off when spring comes
With the proper mixture of water, oxygen, and you can work this nutritious new soil into
carbon, and nitrogen, microorganisms are your vegetable gardens, the conservatory
allowed to break down organic matter to pro- plant beds and the pots for your herbs.
duce compost. Microorganisms are absolutely Mixing compost into the soil is a smart way to
necessary for the composting process and boost plant health and, while you can buy the
without them, organic matter in your compost stuff, making your own compost is beneficial
heap cannot undergo the composting pro- to you, your plants and the environment at
cess. There are five types of microorganisms large. At the same time it helps your garden,
found in active compost: it also helps your environment by reducing the
Bacteria- The most common of all the micro- amount of organic material that literally goes to
organisms found in compost. waste (and becomes waste) in your local land-
Actinomycetes- Necessary for breaking down fill. Composting can reduce yard waste that
paper products such as newspaper, bark, needs to be hauled to the dump by anywhere
etc. from 50 to 75%.
Fungi- Molds and yeast help break down Composting can destroy pathogens or
materials that bacteria cannot especially lignin unwanted seeds. Unwanted living plants (or
in woody material. weeds) can be destroyed by covering with
Protozoa- Help consume bacteria and fungi, mulch/compost.
balancing out the composting cycle. The “microbial pesticides” in compost may
Rotifers- Rotifers also help break down organ- include thermophiles and mesophiles, how-
ics in the compost and also ingest bacteria ever certain composting detritivores such
and fungi. as black soldier fly larvae and redworms,
In additions earth worms not only ingest partly also reduce many pathogens. Thermophilic
composted material but also continually re- (high-temperature) composting is well known
create aeration and drainage tunnels as they to destroy many seeds and nearly all types of
move through the compost. pathogens. High-temperature composting is
Compost can be rich in nutrients. It is used also desirable due to the quicker process and
in gardens, landscaping, horticulture, and therefore less attraction of rats etc.
Nettle is the common name for between 30- culinary recipes which utilize the nettle as the
45 species of flowering plants of the genus main course - these include pudding made
Urtica in the family Urticaceae, with a cosmo- from nettle and the technique to develop a
politan though mainly temperate distribution. unique beer from the nettle.
They are mostly herbaceous perennial plants, Culinary uses of the herb are many, the nettle
but some are annual and a few are shrubby. leaves can be used dried to make tea, or the
The most prominent member of the genus young nettle shoots are very edible, these are
is the stinging nettle Urtica dioica, native to often cooked to make delicious herbal dishes.
Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America. Moreover, their content of important com-
The nettle is a great plant of the garden as it pounds is high and the shoots may approxi-
can be made into fertilizer with little effort. mately provide the same amounts of carotene
Simply gather (approx a bag of) plants in a - or the pro-vitamin A and the vitamin C as
bucket (remember gloves), add water, leave vegetables like the spinach or other similar
it to ferment for 14 days in the sun, and its greens normally used in dishes.
ready to use. Mix it with water 1:10. As an edible plant, nettles can be considered
Herbal medicine traditionally uses the entire very high in nutrition value, and the species
herb in the preparation of the remedy, and the also have high content of many important
whole plant is collected just before the flower- vitamins and essential minerals, especially im-
ing season, the herb has seen a lot of use portant ones such as iron, essential minerals
and developed a lengthy reputation in popular such as silica and the essential mineral potas-
folk medicine around the world - the main use sium. This high mineral and vitamin content
being as a specific herbal remedy for the treat- may be one reason for the traditional use of
ment of asthma in patients. the nettle for centuries to make very nourishing
The traditional uses of the nettle are almost tonics for the treatment of physical weakness
legendary and have been known down the and debilitation, as an aid to the process of
centuries, it is reported anecdotally that the convalescence and in the treatment of symp-
Roman soldiers, facing the inhospitable- toms connected with anemia. The detoxifica-
weather and climate of occupied Britain, used tion of the body is another important property
the irritation induced by nettle leaves to keep of the nettles and through their stimulating
their legs warmed in winter. Culinary recipes action on the functioning of the bladder and
have also seen the use of the tender tops of the kidneys, the nettles helps in cleansing the
young and first growth nettles, these parts body of all accumulated toxins and in the rapid
of the herb are especially palatable or so it is removal of metabolic waste.
said when cooked well. There are numbers of
organic plant nutrition
Making organic, and free, plant nutrient is the
most simple thing.
Gather some nettle in a bucket,
fill it with water
and leave it out in the sun to ferment
for about 14 days.
Before using it in the vegetable garden
or in the flower beds
it must be mixed with water : 10 to 1
It might be necessary to stir the mixture everyday
for a few minutes to add oxygen to the process.
The oxygen will feed bacteria that will break
down the nettle, and that is important in the
Nettle water contains microorganisms that
seems to boost the health and growth of the
plants, apparently making them more resistant
Clover sickness in more recent times may
clover also be linked to pollinator decline; clovers
trifolium (pratense, repens)
are most efficiently pollinated by bumblebees,
which have declined as a result of agricultural
Clover (Trifolium), or trefoil, is a genus of about
intensification. Honeybees can also pollinate
300 species of plants in the pea family
clover, and beekeepers are often in heavy
Fabaceae. The genus has a cosmopolitan
demand from farmers with clover pastures.
distribution; the highest diversity is found in the
Farmers reap the benefits of increased
temperate Northern Hemisphere. They are
reseeding that occurs with increased bee
small annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial
activity, which means that future clover yields
herbaceous plants. The leaves are trifoliate
remain abundant. Beekeepers benefit from
(rarely 5- or 7-foliate), with stipules adnate to
the clover bloom as clover is one of the main
the leaf-stalk, and heads or dense spikes of
nectar sources for honeybees.
small red, purple, white, or yellow flowers. The
Clovers are a valuable survival food, as they
“shamrock” of popular iconography (guinness)
are high in protein, widespread, and abun-
is sometimes considered to be young clover.
