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Altenative legacy recipes e book-laura ve Presentation Transcript

  • 1. by Laura Ve © August 2010, Bergen alternative legacy recipes Master Diploma Project from Bergen School of Architecture youralternativelegacy.blogspot.com celebration of garden delights urbandevelopmentbergen.blogspot.com food / architecture crossover by Laura Ve
  • 2. hegreneset bergen sentrum
  • 3. INDEX PLANNING / EDUCATION / ACTION p. 6 WORLD BIO-CAPACITY & ECOSYSTEM SERVICES p. 8 WHAT IS THE FOOTPRINT ABOUT? p. 11 SHORT TRAVELED FOOD and why this is important p. 12 ARTISAN AGRICULTURE & AGRARIAN ECONOMY art of food-craft p. 14 I live here INTRODUCING THE FOOD CYCLE - the cycle of life p. 19 Bergen,Norway PREPARATIONS FOR THE PRODUCTIVE SEASON p. 20 COMPOST p. 23 NETTLE p. 25 NETTLE WATER p. 27 CLOVER p. 29 blue dot : hundred mile diet outline of Bergen (160 km) SEEDING & PLANTING fascination over growing things p. 32 ALTERNATIVE LEGACY RECIPES - celebration of garden delights p. 34-137
  • 4. to contribute with pollination in their search for food. (No man made technology can replace the PLANNING / EDUCATION / ACTION pollination that is done by eager bees in search for honey on a summer day). It puts nature- services and bio-capacity into perspective. UTOPIA= “good place” or “no place” From the ecological point of view the aspects of nature services matters more for the future (greek; eu=good, ou=no) rather than (only) green gas emissions effect on climate change. Biodiversity over and under the sea surface is the eco-systems supporting our way of life. SITOPIA = foodplace Valuation of productive land and how we decide to manage these resources have great impact (greek; sitos=food + topos,place) on future generations quality of life. The background for the study leading to this book is the city of Bergen, a small city of challeng- SUSTAINBILITY = the capacity to endure, remaining diverse and productive over time ing topography. Only small contiguous areas are good for urban settlement, surrounded and (lat.; sustinere; tenere=“to hold”, sus=“up”) divided by several mountains forming what is known as “Bergens buene”. Only 3,5% of the 465,68 km2 area of Bergen Municipality today is productive land, and still the Municipality of How can we make personal changes and changes in our communities and cities to live “easier Bergen and neighboring Municipalities continue to re-regulate productive land into areas of real green” lives in the future? estate and business / industry zones. We are big spenders of oil, a resource it took millions of years to “make”, and a really dirty busi- The ecological footprint of the average Norwegian was, according to the Living Planet Report, ness, once it is let out of its dark caves. 6,8 gha (global hectares) in 2008. Relative to available bio-capacity and the existing population There is an enormous amount of oil involved in almost everything we eat and drink; about ten of the planet, the ideal ecological footprint is 1,8 gha. calories of fossil fuels are used to produce one calorie of food, and approximately half of ev- Mobility, food, shelter, goods and services are the main issues regarding the everyday-choices erything produced in the western countries today is thrown away; due to trade regulations, not we make (or not), to lower our individual eco-footprint. because its unusable or to old. Densification, Urban Agriculture and Urban Planning with Nature are key aspects in planning to The diet we hold in western cities is challenging to supply within sustainable limits; most people make these choices easier. enjoy a meat based diet. Production of meat is very space consuming as the process requires Visualization of the processes involved “from field to fork” can be important tools to raise aware- ten times more calories than crops produced for human consummation directly. ness to how food shapes our cities and how we deal with this need, in the most sustainable way. We have built a system on a terminal resource, making us very vulnerable. We need to adopt new behavioral ethics, and it is effective to do this within a renewed eco- “The role of humans in the environment nomic system. “The throwaway economy will be replaced by a comprehensive reuse / recycle is to understand how it functions, economy.” ( Lester R. Brown, Plan B 2.0: Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in and to promote its continued functioning. Trouble, 1995) Since man is just one species among the great diversity of species in nature, The 21st century will be characterized by big changes in style of life, at least the way we know he cannot hope to intervene and it in the west. Governments sign treaties and make regulations on how to lower our green gas to exploit this diversity without emissions. We will maybe not go short on oil and gas during the first 50 years, but regulations jeopardising the mechanisms on emissions will make it difficult to continue the way we have done the last 50. of interaction among the many forms But as the focus on green gas emissions so far has been driven by the existing economical of life on the planet.” system; lacking a value-system for ecosystem-services, there is now a careful and slow shift at- tempting to value nature-services before / beside the value given in the financial market. Market- (Gilles Clément, Environ(ne)ment, 2006) value given to resources like the amazon forest reserves, besides the value of f.ex rainforest wood. Financial losses discussed before turning wetlands into farmland or real-estate. These matters are important all the way down to the choice of clover fields covering the floors of our public landscapes before monotone grass-fields, encouraging wasps, bees and other insects 6 7
  • 5. exceeding their own biocapacity. The other five countries,(Canada) are creditors. Ecological WORLD BIO - CAPACITY debtor countries face increasing risk from a growing dependence on the biological capacity of & ECOSYSTEM SERVICES others, while countries with ecological reserves can view their biological wealth as an asset that provides an important competitive advantage in an uncertain world. (Livingplanet report) Wild species and natural ecosystems are under pressure across all biomes and regions of the With the consumption level of the average Norwegian, equivalent to 6,8 gha (global hectares) world. The direct, anthropogenic threats to biodiversity are often grouped under five headings: in 2009 we would need about 4,5 planets to sustain our lifestyle, relative to the number of :: habitat loss, fragmentation or change, especially due to agriculture people inhabiting the planet now. Increasing local bio-capasity, managing organic waste, re- :: over exploitation of species, especially due to fishing and hunting use of goods and resources, local food production and accessibility for pedestrians will start the :: pollution change and raise awareness around this. :: the spread of invasive species or genes :: climate change (Livingplanet report) ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Humanity depends on healthy ecosystems, they support or improve our quality of life, and without them, the Earth would be uninhabitable. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) describes four categories of ecosystem services, starting with the most fundamental: :: supporting services such as nutrient cycling :: soil formation and primary production provisioning services such as the production of food, freshwater, materials or fuel :: regulating services including climate and flood regulation, water purification, pollination and pest control :: cultural (including aesthetic, spiritual, educational and recreational) services. The MA reported that biodiversity loss contributes to food and energy insecurity, increased vul- nerability to natural disasters such as floods or tropical storms, poorer health, reduced availability and quality of water, and the erosion of cultural heritage. Most supporting, regulating and cultural ecosystem services are not bought and sold com- mercially, so have no market value. Their decline sends no warning signal to the local or global economy. Markets lead to decisions about resource use that maximize benefits to individual producers and consumers, but often undermine the biodiversity and ecosystem services on which the production and consumption ultimately depend. The value of biodiversity to human well-being, while not readily quantifiable in monetary terms, could be the difference between a planet that can support its human population and one which cannot. In a globally interdependent economy, people increasingly use ecological capacity from afar. When China imports wood from Tanzania, or Europe imports beef from cattle raised on Brazilian soy, these countries are relying on biocapacity outside of their borders to provide the resources being consumed by their population. Biocapacity is not evenly distributed around the world. The eight countries with the most bioca- pacity – the United States, Brazil, Russia, China, Canada, India, Argentina and Australia – con- tain 50 per cent of the total world biocapacity. Three of the eight countries with the largest bioca- pacity – the United States, China and India – are ecological debtors, with their national footprints 8 9