dant. They are not easy to digest raw, but this
The scientific name derives from the Latin tres,
can be easily fixed by juicing them or boiling
“three”, and folium, “leaf”. Several species
them for 5–10 minutes. Dried flower heads
are extensively cultivated as fodder plants.
and seedpods can also be ground up into
The most widely cultivated clovers are white
a nutritious flour and mixed with other foods.
clover Trifolium repens and red clover Trifolium
Dried flower heads can also be steeped in hot
pratense. Clover, either sown alone or in mix-
water for a healthy, tasty tea.
ture with ryegrass, has for a long time formed
Cover crops maintain and improve soil health.
a staple crop for soiling, for several reasons: it
as they prevent soil erosion and increase
grows freely, shooting up again after repeated
organic matter, improve microbiotic activity, soil
mowings; it produces an abundant crop; it
structure, and water infiltration rates. Cover
is palatable to and nutritious for livestock; it
crops also aid in nutrient cycling, reduce soil
grows in a great range of soils and climates;
temperature fluctuations, provide habitat for
and it is appropriate for either pasturage or
beneficial insects, and suppress weed
green composting. In many areas, particularly
populations. The biomass produced from
on acidic soil, clover is short-lived because of
growing a cover crop can be disced into the
a combination of insect pests, diseases and
soil, increasing the organic matter content.
nutrient balance; this is known as “clover sick-
This biomass is often referred to as green ma-
ness”. When crop rotations are managed so
nure. Clover is a great cover crop plant used
that clover does not recur at intervals shorter
for soil improvement as it provides a large
than eight years, it grows with much of its
amount of nectar flowers for honey produc-
seeding & planting
fascination over growing things
Seeding is the start up of the growing season.
If you have a conservatory or green house you are lucky, but
the kitchen counter with a window will work good too.
It´s good to get hold of trays for seeding, like the ones they
receive the plants in at plant stores.
They normally throw them away when they are empty so it is
normally not a problem to get hold of them.
It´s a good thing to label the different rows with what you have
seeded so you don´t loose control of what goes where when
you are to plant them out, according to needs etc.
The seed bags normally explains well what the seeds like and
need to grow into good products. Just read the instructions
and follow them and it should be trouble free.
Remember to keep the seeded soil from getting dry, and it
should hold temperature above 18 ºC.
If you have access to a green house or you have a glassed
balcony where the temperature don´t drop too much at night
(you can always move the pots inside at night), you can extend
the growing season by a month (or two) getting a head start
from growing outside.
It is also an alternative to make low greenhouses, cloches, out-
side, simply four walls and an old window on top. The walls can
be isolated and if you start a warm compost in the bottom of it
the temperature will hold above 20 - 25 ºC, perfect for seeding.
alternative legacy recipes
celebration of garden delights
(arvensis, × piperita, gentilis etc)
Mentha (and mint, from Greek míntha), is along surfaces through a network of runners.
a genus of flowering plants in the family Due to their speedy growth, one plant of
Lamiaceae (Mint Family). The species are not each desired mint, along with a little care, will
clearly distinct and estimates of the number of provide more than enough mint for home use.
species varies from 13 to 18. Hybridization Some mint species are more invasive than
between some of the species occurs natu- others. Even with the less invasive mints, care
rally. Many other hybrids as well as numerous should be taken when mixing any mint with
cultivars are known in cultivation. The genus any other plants, lest the mint take over. To
has a subcosmopolitan distribution across control mints in an open environment, mints
Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, and North should be planted in deep, bottomless con-
America. tainers sunk in the ground, or planted above
Mints are aromatic, almost exclusively peren- ground in tubs and barrels.
nial, rarely annual, herbs. They have wide- The most common and popular mints for
spreading underground rhizomes, and erect, cultivation are peppermint (Mentha × piperita),
square, branched stems. The leaves are spearmint (Mentha spicata), and apple mint
arranged in opposite pairs, from oblong to (Mentha suaveolens).
lanceolate, often downy, and with a serrate Mints are supposed to make good compan-
margin. Leaf colors range from dark green and ion plants, repelling pest insects and attracting
gray-green to purple, blue, and sometimes beneficial ones.
pale yellow. The flowers are white to purple. Harvesting of mint leaves can be done at
While the species that make up the Mentha any time. Fresh mint leaves should be used
genus are widely distributed and can be immediately or stored up to a couple of days
found in many environments, most Mentha in plastic bags within a refrigerator. Optionally,
grow best in wet environments and moist mint can be frozen in ice cube trays. Dried
soils. Mints will grow 10–120 cm tall and can mint leaves should be stored in an airtight
spread over an indeterminate area. Due to container placed in a cool, dark, dry area. The
their tendency to spread unchecked, mints leaf, fresh or dried, is the culinary source of
are considered invasive. mint. Fresh mint is usually preferred over dried
All mints prefer, and thrive in, cool, moist spots mint when storage of the mint is not a prob-
in partial shade. In general, mints tolerate a lem. The leaves have a pleasant warm, fresh,
wide range of conditions, and can also be aromatic, sweet flavor with a cool aftertaste.
grown in full sun. Mint leaves are used in teas, beverages, jel-
They are fast growing, extending their reach lies, syrups, candies, and ice creams.
Comes from a cross between corn mint and
spearmint, and has the strong smell of the latter.
It is a perennial herb, growing to a height of 1-2 ft
and producing smallish light green leaves. In the
variegated form bright yellow stripes run through
Ginger mint produces small, pale purple flowers
which bloom along the main stern, rather than
at the end of the stalk like other mints. It is also
known as slender mint and Scotch mint. Like all
mints, ginger mint can get out of control so try
growing it in either in a pot or a container sunk
into the ground to prevent the roots spreading
In the fourteenth century mint was used for whit-
ening the teeth.
Mice dislike the smell of either fresh or dried mint,
so they will not touch any food where mint is
Very good for hot pots, stews and soups!
mentha x piperita
Peppermint (Mentha × piperita, (also known symptoms, compared with just 38% of those
as M. balsamea Willd) is a hybrid mint, a cross who took a placebo.
between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and
spearmint (Mentha spicata). It is found wild Peppermint flowers are large nectar produc-
occasionally with its parent species. ers and honey bees as well as other nectar
Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats, harvesting organisms forage them heavily. A
including stream sides and drainage ditches. mild, pleasant varietal honey can be produced
Being a hybrid, it is usually sterile, producing if there is a sufficient area of plants.
no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively,
spreading by its rhizomes. If placed, it can Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesti-
grow almost anywhere. cide applicators, in the EcoSmart Technolo-
gies line of products, as a natural insecticide.
Peppermint has a long tradition of medicinal Peppermint generally thrives in moist, shaded
use, with archaeological evidence placing its locations, and expands quickly by under-
use at least as far back as ten thousand years ground stolons. It is often grown in containers
ago. Peppermint has a high menthol content, to restrict rapid spreading. It grows best with a
and is often used as tea and for flavouring good supply of water, and is often planted in
ice cream, confectionery, chewing gum, and areas with part-sun to shade.
toothpaste. The leaves and flowering tops are used, they
The oil also contains menthone and menthyl are collected as soon as the flowers begin
esters, particularly menthyl acetate. It is the to open and then are carefully dried. The
oldest and most popular flavour of mint-fla- wild form of the plant is less suitable for this
voured confectionery. Peppermint can also be purpose, with cultivated plants having been
found in some shampoos and soaps, which selected for more and better oil content.
give the hair a minty scent and produce a
cooling sensation on the skin. The plant is also easy to spread by putting
In 2007, Italian investigators reported that 75% stalks of the plant into water. They will grow
of the patients in their study who took pepper- roots in a few days and then you can plant
mint oil capsules for four weeks had a major them in new pots, or where you want them...
reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS
allium oschaninii, a. ascalonicum
The term shallot is used to describe two different
Allium species of plant which are perennials. The
French gray challot or griselle, which has been
considered to be the “true shallot” by many, is
Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from
Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of
shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier
onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.
Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of
offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves.
Their skin color can vary from golden brown
to gray to rose red, and their off-white flesh is
usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots
are much favored by chefs because of their firm
texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor.
The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes
a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder fla-
vour. They can be stored for at least 6 months.
The shallots are high in vitamin A, vitamin B6,
manganese, vitamin C, folate and potassium.
parsley - curly leaf & flat leaf
petroselinum crispum, p. neapolitanum
Nutritional value per 100 g , raw
Energy 151 kJ (36 kcal)
Carbohydrates 6.3 g
Sugars 0.9 g
Dietary fiber 3.3 g
Fat 0.8 g
Protein 3.0 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.1 mg
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.2 mg
Niacin (Vit. B3) 1.3 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.4 mg
Vitamin B6 0.1 mg
Folate (Vit. B9) 152 μg
Vitamin C 133.0 mg
Vitamin K 1640.0 μg
Calcium 138.0 mg
Iron 6.2 mg
Magnesium 50.0 mg
Phosphorus 58.0 mg
Potassium 554 mg
Zinc 1.1 mg
Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in
gardens. Like many other members of the carrot
family (umbellifers), it attracts predatory insects,
including wasps and predatory flies to gardens,
which then tend to protect plants nearby.
In cold climates, parsley is biennial, not bloom-
ing until its second year. It offers protection
even in its first year as the strong scent of the
parsley leaves appear to mingle with the tomato
scent and confuse the search paradigms of the
Is also known as French beans, Runner beans,
string beans and snap beans.
Nutritional value per 100 g, raw green beans
Energy 129 kJ (31 kcal)
Carbohydrates 7.1 g
Dietary fibre 3.6 g
Fat 0.1 g
Protein 1.8 g
Vitamin C 16 mg
Iron 1 mg
Potassium 200 mg
Over 130 varieties of snap bean are known.
Varieties specialized for use as green beans,
selected for the succulence and flavor of their
pods, are the ones usually grown in the home
vegetable garden, and many varieties exist.
Pod color can be green, golden, purple, red, or
streaked. Shapes range from thin “fillet” types to
wide “romano” types and more common types
in between. French Haricots verts (green beans)
are bred for flavorful pods.
Green beans are found in two major groups,
bush beans and pole beans.
Bush beans are short plants, growing to ap-
proximately two feet in height, without requiring
supports. They generally reach maturity and
produce all of their fruit in a relatively short period
of time, then cease to produce. Growing beans
can give you more than one crop of bush beans
in a season.
Nutritional value per 100 g, raw pea
Energy 339 kJ (81 kcal)
Carbohydrates 14.5 g
Sugars 5.7 g
Dietary fiber 5.1 g
Fat 0.4 g
Protein 5.4 g
Vitamin A equiv. 38 μg
- beta-carotene 449 μg
- lutein and zeaxanthin 2593 μg
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.3 mg
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.1 mg
Niacin (Vit. B3) 2.1 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.1 mg
Vitamin B6 0.2 mg
Folate (Vit. B9) 65 μg
Vitamin C 40.0 mg
Calcium 25.0 mg
Iron 1.5 mg
Magnesium 33.0 mg
Phosphorus 108 mg
Potassium 244 mg
Zinc 1.2 mg
Really healthy in other words.
Don´t wait for the fruits, go for the shoots!!!