  • 6. Thursday, June 10, 2010 WHAT IS THE FOOTPRINT ABOUT? Ecological Footprints can be calculated for individuals, groups of people (such as a nation), and activities (such as manufacturing a product). The Ecological Footprint of a person is calculated by considering all of the biological materials consumed and all of the biological wastes generated by that person in a given year. All these materials and wastes are then individually trans- lated into an equivalent number of global hectares. To accomplish this, the amount of material consumed by that person (tonnes per year) is divided by the yield of the specific land or sea area (annual tonnes per hectare) from which it was harvested, or where its waste material was absorbed. The number of hectares that result from this calculation are then converted to global hectares using yield and equivalence factors. The sum of the global hectares needed to support the resource consumption and waste generation of the person is that person’s Ecological Footprint. The Ecological Footprint of a group of people, such as a city or a nation, is sim- ply the sum of the Ecological Footprint of all the residents of that city or nation. It is also possible to construct an Ecological Footprint of production for a city or INDIVIDUAL CONSUMPTION PLANET BIO - CAPACITY nation, which instead sums the Ecological Footprint of all resources extracted and wastes generated within the borders of the city or nation. The Ecological Footprint of an activity, such as producing a good (an airplane) or service (providing insurance) in the human economy, is calculated by summing the Ecological Footprint of all of the material consumed and waste generated during that activity. When calculating the Footprint of a business or an organiza- tion, the activities to be included within the boundaries of that organization must be clearly defined. See also;footprintnetwork.org Posted by laura at 10:39 PM 0 comments Labels: # food, # footprint basics, # goods, # mobility, # services, # shelter IDEAL FOOTPRINT VS. ACTUAL FOOTPRINT OF NORWEGIANS 10 11
  • 7. SHORT TRAVELED FOOD and why this is important Small-scale processed, locally manufactured and short-trav- elled food are important to the environmentally conscious as it relies on and support local economy and businesses. Supporting local food-businesses shifts our food system from a global set of production and economy more dependent on oil as energy source, and a system that consumes a lot more oil. The so called hundred mile diet, or low carbon diet as it is also called, minimizes the emissions released from the production, packaging, processing, transport, preparation and waste of food. Major tenets of a low carbon diet include eating less indus- Bergen trial meat and dairy, eating less industrially produced food in general, eating food grown locally and seasonally, eating less processed and packaged foods and reducing waste from food by proper portion size, recycling or composting.*1 Transport of food across great distances of land or sea in high speed refrigerated ships or airplanes is a contributor to carbon dioxide emissions in the food industry. Some studies have argued that growing food only accounts for 21% of the energy required for many food products. Transportation (14%), processing (16%), packaging (7%), food retailing (4%), restau- rants and caterers (7%) and home refrigeration and preparation (32%) account for the rest. *2 Locavore describes a person attempting to eat a diet consist- ing of foods harvested from within a 100-mile radius. *1 (Randy Hall, “Low Carbon Diet’ Aims to Take Bite Out of Global Warming,” Cybercast News Service, April 18, 2007) *2 (Danielle Murray, “Oil and Food: A Rising Security Challenge,” Earth Policy Institute, May 9, 2005) 12 blue dot : hundred mile diet outline of Bergen (160 km) 13
  • 8. ARTISAN AGRICULTURE into final products. # integrated infrastructure; water, waste-water, energy and solid-waste & AGRARIAN ECONOMY management systems offer opportunities to both integrate with urban infrastruc- art of food-craft ture and turn waste into shared resources. ( Composting food waste for soil improvement, treating urban runoff in ponds using it for irrigation (water source), Food, and the processes involved is essential to start dealing with when we at- using waste urban heat for green houses. tempt to develop more resilient and sustainable communities. # diverse education; the urban farmers education, or training of skills, covers The amount of food produced is not the main issue, it is about re-introducing agro-ecological farming practices and possible a range of small-business man- important aspects of eating, and increasing the value of the actions involved. agement strategies (to support Visualizing the processes, influences the habits we take regarding consumption vertically integrated business opportunities). of food. It raises awareness and can change our relationship to our environ- # economic diversity; mixing agriculture with processing, retail, restaurants, ment. Introducing the processes of the food-cycle (soil improvement, seeding, agro-tourism and education, greater economic diversity is achieved in the com- planting, harvesting, processing, consume and waste management) locally, can munity, and offers new opportunities for the inhabitants. show us the impact of our choices on our surroundings. With an Artisan ap- proach to Urban Agriculture (refers to the hand craft of making food products), Skills and knowledge are of high value; appealing and inspiring. education and skills become important. Conventional agriculture does not integrate easily into the urban fabric. It is space consuming, requires large machinery and heavy spraying of fertilizers and pesticides is “normal”. Risking dust and chemicals to drift into residential areas is a concern and therefore conventional agriculture becomes incompatible with modern city-living. In the urban landscape of Bergen, stuck between mountain walls, the Artisan Model can work better as it is more flexible and adaptable. Artisans employ creative thinking and manual dexterity to their produce. When it comes to building communities upon an artisan economy, one can assume that the food produced is of good quality and worth celebrating, simply because of the knowledge, skills and concern put into the effort of making it. Key elements relating to an artisan agrarian economy are; # low toxicity farming; agro-ecological farming practices with a minimum of toxic pesticides and fertilizers. # high value products; for urban markets comes from smaller parcels. A com- munity will focus on high value products. # vertically integrated economy; the focus of artisan agriculture is on finished food products. The local community benefit from transforming the raw foodstuff 14 15
  • 9. ‘From field to fork’, means making food visible in all its processes. In future city urban agrarian businesses and urban farmers, to supply restaurants, grocery planning this is the important tool. Glassed galleries on buildings, green houses stores, kindergartens, schools, canteens, institutions etc. Organic waste com- on roofs and conservatories in the gardens extends the productive season, posted and used directly in the vegetable gardens and in the fields making them and saves energy in the built fabric creating an extra climatic buffer zone, spe- productive without fertilizers. Clover covering the fields resting until next season, cially important in a city like Bergen with a lot of wind and short summer sea- attracting insects and possibly give basis for production of honey. Festivals cel- son. Children at school seeding and planting in the school gardens and green ebrating the seasons and local food. Farmers markets showing and selling the houses will educate the youngest members of the society to become skilled local products, sharing their knowledge of the products. People enjoying their and experienced urban farmers. Grocery stores, cafes and restaurants in the own produce in their backyards with the neighbors. streets offer local products in their product range. Production fields for the new 16 17