Peas can be sown until quite late in summer and
you will have a late august - september crop.
squash - cucurbitaceae
c. moschata, c. pepo, c. mixta
Nutritional value per 100 g (summer squash)
Energy 69 kJ (16 kcal)
Carbohydrates 3.4 g
Dietary fiber 1.1 g
Fat 0.2 g
Protein 1.2 g
Water 95 g
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.14 mg
Vitamin C 17 mg
Potassium 262 mg
Squashes generally refer to four species of the
genus Cucurbita native to Mexico and Central
America. These species include C. maxima
(hubbard squash, buttercup squash, some
varieties of prize pumpkins, such as Big Max), C.
mixta (cushaw squash), C. moschata (butternut
squash), and C. pepo (most pumpkins, acorn
squash, summer squash, zucchini). Squash
can be loosely grouped into summer squash
or winter squash, depending on whether they
are harvested as immature vegetables (summer
squash) or mature vegetables (autumn squash
or winter squash). Gourds are from the same
family as squashes. Well known types of squash
include the pumpkin and zucchini. Giant squash
are derived from Cucurbita maxima and are
routinely grown to weights nearing those of giant
Squash can be the most beautiful addition to
your garden or greenhouse as the flower is truly
lovage -’love herb’
In Germany and Holland, one of the common
names of Lovage is Maggikraut (German) or
Maggiplant (Dutch) because the plant’s taste is
reminiscent of Maggi soup seasoning. In many
other European languages the word for lovage
derives from Latin ligusticus (meaning “of Liguria”,
as the herb used to grow heartily in the Liguria
region of northwest Italy), through its alteration
Lovage is considered a “magic bullet” compan-
ion plant; much as borage helps protect almost
all plants from pests, so lovage is thought to
improve the health of almost all plants.
The leafs of the lovage are great in soups, stews
and fish stock, or any other soup / sauce basis.
Anything you would use celery in is great with
The fruit of the lovage plant can be used as a
spice, and the root of lovage, which contains a
heavy, volatile oil, is used as a mild aquaretic.
Lovage tea can be applied to wounds as an
antiseptic, or drunk to stimulate digestion. In
the UK, Lovage cordial was traditionally mixed
with brandy in the ratio of 2:1 as a winter drink.
Lovage is second only to capers in its quercetin
content ( wikipedia).
The lovage plant grows easily (like weeds) and
becomes quite large in the garden, 90-270cm,
so plant it in a corner where it can unfold. And
don´t be shy when harvesting it.
lovage on oil
spicing up the winter
Preserving lovage in oil, either to freeze
or to keep in the fridge, is an excellent
way to get a taste of summer during
autumn and winter.
Lovage is really nice in soups, on meat,
on oven-baked potatoes and fish.
Clean a good bouquet of lovage and
leave it to dry slightly,
before mixing it with canola oil
in a bowl (if you use a hand blender)
or in your food processor.
Blend just a little till you get a nice green
pesto, too much will kill the herbs.
Pour it into small jars (sterilized in boiled
water) to keep in the fridge,
or you can use ice-cube boards
and put them in the freezer.
This process can continue now and
then through summer as the lovage-
bush grows back.
mangold - ’bright yellow’
beta vulgaris l.
Mangelwurzel or mangold wurzel, is a root
vegetable of the family Chenopodiaceae, ge-
nus Beta (the beets). Its large white, yellow or
orange-yellow swollen roots were developed in
the 1700s for feeding livestock.
The 1840 book “The Practice of Cookery”
includes a recipe for a beer made with mangel
The mangold holds approximately the same
nutritional values as the beetroot, see next page.
The leafes of mangold is used like spinach while
the stem is used like asparagus.
It is also quite decorative in the vegetable garden
with its green curly leafs
beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris var. vulgaris
Nutritional value per 100 g cooked
Energy 180 kJ (43 kcal)
Carbohydrates 9.96 g
Sugars 7.96 g
Dietary fiber 2.0 g
Fat 0.18 g
Protein 1.68 g
Vitamin A equiv. 2 μg
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.031 mg
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.027 mg
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.331 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.145 mg
Vitamin B6 0.067 mg
Folate (Vit. B9) 80 μg
Vitamin C 3.6 mg
Calcium 16 mg
Iron 0.79 mg
Magnesium 23 mg
Phosphorus 38 mg
Potassium 305 mg
Sodium 77 mg
Zinc 0.35 mg
The usually deep-red roots of beetroot are eaten
boiled either as a cooked vegetable, or cold as
a salad after cooking and adding oil and vinegar,
or raw and shredded, either alone or combined
with any salad vegetable.
The green leafy portion of the beet is also edible.
It is most commonly served boiled or steamed in
which case it has a taste and texture similar that
beetroot ketchup dash of cinnamon
dash of cardamom
dash of cloves
Originally ketchup came from China and was made on fermented fish. Today dash of allspice
its sourish tasted rearly is brought out from fermentation, more commonly vin- apple vinegar
egar or other acidic flavours is used. salt & freshly ground pepper
Beetroot ketchup is excellent with grilled meat, burgers, fish and sausages. cayenne pepper
1/2 kg beet roots Soak the raisins in the water for about an hour. Pre heat the oven to 175 ºC.
1 handful raisins Bake the beets whole in the oven on a bed of salt for about 60 minutes, or
1 dl water until they are soft(er). Scrub off the peel with a kitchen towel or similar.
1/2 lemons finely grated peel Mix beets with raisins and water in a blender, and add spices, vinegar, lemon
1/2 lemons juice and olive oil. Let the blender run until the mix has become a nice and smooth
3 tbl sp virgin olive oil blend.If you like you can sift the mixture through a sieve to get it thicker.
1 tea sp grated fresh ginger Add pepper, vinegar and salt after taste.
rheum rhabarbarum, r. x hybridum
Nutritional value per 100 g raw
Energy 88 kJ (21 kcal)
Carbohydrates 4.54 g
Sugars 1.1 g
Dietary fibre 1.8 g
Fat 0.2 g
Protein 0.9 g
Water 93.61 g
Folate (Vit. B9) 7 μg
Vitamin C 8 mg
Vitamin E 0.27 mg
Vitamin K 29.3 μg
Calcium 86 mg
Iron 0.22 mg
Potassium 288 mg
Sodium 4 mg
Zinc 0.1 mg
A number of varieties of rhubarb have been
domesticated both as medicinal plants and for
human consumption. While the leaves are toxic,
the stalks are used in pies, jams, juice and other
foods for their tart flavor.
I grew up here...
with raspberries and vanilla cream
Basically you make a simple pie dough;
100 g butter
150 g flour
1/2 ts salt
1 1/4 dl water
Crumble the butter, salt and flour and add cold
water (preferably in food processor). Save a third
of the dough for a lid on the pie if desired. Roll
it out the rest, slightly larger than the pie pan.
Press the dough into the pan and prick the bot-
tom with a fork and bake it on the lowest rack in
the oven on 200 ° C for approx. 15 minutes.
Then you add vanilla cream into the pai crust
and the desired berries or fruits (in this case
rhubarb and raspberries) and leave it in the oven
for another 30 minutes or so. Keep checking it
when you approach 25 minutes.
This pie is excellent served with vanilla ice!
with hints of raspberries
Making rhubarb juice is quite effortless,
and when you have done it once you will
want to make juice of anything cause its so
Fill a pot with rhubarb and add enough
water to cover the fruits.
Set to boil and add sugar,
keep tasting until it´s sweet enough.
Add some raspberries,
last years frozen is good for this
as this seasons raspberries will
not mature until the rhubarb season is
Strain (most of) the fluid and poor it into
sterilized, warmed bottles.
The mash left behind will make perfect jam
to be filled into sterilized jam-jars.
rhubarb & raspberry jam
saving summer for a rainy day
Rhubarb jam can be made of the leftovers
from the juice making,
or better even is to boil it less,
and the flavours (and the nutrients)
will stay more intact.
Wash, peal and cut the rhubarb
into small pieces
into the pot,
add just a little water
and some sugar
(rhubarb is high in acid so
quite a lot might be needed)
add raspberries (or strawberries or plums)
to naturally sweeten the jam
cook for ten minutes after all fruit is soft
for refrigerated jam,
or longer for jam ment for long shelf storage
(add jam thickener that contains
preservative if you like and cook two minutes extra)
naughty flavor for winter dinner parties
Fresh rhubarb from the garden
picked no later than mid summer
fill a clean bottle or large jar with
rhubarb chopped into suitable size
and some sugar
(amount depending on the sweetness you like)
cover it with with white neutral rum
leave for 4 weeks
before you start enjoying the fruity flavours
of your work
The Red currant is a member of the genus “Ri-
bes” in the gooseberry family “Grossulariaceae”,
native to parts of western Europe. While Ribes
rubrum and R. nigrum are native to northern and
eastern Europe, large berried cultivars of the
redcurrant were first produced in Belgium and
northern France in the 1600s. In modern times,
numerous cultivars have been selected; some of
these have escaped gardens and can be found
in the wild across Europe.
With maturity, the tart flavor of redcurrant fruit is
slightly greater than its blackcurrant relative, but
with approximate sweetness. The albino variant
of redcurrant, often referred to as white currant,
has the same tart flavor but with greater sweet-
ness. Although frequently cultivated for jams
and cooked preparations, much like the white
currant, it is often served raw or as a simple
accompaniment in salads, garnishes, or drinks
when in season.
Nutritional values 100g, raw red currants
Energy 191.8 kJ (56 kcal)
Protein 1.3 g
Total Fat 0.2 g
Saturated Fat 0g
Total Carbohydrate 7.9 g
Dietary fibre 3.5 g
Sodium 1.4 mg
Vitamin C 21 mg
Iron 1.2 mg
rubus idaeus, r. strigosus
Raspberries need ample sun and water for op-
timal development. Two types of most commer-
cially grown kinds of raspberry are available, the
summer-bearing type that produces an abun-
dance of fruit on second-year canes (floricanes)
within a relatively short period in mid-summer,
and double- or “ever”-bearing plants, which also
bear some fruit on first-year canes (primocanes)
in the late summer and fall, as well as the sum-
mer crop on second-year canes.
The flowers can be a major nectar source for
honeybees and other pollinators. They are very
vigorous and can be locally invasive. They propa-
gate using basal shoots (also known as suck-
ers); extended underground shoots that develop
roots and individual plants. They can sucker new
canes some distance from the main plant. For
this reason, raspberries spread well, and can
take over gardens if left unchecked.
The fruit is harvested when it comes off the
torus/receptacle easily and has turned a deep
color. This is when the fruits are ripest and
sweetest. Excess fruit can be made into rasp-
berry jam or frozen.
The leaves can be used fresh or dried in herbal
and medicinal teas. They have an astringent
flavour, and in herbal medicine are reputed to be
effective in regulating menses.
Strawberry cultivars vary remarkably in size, color,
flavor, shape, degree of fertility, season of ripen-
ing, liability to disease etc. Some vary in foliage,
and some vary materially in the relative develop-
ment of their sexual organs. In most cases the
flowers appear hermaphroditic in structure, but
function as either male or female. But firs of all
the strawberry plants spread through runners,
and they are easy to grow in numbers. For more
berries next season.
But if you want more berries this season it is
smart to cut the runners off so that the plant
uses its energy on producing fruit instead of
Strawberries are best fresh fresh, in a smoothie
or in uncooked jam (preserved in the freezer if
you like to keep it through autumn and winter).
Or keep them in a jar of rum for a nice taste of
summer through the winter!
winters tasty summer memories
washed strawberries in a large jar
1 liter clear rum
some sugar for the nice liqueur taste
Pour the rum over the berries
in the jar
and add as much sugar
as you think you like
store for at least 4 weeks
before you taste it
rotopf can be refilled with berries
as they are ripe
This liqueur is also good used as
sauce on desserts,
Warm blackberries and raspberries
with ice cream and strawberry romtopf
for christmas maybe?
Blueberriesis a perennial shrub that belongs to
the dwarf heather family.
Blueberries are 10-50 cm high. The green
angled branches becomes brownish and woody
when older. The leafs are elliptical shaped with
jagged light green color that turns orange and
red in fall before they fall off. In spring the bush
is green with white to reddish jar shaped flow-
ers. These develop into juicy berries with mostly
blue-black, but also black berries and whitish
blue berries. The different colors due to a thin
layer of wax. Fruit flesh is purple. They have a
sweet taste when mature, with variable acidity.