  • 10. celebr introducing the food cycle tion atio mp the cycle of life nsu n co wa Visualization of the processes involved around our need for food can increase our knowledge and awareness around its origin and the destination of the waste products. We have grown a global economy depending on huge amounts of oil, and we are currently in a position to neglect ste the recourses lost by throwing away the waste products, be it organic waste or excess food. -m g ssin Using planning, regulations and education as tools we can little by little facilitate, encourage and ana show each other how to get more out of the local resources just lying there in front of us, spe- proce gem cially in a mild humid climate like in the city of Bergen, on the west coast of Norway. Explaining the steps of the cycle; ent soil imp soil improvement, organically, means f.ex charging the soil with nutrients using compost from organic waste, nutrient made from nettle leafs and by using clover, and other cover crops, to let the fields rest in between productive seasons. seeding; is the start of the productive season. Schools, kindergartens and private galleries and ting conservatories can be effective producers in this stage of the cycle. Either for own use or for sales. ves rov planting; in larger fields, agro-parks, vegetable gardens or in the conservatories and galleries; giving the seedlings good environment and enough space to grow into crops. r em ha harvesting; for direct use or when the time is right harvesting of the planted fields, the forest gardens, the forest, in the mountain or at sea. In surroundings like Bergen the opportunities are en endless from early summer to late autumn. t processing;the harvested raw is made into delicate products. see consumption; sales of raw and processed local food-stuff in grocery stores, farmers markets, ng din cafes and restaurants. And of course the food used directly from your private vegetable garden, planti g gallery and conservatory. celebration; of the local products and produce with festivals, farmers markets or simply dinner parties with your family or neighbors. waste management; urban organic waste managed locally in small scale facilities. Compost makes excellent organic nutrient. Kept at a small scale the emission of the green gas methane is much less than in large facilities. 18 19
  • 11. preparations for the produc- tive season : soil improvement, waste management & seeding 20 4
  • 12. compost compost Compost is composed of organic materials agriculture. The compost itself is beneficial derived from plant and animal matter that has for the land in many ways, including as a soil been decomposed largely through aerobic conditioner, a fertilizer, addition of vital humus decomposition. The process of composting or humid acids, and as a natural pesticide for is simple and practiced by individuals in their soil. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compost) homes, farmers on their land, and industrially Effort made through winter to compost your by industries and cities. organic waste will pay off when spring comes With the proper mixture of water, oxygen, and you can work this nutritious new soil into carbon, and nitrogen, microorganisms are your vegetable gardens, the conservatory allowed to break down organic matter to pro- plant beds and the pots for your herbs. duce compost. Microorganisms are absolutely Mixing compost into the soil is a smart way to necessary for the composting process and boost plant health and, while you can buy the without them, organic matter in your compost stuff, making your own compost is beneficial heap cannot undergo the composting pro- to you, your plants and the environment at cess. There are five types of microorganisms large. At the same time it helps your garden, found in active compost: it also helps your environment by reducing the Bacteria- The most common of all the micro- amount of organic material that literally goes to organisms found in compost. waste (and becomes waste) in your local land- Actinomycetes- Necessary for breaking down fill. Composting can reduce yard waste that paper products such as newspaper, bark, needs to be hauled to the dump by anywhere etc. from 50 to 75%. Fungi- Molds and yeast help break down Composting can destroy pathogens or materials that bacteria cannot especially lignin unwanted seeds. Unwanted living plants (or in woody material. weeds) can be destroyed by covering with Protozoa- Help consume bacteria and fungi, mulch/compost. balancing out the composting cycle. The “microbial pesticides” in compost may Rotifers- Rotifers also help break down organ- include thermophiles and mesophiles, how- ics in the compost and also ingest bacteria ever certain composting detritivores such and fungi. as black soldier fly larvae and redworms, In additions earth worms not only ingest partly also reduce many pathogens. Thermophilic composted material but also continually re- (high-temperature) composting is well known create aeration and drainage tunnels as they to destroy many seeds and nearly all types of move through the compost. pathogens. High-temperature composting is Compost can be rich in nutrients. It is used also desirable due to the quicker process and in gardens, landscaping, horticulture, and therefore less attraction of rats etc. 23
  • 13. nettle urtica dioica Nettle is the common name for between 30- culinary recipes which utilize the nettle as the 45 species of flowering plants of the genus main course - these include pudding made Urtica in the family Urticaceae, with a cosmo- from nettle and the technique to develop a politan though mainly temperate distribution. unique beer from the nettle. They are mostly herbaceous perennial plants, Culinary uses of the herb are many, the nettle but some are annual and a few are shrubby. leaves can be used dried to make tea, or the The most prominent member of the genus young nettle shoots are very edible, these are is the stinging nettle Urtica dioica, native to often cooked to make delicious herbal dishes. Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America. Moreover, their content of important com- The nettle is a great plant of the garden as it pounds is high and the shoots may approxi- can be made into fertilizer with little effort. mately provide the same amounts of carotene Simply gather (approx a bag of) plants in a - or the pro-vitamin A and the vitamin C as bucket (remember gloves), add water, leave vegetables like the spinach or other similar it to ferment for 14 days in the sun, and its greens normally used in dishes. ready to use. Mix it with water 1:10. As an edible plant, nettles can be considered Herbal medicine traditionally uses the entire very high in nutrition value, and the species herb in the preparation of the remedy, and the also have high content of many important whole plant is collected just before the flower- vitamins and essential minerals, especially im- ing season, the herb has seen a lot of use portant ones such as iron, essential minerals and developed a lengthy reputation in popular such as silica and the essential mineral potas- folk medicine around the world - the main use sium. This high mineral and vitamin content being as a specific herbal remedy for the treat- may be one reason for the traditional use of ment of asthma in patients. the nettle for centuries to make very nourishing The traditional uses of the nettle are almost tonics for the treatment of physical weakness legendary and have been known down the and debilitation, as an aid to the process of centuries, it is reported anecdotally that the convalescence and in the treatment of symp- Roman soldiers, facing the inhospitable- toms connected with anemia. The detoxifica- weather and climate of occupied Britain, used tion of the body is another important property the irritation induced by nettle leaves to keep of the nettles and through their stimulating their legs warmed in winter. Culinary recipes action on the functioning of the bladder and have also seen the use of the tender tops of the kidneys, the nettles helps in cleansing the young and first growth nettles, these parts body of all accumulated toxins and in the rapid of the herb are especially palatable or so it is removal of metabolic waste. said when cooked well. There are numbers of 25
  • 14. nettle water organic plant nutrition Making organic, and free, plant nutrient is the most simple thing. Gather some nettle in a bucket, fill it with water and leave it out in the sun to ferment for about 14 days. Before using it in the vegetable garden or in the flower beds it must be mixed with water : 10 to 1 It might be necessary to stir the mixture everyday for a few minutes to add oxygen to the process. The oxygen will feed bacteria that will break down the nettle, and that is important in the process. Nettle water contains microorganisms that seems to boost the health and growth of the plants, apparently making them more resistant somehow. 27
  • 15. Clover sickness in more recent times may clover also be linked to pollinator decline; clovers trifolium (pratense, repens) are most efficiently pollinated by bumblebees, which have declined as a result of agricultural Clover (Trifolium), or trefoil, is a genus of about intensification. Honeybees can also pollinate 300 species of plants in the pea family clover, and beekeepers are often in heavy Fabaceae. The genus has a cosmopolitan demand from farmers with clover pastures. distribution; the highest diversity is found in the Farmers reap the benefits of increased temperate Northern Hemisphere. They are reseeding that occurs with increased bee small annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial activity, which means that future clover yields herbaceous plants. The leaves are trifoliate remain abundant. Beekeepers benefit from (rarely 5- or 7-foliate), with stipules adnate to the clover bloom as clover is one of the main the leaf-stalk, and heads or dense spikes of nectar sources for honeybees. small red, purple, white, or yellow flowers. The Clovers are a valuable survival food, as they “shamrock” of popular iconography (guinness) are high in protein, widespread, and abun- is sometimes considered to be young clover. dant. They are not easy to digest raw, but this The scientific name derives from the Latin tres, can be easily fixed by juicing them or boiling “three”, and folium, “leaf”. Several species them for 5–10 minutes. Dried flower heads are extensively cultivated as fodder plants. and seedpods can also be ground up into The most widely cultivated clovers are white a nutritious flour and mixed with other foods. clover Trifolium repens and red clover Trifolium Dried flower heads can also be steeped in hot pratense. Clover, either sown alone or in mix- water for a healthy, tasty tea. ture with ryegrass, has for a long time formed Cover crops maintain and improve soil health. a staple crop for soiling, for several reasons: it as they prevent soil erosion and increase grows freely, shooting up again after repeated organic matter, improve microbiotic activity, soil mowings; it produces an abundant crop; it structure, and water infiltration rates. Cover is palatable to and nutritious for livestock; it crops also aid in nutrient cycling, reduce soil grows in a great range of soils and climates; temperature fluctuations, provide habitat for and it is appropriate for either pasturage or beneficial insects, and suppress weed green composting. In many areas, particularly populations. The biomass produced from on acidic soil, clover is short-lived because of growing a cover crop can be disced into the a combination of insect pests, diseases and soil, increasing the organic matter content. nutrient balance; this is known as “clover sick- This biomass is often referred to as green ma- ness”. When crop rotations are managed so nure. Clover is a great cover crop plant used that clover does not recur at intervals shorter for soil improvement as it provides a large than eight years, it grows with much of its amount of nectar flowers for honey produc- pristine vigour. tion. 29
  • 16. seeding & planting fascination over growing things Seeding is the start up of the growing season. If you have a conservatory or green house you are lucky, but the kitchen counter with a window will work good too. It´s good to get hold of trays for seeding, like the ones they receive the plants in at plant stores. They normally throw them away when they are empty so it is normally not a problem to get hold of them. It´s a good thing to label the different rows with what you have seeded so you don´t loose control of what goes where when you are to plant them out, according to needs etc. The seed bags normally explains well what the seeds like and need to grow into good products. Just read the instructions and follow them and it should be trouble free. Remember to keep the seeded soil from getting dry, and it should hold temperature above 18 ºC. If you have access to a green house or you have a glassed balcony where the temperature don´t drop too much at night (you can always move the pots inside at night), you can extend the growing season by a month (or two) getting a head start from growing outside. It is also an alternative to make low greenhouses, cloches, out- side, simply four walls and an old window on top. The walls can be isolated and if you start a warm compost in the bottom of it the temperature will hold above 20 - 25 ºC, perfect for seeding. 32
  • 17. alternative legacy recipes celebration of garden delights
  • 18. mentha (arvensis, × piperita, gentilis etc) Mentha (and mint, from Greek míntha), is along surfaces through a network of runners. a genus of flowering plants in the family Due to their speedy growth, one plant of Lamiaceae (Mint Family). The species are not each desired mint, along with a little care, will clearly distinct and estimates of the number of provide more than enough mint for home use. species varies from 13 to 18. Hybridization Some mint species are more invasive than between some of the species occurs natu- others. Even with the less invasive mints, care rally. Many other hybrids as well as numerous should be taken when mixing any mint with cultivars are known in cultivation. The genus any other plants, lest the mint take over. To has a subcosmopolitan distribution across control mints in an open environment, mints Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, and North should be planted in deep, bottomless con- America. tainers sunk in the ground, or planted above Mints are aromatic, almost exclusively peren- ground in tubs and barrels. nial, rarely annual, herbs. They have wide- The most common and popular mints for spreading underground rhizomes, and erect, cultivation are peppermint (Mentha × piperita), square, branched stems. The leaves are spearmint (Mentha spicata), and apple mint arranged in opposite pairs, from oblong to (Mentha suaveolens). lanceolate, often downy, and with a serrate Mints are supposed to make good compan- margin. Leaf colors range from dark green and ion plants, repelling pest insects and attracting gray-green to purple, blue, and sometimes beneficial ones. pale yellow. The flowers are white to purple. Harvesting of mint leaves can be done at While the species that make up the Mentha any time. Fresh mint leaves should be used genus are widely distributed and can be immediately or stored up to a couple of days found in many environments, most Mentha in plastic bags within a refrigerator. Optionally, grow best in wet environments and moist mint can be frozen in ice cube trays. Dried soils. Mints will grow 10–120 cm tall and can mint leaves should be stored in an airtight spread over an indeterminate area. Due to container placed in a cool, dark, dry area. The their tendency to spread unchecked, mints leaf, fresh or dried, is the culinary source of are considered invasive. mint. Fresh mint is usually preferred over dried All mints prefer, and thrive in, cool, moist spots mint when storage of the mint is not a prob- in partial shade. In general, mints tolerate a lem. The leaves have a pleasant warm, fresh, wide range of conditions, and can also be aromatic, sweet flavor with a cool aftertaste. grown in full sun. Mint leaves are used in teas, beverages, jel- They are fast growing, extending their reach lies, syrups, candies, and ice creams. 37
  • 19. ginger mint mentha gentilis Comes from a cross between corn mint and spearmint, and has the strong smell of the latter. It is a perennial herb, growing to a height of 1-2 ft and producing smallish light green leaves. In the variegated form bright yellow stripes run through the leaves. Ginger mint produces small, pale purple flowers which bloom along the main stern, rather than at the end of the stalk like other mints. It is also known as slender mint and Scotch mint. Like all mints, ginger mint can get out of control so try growing it in either in a pot or a container sunk into the ground to prevent the roots spreading too far. In the fourteenth century mint was used for whit- ening the teeth. Mice dislike the smell of either fresh or dried mint, so they will not touch any food where mint is scattered. Very good for hot pots, stews and soups! 39
  • 20. pepper mint mentha x piperita Peppermint (Mentha × piperita, (also known symptoms, compared with just 38% of those as M. balsamea Willd) is a hybrid mint, a cross who took a placebo. between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). It is found wild Peppermint flowers are large nectar produc- occasionally with its parent species. ers and honey bees as well as other nectar Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats, harvesting organisms forage them heavily. A including stream sides and drainage ditches. mild, pleasant varietal honey can be produced Being a hybrid, it is usually sterile, producing if there is a sufficient area of plants. no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively, spreading by its rhizomes. If placed, it can Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesti- grow almost anywhere. cide applicators, in the EcoSmart Technolo- gies line of products, as a natural insecticide. Peppermint has a long tradition of medicinal Peppermint generally thrives in moist, shaded use, with archaeological evidence placing its locations, and expands quickly by under- use at least as far back as ten thousand years ground stolons. It is often grown in containers ago. Peppermint has a high menthol content, to restrict rapid spreading. It grows best with a and is often used as tea and for flavouring good supply of water, and is often planted in ice cream, confectionery, chewing gum, and areas with part-sun to shade. toothpaste. The leaves and flowering tops are used, they The oil also contains menthone and menthyl are collected as soon as the flowers begin esters, particularly menthyl acetate. It is the to open and then are carefully dried. The oldest and most popular flavour of mint-fla- wild form of the plant is less suitable for this voured confectionery. Peppermint can also be purpose, with cultivated plants having been found in some shampoos and soaps, which selected for more and better oil content. give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. The plant is also easy to spread by putting In 2007, Italian investigators reported that 75% stalks of the plant into water. They will grow of the patients in their study who took pepper- roots in a few days and then you can plant mint oil capsules for four weeks had a major them in new pots, or where you want them... reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS 41