Blueberry bushes typically bear fruit in the middle
of the growing season: fruiting times are affected
by local conditions such as altitude and latitude,
so the height of the crop can vary from May to
August depending upon these conditions.
In Norway the wild “lowbush blueberries” is the
most common, and in Bergen it grows all over
Just get out there and start harvesting!
saving up for celebration
fill bottle(s) or jar(s) with fresh blueberries
cover with pure vodka
filter the berries out of the vodka
after a few days,
or leave them in
or room tempered
Enjoy through winter,
if you like you can add
some brown sugar
to get a sweeter drink,
but if you like to keep it
for longer than one season
sieve of the berries
Mix berries and some sugar in a bowl.
Work it until you get a thick
consistency of the jam.
Keep it frozen until you
Perfect to use in smoothies
through the winter .
Nutritional value per 100 g leaves, raw
Energy 95 kJ (23 kcal)
Dietary fiber 3g
Fat 0.5 g
Vitamin A equiv. 337 μg
Vitamin C 27 mg
Coriander must be one of the best spices you
can grow in the garden.
It doesn’t´t take much, like the basil
you sprinkle the seeds on a bed of
soil and cover with approx 1-2 cm soil on top.
In a weeks time they should start to show.
When they are finished blooming you can gather
the seeds and use them the next season.
Seed pots of coriander with a week or two in
between and you will have fresh good spice
through the summer.
The ruccola leafs are shaped much like the
It is an annual plant growing 20–100 centimeters
in height. The leaves are deeply pinnately lobed
with four to ten small lateral lobes and a large ter-
minal lobe. The flowers are 2–4 cm in diameter,
yellow or pale white, the sepals are shed soon
after the flower opens. The fruit is a siliqua (pod)
12–35 millimeters long with an apical beak, and
containing several seeds (which are edible).
The ruccola salad is good simply as a salad
together with some herbs and tomatoes,
but you can also make ruccola pesto, see the
Nutritional value per 100 g red tomatoes raw
Energy 75 kJ (18 kcal)
Sugars 2.6 g
Dietary fiber 1g
Fat 0.2 g
Water 95 g
Vitamin C 13 mg
Tomatoes are good with everything and the
home grown are particularly good as they are
allowed to mature on the plant, making them
sweeter. Raw in salad or on bread, cooked into
sauce or in stews and pots. Or simply try it as
Nutritional value per 100 g
Energy 55 kJ (13 kcal)
Carbohydrates 2.2 g
Dietary fibre 1.1 g
Fat 0.2 g
Protein 1.4 g
Water 96 g
Vitamin A equiv. 166 μg
Folate (Vit. B9) 73 μg
Vitamin C 4 mg
Vitamin K 24 μg
Iron 1.2 mg
Lettuce is grown commercially world-
wide. It requires light, sandy, humus-rich,
moist soil. Dry conditions can cause the
plants to go to seed (known as bolting).
It is normally grown by early and late
sowing in sunny positions, or summer
crops in shade. Ideally, lettuce plants
require a rich, humous-laden soil that will
hold moisture in the summer.
Sow spring lettuce seeds into a sunny
site outdoors if you live in a mild area.
It may not be necessary to give glass
The possibility of failure increases the
more the ground becomes poorly
drained or over exposed - spring lettuce
is hardest to get right.
an edible flowering plant in the family of Amaran-
thaceae. It is native to central and southwestern
Asia. It is an annual plant (rarely biennial), which
grows to a height of up to 30 cm. Spinach may
survive over winter in temperate regions. Spinach
has a high nutritional value and is extremely rich
in antioxidants, especially when fresh, steamed,
or quickly boiled.
Nutritional value per 100 g raw
Energy 97 kJ (23 kcal)
Carbohydrates 3.6 g
Sugars 0.4 g
Dietary fiber 2.2 g
Fat 0.4 g
Protein 2.2 g
Vitamin A equiv. 469 μg
Vitamin A 9400 IU
- beta-carotene 5626 μg
- lutein and zeaxanthin 12198 μg
Folate (Vit. B9) 194 μg
Vitamin C 28 mg
Vitamin E 2 mg
Vitamin K 483 μg
Calcium 99 mg
Iron 2.7 mg
Spinach is so good in pie, pasta, with meat, with
chicken, in salads. This nutritious vegetable is like
the potato; anything goes!
A tender low-growing herb. Basil is a culinary and “African Blue”. The Chinese also use fresh
herb prominently featured in Italian cuisine, or dried basils in soups and other foods. In
and also plays a major role in the Southeast Taiwan, people add fresh basil leaves to thick
Asian cuisines of Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, soups (traditional Chinese pinyin). Basil (most
Cambodia, and Laos. The plant tastes some-
what like anise, with a strong, pungent, sweet commonly Thai Basil) is commonly steeped
smell. in cream or milk to create an interesting flavor
It is easy to grow; sprinkle seeds on a bed of in ice cream or chocolates (such as truffles).
soil, in a suited pot. Cover with 1 cm soil, and
keep it in the window with a clear plastic cover Basil is sometimes used with fresh fruit and in
until it shoots. fruit jams and sauces—in particular with straw-
berries, but also raspberries or dark-colored
There are many varieties of basil. That which plums.
is used in Italian food is typically called sweet When soaked in water the seeds of several
basil, as opposed to Thai basil, lemon basil basil varieties become gelatinous, and are
and holy basil, which are used in Asia. Basil is used in Asian drinks and desserts such as
commonly used fresh in cooked recipes. It is falooda or Sherbet. They are used for their
generally added at the last moment, as cook- medicinal properties in Ayurveda, the tradi-
ing quickly destroys the flavour. The fresh herb tional medicinal system of India and Siddha
can be kept for a short time in closed box in medicine, a traditional Tamil system of medi-
the refrigerator, or for a longer period in the cine. They are also used as popular drinks in
freezer, after being blanched quickly in boiling Southeast Asia.
water. The dried herb also loses most of its
flavour, and what little flavour remains tastes The “italian” basil is best used fresh in salads
very different, with a weak coumarin flavour, or tomato sauces, as pesto:
Olive oil, basil leafs, salt and roasted almonds
The most commonly used Mediterranean or pine nuts carefully blended (not too much!)
basil cultivars are “Genovese”, “Purple Ruffles”, into a thick paste.