  • 21. shallot allium oschaninii, a. ascalonicum The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant which are perennials. The French gray challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the “true shallot” by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder fla- vour. They can be stored for at least 6 months. The shallots are high in vitamin A, vitamin B6, manganese, vitamin C, folate and potassium. 43
  • 22. parsley - curly leaf & flat leaf petroselinum crispum, p. neapolitanum Nutritional value per 100 g , raw Energy 151 kJ (36 kcal) Carbohydrates 6.3 g Sugars 0.9 g Dietary fiber 3.3 g Fat 0.8 g Protein 3.0 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.1 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.2 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 1.3 mg Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.1 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.0 μg Calcium 138.0 mg Iron 6.2 mg Magnesium 50.0 mg Phosphorus 58.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.1 mg Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. Like many other members of the carrot family (umbellifers), it attracts predatory insects, including wasps and predatory flies to gardens, which then tend to protect plants nearby. In cold climates, parsley is biennial, not bloom- ing until its second year. It offers protection even in its first year as the strong scent of the parsley leaves appear to mingle with the tomato scent and confuse the search paradigms of the tomato moth. 45
  • 23. green beans phaseolus vulgaris Is also known as French beans, Runner beans, string beans and snap beans. Nutritional value per 100 g, raw green beans Energy 129 kJ (31 kcal) Carbohydrates 7.1 g Dietary fibre 3.6 g Fat 0.1 g Protein 1.8 g Vitamin C 16 mg Iron 1 mg Potassium 200 mg Over 130 varieties of snap bean are known. Varieties specialized for use as green beans, selected for the succulence and flavor of their pods, are the ones usually grown in the home vegetable garden, and many varieties exist. Pod color can be green, golden, purple, red, or streaked. Shapes range from thin “fillet” types to wide “romano” types and more common types in between. French Haricots verts (green beans) are bred for flavorful pods. Green beans are found in two major groups, bush beans and pole beans. Bush beans are short plants, growing to ap- proximately two feet in height, without requiring supports. They generally reach maturity and produce all of their fruit in a relatively short period of time, then cease to produce. Growing beans can give you more than one crop of bush beans in a season. 47
  • 24. pea pisum sativum Nutritional value per 100 g, raw pea Energy 339 kJ (81 kcal) Carbohydrates 14.5 g Sugars 5.7 g Dietary fiber 5.1 g Fat 0.4 g Protein 5.4 g Vitamin A equiv. 38 μg - beta-carotene 449 μg - lutein and zeaxanthin 2593 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.3 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.1 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 2.1 mg Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.1 mg Vitamin B6 0.2 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 65 μg Vitamin C 40.0 mg Calcium 25.0 mg Iron 1.5 mg Magnesium 33.0 mg Phosphorus 108 mg Potassium 244 mg Zinc 1.2 mg Really healthy in other words. Don´t wait for the fruits, go for the shoots!!! Peas can be sown until quite late in summer and you will have a late august - september crop. 49
  • 25. squash - cucurbitaceae c. moschata, c. pepo, c. mixta Nutritional value per 100 g (summer squash) Energy 69 kJ (16 kcal) Carbohydrates 3.4 g Dietary fiber 1.1 g Fat 0.2 g Protein 1.2 g Water 95 g Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.14 mg Vitamin C 17 mg Potassium 262 mg Squashes generally refer to four species of the genus Cucurbita native to Mexico and Central America. These species include C. maxima (hubbard squash, buttercup squash, some varieties of prize pumpkins, such as Big Max), C. mixta (cushaw squash), C. moschata (butternut squash), and C. pepo (most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash, zucchini). Squash can be loosely grouped into summer squash or winter squash, depending on whether they are harvested as immature vegetables (summer squash) or mature vegetables (autumn squash or winter squash). Gourds are from the same family as squashes. Well known types of squash include the pumpkin and zucchini. Giant squash are derived from Cucurbita maxima and are routinely grown to weights nearing those of giant pumpkins. Squash can be the most beautiful addition to your garden or greenhouse as the flower is truly amazing. 51
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  • 27. lovage -’love herb’ levisticum officinale In Germany and Holland, one of the common names of Lovage is Maggikraut (German) or Maggiplant (Dutch) because the plant’s taste is reminiscent of Maggi soup seasoning. In many other European languages the word for lovage derives from Latin ligusticus (meaning “of Liguria”, as the herb used to grow heartily in the Liguria region of northwest Italy), through its alteration levisticum. Lovage is considered a “magic bullet” compan- ion plant; much as borage helps protect almost all plants from pests, so lovage is thought to improve the health of almost all plants. The leafs of the lovage are great in soups, stews and fish stock, or any other soup / sauce basis. Anything you would use celery in is great with lovage. The fruit of the lovage plant can be used as a spice, and the root of lovage, which contains a heavy, volatile oil, is used as a mild aquaretic. Lovage tea can be applied to wounds as an antiseptic, or drunk to stimulate digestion. In the UK, Lovage cordial was traditionally mixed with brandy in the ratio of 2:1 as a winter drink. Lovage is second only to capers in its quercetin content ( wikipedia). The lovage plant grows easily (like weeds) and becomes quite large in the garden, 90-270cm, so plant it in a corner where it can unfold. And don´t be shy when harvesting it. 57
  • 28. lovage on oil spicing up the winter Preserving lovage in oil, either to freeze or to keep in the fridge, is an excellent way to get a taste of summer during autumn and winter. Lovage is really nice in soups, on meat, on oven-baked potatoes and fish. Clean a good bouquet of lovage and leave it to dry slightly, before mixing it with canola oil in a bowl (if you use a hand blender) or in your food processor. Blend just a little till you get a nice green pesto, too much will kill the herbs. Pour it into small jars (sterilized in boiled water) to keep in the fridge, or you can use ice-cube boards and put them in the freezer. This process can continue now and then through summer as the lovage- bush grows back. 59
  • 29. mangold - ’bright yellow’ beta vulgaris l. Mangelwurzel or mangold wurzel, is a root vegetable of the family Chenopodiaceae, ge- nus Beta (the beets). Its large white, yellow or orange-yellow swollen roots were developed in the 1700s for feeding livestock. The 1840 book “The Practice of Cookery” includes a recipe for a beer made with mangel wurzel. The mangold holds approximately the same nutritional values as the beetroot, see next page. The leafes of mangold is used like spinach while the stem is used like asparagus. It is also quite decorative in the vegetable garden with its green curly leafs 61
  • 30. beetroot beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris var. vulgaris Nutritional value per 100 g cooked Energy 180 kJ (43 kcal) Carbohydrates 9.96 g Sugars 7.96 g Dietary fiber 2.0 g Fat 0.18 g Protein 1.68 g Vitamin A equiv. 2 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.031 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.027 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.331 mg Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.145 mg Vitamin B6 0.067 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 80 μg Vitamin C 3.6 mg Calcium 16 mg Iron 0.79 mg Magnesium 23 mg Phosphorus 38 mg Potassium 305 mg Sodium 77 mg Zinc 0.35 mg The usually deep-red roots of beetroot are eaten boiled either as a cooked vegetable, or cold as a salad after cooking and adding oil and vinegar, or raw and shredded, either alone or combined with any salad vegetable. The green leafy portion of the beet is also edible. It is most commonly served boiled or steamed in which case it has a taste and texture similar that of spinach. 63
  • 31. beetroot ketchup dash of cinnamon dash of cardamom dash of cloves Originally ketchup came from China and was made on fermented fish. Today dash of allspice its sourish tasted rearly is brought out from fermentation, more commonly vin- apple vinegar egar or other acidic flavours is used. salt & freshly ground pepper Beetroot ketchup is excellent with grilled meat, burgers, fish and sausages. cayenne pepper 1/2 kg beet roots Soak the raisins in the water for about an hour. Pre heat the oven to 175 ºC. 1 handful raisins Bake the beets whole in the oven on a bed of salt for about 60 minutes, or 1 dl water until they are soft(er). Scrub off the peel with a kitchen towel or similar. 1/2 lemons finely grated peel Mix beets with raisins and water in a blender, and add spices, vinegar, lemon 1/2 lemons juice and olive oil. Let the blender run until the mix has become a nice and smooth 3 tbl sp virgin olive oil blend.If you like you can sift the mixture through a sieve to get it thicker. 1 tea sp grated fresh ginger Add pepper, vinegar and salt after taste. 65
  • 32. rhubarb rheum rhabarbarum, r. x hybridum Nutritional value per 100 g raw Energy 88 kJ (21 kcal) Carbohydrates 4.54 g Sugars 1.1 g Dietary fibre 1.8 g Fat 0.2 g Protein 0.9 g Water 93.61 g Folate (Vit. B9) 7 μg Vitamin C 8 mg Vitamin E 0.27 mg Vitamin K 29.3 μg Calcium 86 mg Iron 0.22 mg Potassium 288 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.1 mg A number of varieties of rhubarb have been domesticated both as medicinal plants and for human consumption. While the leaves are toxic, the stalks are used in pies, jams, juice and other foods for their tart flavor. 67
  • 33. hegreneset bergen city wergeland I grew up here... pavelsvei, wergeland
  • 34. freshwater trout on the barbie jgkgfkhgfkgf 4
  • 35. rhubarb pai with raspberries and vanilla cream Basically you make a simple pie dough; 100 g butter 150 g flour 1/2 ts salt 1 1/4 dl water Crumble the butter, salt and flour and add cold water (preferably in food processor). Save a third of the dough for a lid on the pie if desired. Roll it out the rest, slightly larger than the pie pan. Press the dough into the pan and prick the bot- tom with a fork and bake it on the lowest rack in the oven on 200 ° C for approx. 15 minutes. Then you add vanilla cream into the pai crust and the desired berries or fruits (in this case rhubarb and raspberries) and leave it in the oven for another 30 minutes or so. Keep checking it when you approach 25 minutes. This pie is excellent served with vanilla ice! 73
  • 36. rhubarb juice with hints of raspberries Making rhubarb juice is quite effortless, and when you have done it once you will want to make juice of anything cause its so good!!! Fill a pot with rhubarb and add enough water to cover the fruits. Set to boil and add sugar, keep tasting until it´s sweet enough. Add some raspberries, last years frozen is good for this as this seasons raspberries will not mature until the rhubarb season is ended... Strain (most of) the fluid and poor it into sterilized, warmed bottles. The mash left behind will make perfect jam to be filled into sterilized jam-jars. 75
  • 37. rhubarb & raspberry jam saving summer for a rainy day Rhubarb jam can be made of the leftovers from the juice making, or better even is to boil it less, and the flavours (and the nutrients) will stay more intact. Wash, peal and cut the rhubarb into small pieces into the pot, add just a little water and some sugar (rhubarb is high in acid so quite a lot might be needed) add raspberries (or strawberries or plums) to naturally sweeten the jam cook for ten minutes after all fruit is soft for refrigerated jam, or longer for jam ment for long shelf storage (add jam thickener that contains preservative if you like and cook two minutes extra) 77
  • 38. rhubarb romtopf naughty flavor for winter dinner parties Fresh rhubarb from the garden picked no later than mid summer some sugar fill a clean bottle or large jar with rhubarb chopped into suitable size and some sugar (amount depending on the sweetness you like) cover it with with white neutral rum leave for 4 weeks before you start enjoying the fruity flavours of your work 79
  • 39. red currant ribes rubrum The Red currant is a member of the genus “Ri- bes” in the gooseberry family “Grossulariaceae”, native to parts of western Europe. While Ribes rubrum and R. nigrum are native to northern and eastern Europe, large berried cultivars of the redcurrant were first produced in Belgium and northern France in the 1600s. In modern times, numerous cultivars have been selected; some of these have escaped gardens and can be found in the wild across Europe. With maturity, the tart flavor of redcurrant fruit is slightly greater than its blackcurrant relative, but with approximate sweetness. The albino variant of redcurrant, often referred to as white currant, has the same tart flavor but with greater sweet- ness. Although frequently cultivated for jams and cooked preparations, much like the white currant, it is often served raw or as a simple accompaniment in salads, garnishes, or drinks when in season. Nutritional values 100g, raw red currants Energy 191.8 kJ (56 kcal) Protein 1.3 g Total Fat 0.2 g Saturated Fat 0g Total Carbohydrate 7.9 g Sugar 7.9g Dietary fibre 3.5 g Sodium 1.4 mg Vitamin C 21 mg Iron 1.2 mg 81
  • 40. raspberry rubus idaeus, r. strigosus Raspberries need ample sun and water for op- timal development. Two types of most commer- cially grown kinds of raspberry are available, the summer-bearing type that produces an abun- dance of fruit on second-year canes (floricanes) within a relatively short period in mid-summer, and double- or “ever”-bearing plants, which also bear some fruit on first-year canes (primocanes) in the late summer and fall, as well as the sum- mer crop on second-year canes. The flowers can be a major nectar source for honeybees and other pollinators. They are very vigorous and can be locally invasive. They propa- gate using basal shoots (also known as suck- ers); extended underground shoots that develop roots and individual plants. They can sucker new canes some distance from the main plant. For this reason, raspberries spread well, and can take over gardens if left unchecked. The fruit is harvested when it comes off the torus/receptacle easily and has turned a deep color. This is when the fruits are ripest and sweetest. Excess fruit can be made into rasp- berry jam or frozen. The leaves can be used fresh or dried in herbal and medicinal teas. They have an astringent flavour, and in herbal medicine are reputed to be effective in regulating menses. 83
  • 41. strawberry Fragaria ananassa Strawberry cultivars vary remarkably in size, color, flavor, shape, degree of fertility, season of ripen- ing, liability to disease etc. Some vary in foliage, and some vary materially in the relative develop- ment of their sexual organs. In most cases the flowers appear hermaphroditic in structure, but function as either male or female. But firs of all the strawberry plants spread through runners, and they are easy to grow in numbers. For more berries next season. But if you want more berries this season it is smart to cut the runners off so that the plant uses its energy on producing fruit instead of spreading. Strawberries are best fresh fresh, in a smoothie or in uncooked jam (preserved in the freezer if you like to keep it through autumn and winter). Or keep them in a jar of rum for a nice taste of summer through the winter! 85
  • 42. strawberry romtopf winters tasty summer memories washed strawberries in a large jar 1 liter clear rum some sugar for the nice liqueur taste Pour the rum over the berries in the jar and add as much sugar as you think you like store for at least 4 weeks before you taste it rotopf can be refilled with berries as they are ripe This liqueur is also good used as sauce on desserts, Warm blackberries and raspberries with ice cream and strawberry romtopf for christmas maybe? 87
  • 43. blueberry Vaccinium myrtillus Blueberriesis a perennial shrub that belongs to the dwarf heather family. Blueberries are 10-50 cm high. The green angled branches becomes brownish and woody when older. The leafs are elliptical shaped with jagged light green color that turns orange and red in fall before they fall off. In spring the bush is green with white to reddish jar shaped flow- ers. These develop into juicy berries with mostly blue-black, but also black berries and whitish blue berries. The different colors due to a thin layer of wax. Fruit flesh is purple. They have a sweet taste when mature, with variable acidity. Blueberry bushes typically bear fruit in the middle of the growing season: fruiting times are affected by local conditions such as altitude and latitude, so the height of the crop can vary from May to August depending upon these conditions. In Norway the wild “lowbush blueberries” is the most common, and in Bergen it grows all over the place. Just get out there and start harvesting! 89
  • 44. blueberry vodka saving up for celebration simple ; fill bottle(s) or jar(s) with fresh blueberries cover with pure vodka wait filter the berries out of the vodka after a few days, or leave them in drink frozen, or room tempered Enjoy through winter, if you like you can add some brown sugar to get a sweeter drink, but if you like to keep it for longer than one season sieve of the berries 91
  • 45. blueberry jam Mix berries and some sugar in a bowl. Work it until you get a thick consistency of the jam. Keep it frozen until you need it. Perfect to use in smoothies through the winter . 93