“Mammoth”, “Cinnamon”, “Lemon”, “Globe”,
Nutritional value per 100 g raw fennel bulb
Energy 130 kJ (31 kcal)
Carbohydrates 7.29 g
Dietary fiber 3.1 g
Fat 0.20 g
Protein 1.24 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.01 mg
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.032 mg
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.64 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.232 mg
Vitamin B6 0.047 mg
Folate (Vit. B9) 27 μg
Vitamin C 12 mg
Calcium 49 mg
Iron 0.73 mg
Magnesium 17 mg
Phosphorus 50 mg
Potassium 414 mg
Zinc 0.20 mg
Manganese 0.191 mg
Fennel is best enjoyed slightly blanched in oil in a
pan with salt and pepper on it.
It is also an excellent ingredient in wok and
tomato sauces for pasta.
Anis / liquorice like taste.
potato - troll
Nutritional value per 100 g raw, with peel
Energy 321 kJ (77 kcal)
Carbohydrates 19 g
Starch 15 g
Dietary fiber 2.2 g
Fat 0.1 g
Water 75 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.08 mg
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.03 mg
Niacin (Vit. B3) 1.1 mg
Vitamin B6 0.25 mg
Vitamin C 20 mg
Calcium 12 mg
Iron 1.8 mg
Magnesium 23 mg
Phosphorus 57 mg
Potassium 421 mg
Sodium 6 mg
It is important to shift the field for potato crops
every year, as the soil easily pick up viruses that
the potato plant is not resistant to.
The troll potato is one of the late types of
potato, which means if you wait until may setting
them you will have fresh potatoes in late august -
beginning of september.
It needs to be left out in light to grow sprouts for
about 14 days before you set them.
Potatoes needs to be covered regularly to pre-
vent them from growing green. Green potatoes
are poisonous, especially to young children.
pumpkin - cucurbitaceae
c. pepo, c. mixta, c. maxima
Nutritional value per 100 g raw pumpkin
Energy 56 kJ (13 kcal)
Carbohydrates 6.5 g
Sugars 1.36 g
Dietary fiber 0.5 g
Fat 0.1 g
saturated 0.05 g
monounsaturated 0.01 g
polyunsaturated 0.01 g
Protein 1.0 g
Vitamin A equiv. 369 μg
- beta-carotene 3100 μg
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.05 mg
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.110 mg
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.6 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.298 mg
Vitamin B6 0.061 mg
Folate (Vit. B9) 16 μg
Vitamin C 9 mg
Vitamin E 1.06 mg
Calcium 21 mg
Iron 0.8 mg
Magnesium 12 mg
Phosphorus 44 mg
Potassium 340 mg
Sodium 1 mg
Zinc 0.32 mg
Nutritional value per 100 g
Energy 192 kJ (46 kcal)
Carbohydrates 11.4 g
Sugars 9.9 g
Dietary fibre 1.4 g
Fat 0.28 g
Protein 0.70 g
Vitamin A 345 IU
Vitamin C 9.5 mg
Phosphorus 16 mg
Potassium 157 mg
When it flowers in the early spring, a plum tree
will be covered in blossom, and in a good year
approximately 50% of the flowers will be pol-
linated and become plums.
If the weather is too dry the plums will not de-
velop past a certain stage, but will fall from the
tree while still tiny green buds, and if it is unsea-
sonably wet or if the plums are not harvested
as soon as they are ripe, the fruit may develop
a fungal condition called brown rot. Brown rot is
not toxic, and very small affected areas can be
cut out of the fruit, but unless the rot is caught
immediately the fruit will no longer be edible.
winters best all rounder
1 kg plums
1 ½ cup water
500 g sugar
The amount of water depends on the plums.
Firm plums need much water, while soft plums
need just a little. Slice the plums in two and
remove the stone (optional). Boil the plums and
water and let it boil until the plums are cooked
through and it looks a little like a mash; 8-10
min. Add sugar and stir well. Give the jam a new
boil, so all the sugar dissolves. Pour the jam into
sterilized glasses - fill as full as possible, to
minimize air under the lid. Do not let it overflow.
Let the jam cool and store it in a dark and cool
Plum jam is great as dessert served slightly
warm together with cake or ice-cream.
And it´s also very nice in the cake!
strength, the oxygen radical absorbance
aronia - black chokeberry capacity or ORAC, demonstrates chokeberry
aronia arbutifolia, a. melanocarpa, a. prunifolia
with one of the highest values yet recorded
-- 16,062 micromoles of Trolox Eq. per 100
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) has
g (see this ORAC reference for antioxidant
attracted scientific interest due to its deep
scores for 277 common foods).
purple, almost black pigmentation that arises
from dense contents of phenolic phytochemi-
There is growing appreciation for consumers
cals, especially anthocyanins. Total anthocy-
to increase their intake of antioxidant-rich plant
anin content in chokeberries is 1480 mg per
foods from colorful sources like berries, tree
100 g of fresh berries, and proanthocyanidin
or citrus fruits, vegetables, grains, and spices.
concentration is 664 mg per 100 g. Both
Accordingly, a deep blue food source such
values are among the highest measured in
as chokeberry yields anthocyanins in high
plants to date.
concentrations per serving, indicating potential
value as a functional food or nutraceutical.
The plant produces these pigments mainly in
the skin of the berries to protect the pulp and
Analysis of anthocyanins in chokeberries has
seeds from constant exposure to ultraviolet ra-
identified the following individual chemicals
diation. By absorbing UV rays in the blue-pur-
(among hundreds known to exist in the plant
ple spectrum, pigments filter intense sunlight
kingdom): cyanidin-3-galactoside, epicatechin,
and thereby have a role assuring regeneration
caffeic acid, quercetin, delphinidin, petunidin,
of the species. Brightly colorful pigmenta-
pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin. All these
tion also attracts birds and other animals to
are members of the flavonoid category of
consume the fruit and disperse the seeds in
Anthocyanins not only contribute toward
chokeberry’s astringent property (that would
deter pests and infections) but also give Aronia
melanocarpa extraordinary antioxidant strength
that combats oxidative stress in the fruit during
A test tube measurement of antioxidant
urban shreds produce
The aronia berries needs to cook for about 20
min. because of the thick shall.