  • 46. coriander coriandrum sativum Nutritional value per 100 g leaves, raw Energy 95 kJ (23 kcal) Carbohydrates 4g Dietary fiber 3g Fat 0.5 g Protein 2g Vitamin A equiv. 337 μg Vitamin C 27 mg Coriander must be one of the best spices you can grow in the garden. It doesn’t´t take much, like the basil you sprinkle the seeds on a bed of soil and cover with approx 1-2 cm soil on top. In a weeks time they should start to show. When they are finished blooming you can gather the seeds and use them the next season. Seed pots of coriander with a week or two in between and you will have fresh good spice through the summer. 95
  • 47. ruccola eruca sativa The ruccola leafs are shaped much like the dandelions. It is an annual plant growing 20–100 centimeters in height. The leaves are deeply pinnately lobed with four to ten small lateral lobes and a large ter- minal lobe. The flowers are 2–4 cm in diameter, yellow or pale white, the sepals are shed soon after the flower opens. The fruit is a siliqua (pod) 12–35 millimeters long with an apical beak, and containing several seeds (which are edible). The ruccola salad is good simply as a salad together with some herbs and tomatoes, but you can also make ruccola pesto, see the basil recipe... 97
  • 48. tomatoes solanum lycopersicum Nutritional value per 100 g red tomatoes raw Energy 75 kJ (18 kcal) Carbohydrates 4g Sugars 2.6 g Dietary fiber 1g Fat 0.2 g Protein 1g Water 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg Tomatoes are good with everything and the home grown are particularly good as they are allowed to mature on the plant, making them sweeter. Raw in salad or on bread, cooked into sauce or in stews and pots. Or simply try it as jam. 101
  • 49. lettuce Nutritional value per 100 g Energy 55 kJ (13 kcal) Carbohydrates 2.2 g Dietary fibre 1.1 g Fat 0.2 g Protein 1.4 g Water 96 g Vitamin A equiv. 166 μg Folate (Vit. B9) 73 μg Vitamin C 4 mg Vitamin K 24 μg Iron 1.2 mg Lettuce is grown commercially world- wide. It requires light, sandy, humus-rich, moist soil. Dry conditions can cause the plants to go to seed (known as bolting). It is normally grown by early and late sowing in sunny positions, or summer crops in shade. Ideally, lettuce plants require a rich, humous-laden soil that will hold moisture in the summer. Sow spring lettuce seeds into a sunny site outdoors if you live in a mild area. It may not be necessary to give glass protection (cloche). The possibility of failure increases the more the ground becomes poorly drained or over exposed - spring lettuce is hardest to get right. 103
  • 50. spinach Spinacia oleracea an edible flowering plant in the family of Amaran- thaceae. It is native to central and southwestern Asia. It is an annual plant (rarely biennial), which grows to a height of up to 30 cm. Spinach may survive over winter in temperate regions. Spinach has a high nutritional value and is extremely rich in antioxidants, especially when fresh, steamed, or quickly boiled. Nutritional value per 100 g raw Energy 97 kJ (23 kcal) Carbohydrates 3.6 g Sugars 0.4 g Dietary fiber 2.2 g Fat 0.4 g Protein 2.2 g Vitamin A equiv. 469 μg Vitamin A 9400 IU - beta-carotene 5626 μg - lutein and zeaxanthin 12198 μg Folate (Vit. B9) 194 μg Vitamin C 28 mg Vitamin E 2 mg Vitamin K 483 μg Calcium 99 mg Iron 2.7 mg Spinach is so good in pie, pasta, with meat, with chicken, in salads. This nutritious vegetable is like the potato; anything goes! 105
  • 51. basil basil ocimum basilicum A tender low-growing herb. Basil is a culinary and “African Blue”. The Chinese also use fresh herb prominently featured in Italian cuisine, or dried basils in soups and other foods. In and also plays a major role in the Southeast Taiwan, people add fresh basil leaves to thick Asian cuisines of Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, soups (traditional Chinese pinyin). Basil (most Cambodia, and Laos. The plant tastes some- what like anise, with a strong, pungent, sweet commonly Thai Basil) is commonly steeped smell. in cream or milk to create an interesting flavor It is easy to grow; sprinkle seeds on a bed of in ice cream or chocolates (such as truffles). soil, in a suited pot. Cover with 1 cm soil, and keep it in the window with a clear plastic cover Basil is sometimes used with fresh fruit and in until it shoots. fruit jams and sauces—in particular with straw- berries, but also raspberries or dark-colored There are many varieties of basil. That which plums. is used in Italian food is typically called sweet When soaked in water the seeds of several basil, as opposed to Thai basil, lemon basil basil varieties become gelatinous, and are and holy basil, which are used in Asia. Basil is used in Asian drinks and desserts such as commonly used fresh in cooked recipes. It is falooda or Sherbet. They are used for their generally added at the last moment, as cook- medicinal properties in Ayurveda, the tradi- ing quickly destroys the flavour. The fresh herb tional medicinal system of India and Siddha can be kept for a short time in closed box in medicine, a traditional Tamil system of medi- the refrigerator, or for a longer period in the cine. They are also used as popular drinks in freezer, after being blanched quickly in boiling Southeast Asia. water. The dried herb also loses most of its flavour, and what little flavour remains tastes The “italian” basil is best used fresh in salads very different, with a weak coumarin flavour, or tomato sauces, as pesto: like hay. Olive oil, basil leafs, salt and roasted almonds The most commonly used Mediterranean or pine nuts carefully blended (not too much!) basil cultivars are “Genovese”, “Purple Ruffles”, into a thick paste. “Mammoth”, “Cinnamon”, “Lemon”, “Globe”, 107
  • 52. fennel foeniculum vulgare Nutritional value per 100 g raw fennel bulb Energy 130 kJ (31 kcal) Carbohydrates 7.29 g Dietary fiber 3.1 g Fat 0.20 g Protein 1.24 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.01 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.032 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.64 mg Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.232 mg Vitamin B6 0.047 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0.20 mg Manganese 0.191 mg Fennel is best enjoyed slightly blanched in oil in a pan with salt and pepper on it. It is also an excellent ingredient in wok and tomato sauces for pasta. Anis / liquorice like taste. 109
  • 53. potato - troll solanum tuberosum Nutritional value per 100 g raw, with peel Energy 321 kJ (77 kcal) Carbohydrates 19 g Starch 15 g Dietary fiber 2.2 g Fat 0.1 g Protein 2g Water 75 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.08 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.03 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 1.1 mg Vitamin B6 0.25 mg Vitamin C 20 mg Calcium 12 mg Iron 1.8 mg Magnesium 23 mg Phosphorus 57 mg Potassium 421 mg Sodium 6 mg It is important to shift the field for potato crops every year, as the soil easily pick up viruses that the potato plant is not resistant to. The troll potato is one of the late types of potato, which means if you wait until may setting them you will have fresh potatoes in late august - beginning of september. It needs to be left out in light to grow sprouts for about 14 days before you set them. Potatoes needs to be covered regularly to pre- vent them from growing green. Green potatoes are poisonous, especially to young children. 111
  • 54. urban farmers at work in the potatoe field
  • 55. 115
  • 56. pumpkin - cucurbitaceae c. pepo, c. mixta, c. maxima Nutritional value per 100 g raw pumpkin Energy 56 kJ (13 kcal) Carbohydrates 6.5 g Sugars 1.36 g Dietary fiber 0.5 g Fat 0.1 g saturated 0.05 g monounsaturated 0.01 g polyunsaturated 0.01 g Protein 1.0 g Vitamin A equiv. 369 μg - beta-carotene 3100 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.05 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.110 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.6 mg Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.298 mg Vitamin B6 0.061 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 16 μg Vitamin C 9 mg Vitamin E 1.06 mg Calcium 21 mg Iron 0.8 mg Magnesium 12 mg Phosphorus 44 mg Potassium 340 mg Sodium 1 mg Zinc 0.32 mg 117
  • 57. plums Prunus domestica Nutritional value per 100 g Energy 192 kJ (46 kcal) Carbohydrates 11.4 g Sugars 9.9 g Dietary fibre 1.4 g Fat 0.28 g Protein 0.70 g Vitamin A 345 IU Vitamin C 9.5 mg Phosphorus 16 mg Potassium 157 mg When it flowers in the early spring, a plum tree will be covered in blossom, and in a good year approximately 50% of the flowers will be pol- linated and become plums. If the weather is too dry the plums will not de- velop past a certain stage, but will fall from the tree while still tiny green buds, and if it is unsea- sonably wet or if the plums are not harvested as soon as they are ripe, the fruit may develop a fungal condition called brown rot. Brown rot is not toxic, and very small affected areas can be cut out of the fruit, but unless the rot is caught immediately the fruit will no longer be edible. 119
  • 58. plum jam winters best all rounder 1 kg plums 1 ½ cup water 500 g sugar The amount of water depends on the plums. Firm plums need much water, while soft plums need just a little. Slice the plums in two and remove the stone (optional). Boil the plums and water and let it boil until the plums are cooked through and it looks a little like a mash; 8-10 min. Add sugar and stir well. Give the jam a new boil, so all the sugar dissolves. Pour the jam into sterilized glasses - fill as full as possible, to minimize air under the lid. Do not let it overflow. Let the jam cool and store it in a dark and cool place. Plum jam is great as dessert served slightly warm together with cake or ice-cream. And it´s also very nice in the cake! Enjoy! 121
  • 59. strength, the oxygen radical absorbance aronia - black chokeberry capacity or ORAC, demonstrates chokeberry aronia arbutifolia, a. melanocarpa, a. prunifolia with one of the highest values yet recorded -- 16,062 micromoles of Trolox Eq. per 100 Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) has g[19] (see this ORAC reference for antioxidant attracted scientific interest due to its deep scores for 277 common foods). purple, almost black pigmentation that arises from dense contents of phenolic phytochemi- There is growing appreciation for consumers cals, especially anthocyanins. Total anthocy- to increase their intake of antioxidant-rich plant anin content in chokeberries is 1480 mg per foods from colorful sources like berries, tree 100 g of fresh berries, and proanthocyanidin or citrus fruits, vegetables, grains, and spices. concentration is 664 mg per 100 g. Both Accordingly, a deep blue food source such values are among the highest measured in as chokeberry yields anthocyanins in high plants to date. concentrations per serving, indicating potential value as a functional food or nutraceutical. The plant produces these pigments mainly in the skin of the berries to protect the pulp and Analysis of anthocyanins in chokeberries has seeds from constant exposure to ultraviolet ra- identified the following individual chemicals diation. By absorbing UV rays in the blue-pur- (among hundreds known to exist in the plant ple spectrum, pigments filter intense sunlight kingdom): cyanidin-3-galactoside, epicatechin, and thereby have a role assuring regeneration caffeic acid, quercetin, delphinidin, petunidin, of the species. Brightly colorful pigmenta- pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin. All these tion also attracts birds and other animals to are members of the flavonoid category of consume the fruit and disperse the seeds in antioxidant phenolics. their droppings. Anthocyanins not only contribute toward chokeberry’s astringent property (that would deter pests and infections) but also give Aronia melanocarpa extraordinary antioxidant strength that combats oxidative stress in the fruit during photosynthesis. A test tube measurement of antioxidant 123
  • 60. aronia jam urban shreds produce The aronia berries needs to cook for about 20 min. because of the thick shall. Like black currants. 500 g aronia berries 2 dl water 1 stick of cinnamon 4,5 dl sugar 2 ts pectin powder (certo) 1/2 ts citric acid 1 ts vanilla sugar 0,5 dl cognac 1/2 ts natriumbensoat Rinse berries and place them in a pot with water and cinnamon stick. Let the berries cook on low heat for 20 minutes. Then add the sugar a little time. Stir the pectin powder and citric acid in a bit of jam and mix it in. Let the jam boil for 3-5 minutes. Remove the foam. Remove the pan from the plate and remove the cinnamon stick. Stir in the vanilla sugar and brandy. Stir some of the natriumbensoat first in a bit of jam before it is mixed with the rest. Pour the jam into hot sterilized glasses. 125
  • 61. chanterelle Cantharellus cibarius Cantharellus cibarius, commonly known as the chante- relle or golden chanterelle is probably the best known species of the genus Cantharellus, if not the entire family of Cantharellaceae. It is orange or yellow, meaty and funnel-shaped. On the lower surface, underneath the smooth cap, it has gill-like ridges that run almost all the way down its stipe, which tapers down seamlessly from the cap. It has a fruity smell, reminiscent of apricots and a mildly peppery taste (hence its German name, Pfifferling) and is considered an excellent food mush- room. Chanterelles are relatively high in vitamin C (0.4 mg/g fresh weight), very high in potassium (about 5%, dry weight), and among the richest sources of vitamin D known, with ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as high as 2500 IU/100 grams fresh weight. Scientific research has suggested that the golden chanterelle may have potent insecticidal properties that are harmless against humans and yet protects the mushroom body against insects and other potentially harmful organisms. The chanterelle is common in Norwegian woods and the growing sites are often considered treasured secret. The chanterelle is best enjoyed fried in butter in a pan with salt and pepper, but cooked in cream to go with your fish, wild meat or simply used as a pasta sauce has simply no replacement. 127
  • 62. freshwater trout on the barbie jgkgfkhgfkgf 4
  • 63. freshwater trout Salmo trutta The freshwater trout, or Brown trout as it is also called, is quite common in small streams and lakes in Norway. It is good fun trying to catch on a fly fishing rod, but better to catch with fish net if you are hungry. Either you wrap it in foil and cook it on the barbie, or on the fire if you are camping, or fry it on the pan in butter, or simply poach it and serve it with potatoes and buttered leek. It tastes fantastic! 131
  • 64. mackerel scomber scombrus Nutritional value per 100 g raw Energy 205 kcal Fat 14 g saturated fat 3g Cholesterol 70 mg Sodium 90 mg Vitamin A 3%* Calcium 1% Vitamin C 1% Iron 9% *of daily values from 2000kcal daily diet Atlantic mackerel is extremely high in vitamin B12. At- lantic mackerel is also very high in omega 3, containing nearly twice as much per unit weight as does salmon. Unlike King mackerel and Spanish mackerel, Northern Atlantic mackerel are very low in mercury. Mackerel is an excellent source of Phosphatidylserine as it contains approximately 480 mg / 100 grams by weight. Phosphatidylserine is an important brain food that can have positive effects on ADHD and Alzheimer patients. Best prepared on the barbecue with salt and pepper, served with potatoes and sour cream. Fantastic! scomber scombrus Atlantic mackerel 133
  • 65. oyster Ostrea edulis The word oyster is used as a common name for a number of distinct groups of bivalve molluscs which live in marine or brackish habitats. Ostrea edulis is a species of oyster native to Europe and commonly known as the European flat oyster or Edible Oyster. The species naturally ranges along the western and southern coasts of Europe from Norway to Morocco and including most of the British Isles and the Mediterranean coast. The Ostrea edulis is the only oyster naturally growing on the coast of Norway. The species once dominated European oyster production but disease, pollution, and overfishing sharply reduced the harvest. Today Pacific oys- ters, Crassostrea gigas, account for more than 75 percent of Europe’s oyster production. O. edulis are prized for their unique tannic sea- water flavor, sometimes described as dry and metallic. The flavor is considered excellent for eating raw. In France the species has an AOC classification. 135
  • 66. edible crab cancer pagurus The edible crab is found in the North Sea, North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. It is a robust crab of a reddish-brown color, having an oval carapace with a characteristic “pie crust” edge and black tips to the claws. Mature adults may have a carapace width of up to about 25 cm and weigh up to 3 kg. The edible crab is abundant throughout the northeast Atlantic as far as Norway in the north and northern Africa in the south, on mixed coarse grounds, mud and sand from shallow sub-littoral to about 100 m. Edible crabs are nocturnal, hiding buried in the substrate during the day. It normally eats benthic animals such as other crustaceans and mol- luscs. In fall, that is when the crab is potentially full of meat it is easily (and fun) to catch from boat. They come up to feed on barnacles at high wa- ter at night and then you can simply pick them with your hands or use a long garden tool. Head lights are required to spot their red backs in the water. Edible crabs are heavily exploited commercially throughout their range. It is illegal to catch crabs of too small a size, and at too shallow water. Best enjoyed after nocturnal hunt on the quay side. To prepare them bring a large pot to boil and put the crabs in while they are still alive. If they die they are poisonous. Boil for about 30 minutes and cool off. Best served pealed (obviously) on white bread, with mayonnaise and a lemon twist. 137
  • 67. short traveled food and why this is important jgkgfkhgfkgf the end... 4
  • 68. (y)our alternative legacy - MASTER DIPLOMA PROJECT, BERGEN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 2010 by Laura Ve This has been a small introduction to local food; the seeding, planting and caretaking of the vegetable garden and the harvest possibilities within the 100-mile diet circle of Bergen city, on the West Coast of Norway