Like black currants.
500 g aronia berries
2 dl water
1 stick of cinnamon
4,5 dl sugar
2 ts pectin powder (certo)
1/2 ts citric acid
1 ts vanilla sugar
0,5 dl cognac
1/2 ts natriumbensoat
Rinse berries and place them in a pot with water
and cinnamon stick. Let the berries cook on low
heat for 20 minutes. Then add the sugar a little
time. Stir the pectin powder and citric acid in a
bit of jam and mix it in. Let the jam boil for 3-5
minutes. Remove the foam. Remove the pan
from the plate and remove the cinnamon stick.
Stir in the vanilla sugar and brandy. Stir some of
the natriumbensoat first in a bit of jam before it is
mixed with the rest.
Pour the jam into hot sterilized glasses.
Cantharellus cibarius, commonly known as the chante-
relle or golden chanterelle is probably the best known
species of the genus Cantharellus, if not the entire
family of Cantharellaceae. It is orange or yellow, meaty
and funnel-shaped. On the lower surface, underneath
the smooth cap, it has gill-like ridges that run almost all
the way down its stipe, which tapers down seamlessly
from the cap. It has a fruity smell, reminiscent of apricots
and a mildly peppery taste (hence its German name,
Pfifferling) and is considered an excellent food mush-
room. Chanterelles are relatively high in vitamin C (0.4
mg/g fresh weight), very high in potassium (about 5%,
dry weight), and among the richest sources of vitamin D
known, with ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as high as 2500
IU/100 grams fresh weight. Scientific research has
suggested that the golden chanterelle may have potent
insecticidal properties that are harmless against humans
and yet protects the mushroom body against insects
and other potentially harmful organisms.
The chanterelle is common in Norwegian woods and
the growing sites are often considered treasured secret.
The chanterelle is best enjoyed fried in butter in a pan
with salt and pepper, but cooked in cream to go with
your fish, wild meat or simply used as a pasta sauce
has simply no replacement.
The freshwater trout, or Brown trout as it is also
called, is quite common in small streams and
lakes in Norway.
It is good fun trying to catch on a fly fishing rod,
but better to catch with fish net if you are hungry.
Either you wrap it in foil and cook it on the barbie,
or on the fire if you are
camping, or fry it on the pan in butter, or simply
poach it and serve it with potatoes and buttered
It tastes fantastic!
Nutritional value per 100 g raw
Energy 205 kcal
Fat 14 g
saturated fat 3g
Cholesterol 70 mg
Sodium 90 mg
Vitamin A 3%*
Vitamin C 1%
*of daily values from 2000kcal daily diet
Atlantic mackerel is extremely high in vitamin B12. At-
lantic mackerel is also very high in omega 3, containing
nearly twice as much per unit weight as does salmon.
Unlike King mackerel and Spanish mackerel, Northern
Atlantic mackerel are very low in mercury.
Mackerel is an excellent source of Phosphatidylserine
as it contains approximately 480 mg / 100 grams by
weight. Phosphatidylserine is an important brain food
that can have positive effects on ADHD and Alzheimer
Best prepared on the barbecue with salt and pepper,
served with potatoes and sour cream.
The word oyster is used as a common name for
a number of distinct groups of bivalve molluscs
which live in marine or brackish habitats.
Ostrea edulis is a species of oyster native to
Europe and commonly known as the European
flat oyster or Edible Oyster.
The species naturally ranges along the western
and southern coasts of Europe from Norway to
Morocco and including most of the British Isles
and the Mediterranean coast.
The Ostrea edulis is the only oyster naturally
growing on the coast of Norway.
The species once dominated European oyster
production but disease, pollution, and overfishing
sharply reduced the harvest. Today Pacific oys-
ters, Crassostrea gigas, account for more than
75 percent of Europe’s oyster production.
O. edulis are prized for their unique tannic sea-
water flavor, sometimes described as dry and
metallic. The flavor is considered excellent for
eating raw. In France the species has an AOC
The edible crab is found in the North Sea, North
Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. It is a robust
crab of a reddish-brown color, having an oval
carapace with a characteristic “pie crust” edge
and black tips to the claws. Mature adults may
have a carapace width of up to about 25 cm
and weigh up to 3 kg.
The edible crab is abundant throughout the
northeast Atlantic as far as Norway in the north
and northern Africa in the south, on mixed
coarse grounds, mud and sand from shallow
sub-littoral to about 100 m.
Edible crabs are nocturnal, hiding buried in the
substrate during the day. It normally eats benthic
animals such as other crustaceans and mol-
In fall, that is when the crab is potentially full of
meat it is easily (and fun) to catch from boat.
They come up to feed on barnacles at high wa-
ter at night and then you can simply pick them
with your hands or use a long garden tool.
Head lights are required to spot their red backs
in the water.
Edible crabs are heavily exploited commercially
throughout their range. It is illegal to catch crabs
of too small a size, and at too shallow water.
Best enjoyed after nocturnal hunt on the quay
To prepare them bring a large pot to boil and put
the crabs in while they are still alive. If they die
they are poisonous.
Boil for about 30 minutes and cool off.
Best served pealed (obviously) on white bread,
with mayonnaise and a lemon twist.
short traveled food
and why this is important
(y)our alternative legacy - MASTER DIPLOMA PROJECT, BERGEN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 2010 by Laura Ve
This has been
a small introduction
to local food;
the seeding, planting
and caretaking of the vegetable garden
and the harvest possibilities
within the 100-mile diet circle
of Bergen city,
on the West Coast of Norway